Factors determining mental state of adults committing self harm Case Study

Limited Awareness of Healthy Coping Strategies and Resources Assignment

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A. Introduction Of The Factors determining mental state of adults committing self harm

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1.1 Introduction Youth Self-Harm: Understanding Mental States and Influencing Factors

The mental state of young adults is responsible for actively committing self-harm. Childhood trauma, self-criticism, and emotional deregulations are some factors that predict self-harming behaviours. On the hand, suicide is the most common act of injuring self and there are certain thoughts and behaviours associated with this attempt. Young people are also subjected to online bullying which can also be a possible factor that promotes self-harm. It has been observed that there is an evident relationship existing between cyber bullying and the development of the behaviour of suicide and self-harm in young people. The study is based on understanding the mental conditions of those youths who engage themselves in self-harm tendencies. A brief background has been provided in this context to provide an overview of the issue. Significant data has been used to highlight the issue as a concern

1.2 Background

Mental health is a taboo concept even in most developed countries due to various socioeconomic reasons. Due to this, some avoid conveying their mental health problems and in extreme cases, an accumulation of mental trauma pushes them to the edge of self-harm (Lewis and Hasking, 2019). The fact that mental health of a person is not visually accessible and recognisable makes the matter even more concerning. The graph below displays different types of self-harm that youth tend to engage in and females have been observed to be indulging more in these habits. Women have been exposed to more social trauma which might have contributed to this concerning data. Other factors like self-criticism, emotional dysregulation and societal pressure contribute to mental issues in both genders that make them choose self-harm as an escape (Shanahan et al. 2019). It acts as a way to cope with strong feelings and serves as evidence of serious distress in them.

Figure 1.1: Different forms of self-harm in youth

(Source: Haskinget al. 2021)

Family plays a vital role in the lives of youth since they act as their guide and hence their contribution to framing the lives of these youth is huge. As said by McHugh et al. (2019), any form of childhood trauma experienced in childhood in the family is a huge factor contributing to mental issues in youth. The trauma gets so deeply incorporated into young minds that they fail to eliminate the thoughts and that leaves a permanent scar. Traumatic incidents include sexual abuse, watching parents to fights and “separated parents”. Apart from that, being deprived of the deserving attention, love and care in childhood from either parent could also be a reason. Other incidents like bullying at schools make the situation worse. The enhanced involvement of technology in today’s life has led to frequent incidents of cyberbullying that act as another contributing factor (Favrilet al. 2020). Such incidents prevent youth from building relationships further in life, eventually worsening their mental conditions.

1.3 Rationale

Mental health is as important as physical health because they are dependent on each other. One is likely to deteriorate with the deterioration of another and yet medical health fails to grab the same attention as physical conditions. In most cases, mental instability is not even recognisable and ones who suffer are reluctant to convey them to others (Bethell et al. 2021). In case of youths, the matter might be worse because they have been stereotyped to believe that mental health issues make people unapproachable due to which they find it safe to avoid disclosing their issues. The graph below demonstrates that youths contribute to highest percentage of people being affected by mental disorders globally. More than 6% of youths have depression, and nearly 10% suffer from anxiety and other behavioural disorders (Cdc, 2022). This is the issue that demands attention of local and national governments. The reason why this is an issue is that the actions taken by individuals suffering from mental health issues are not limited to concealing their thoughts. Rather, they indulge in self-harm and even suicidal acts, which justify this being considered a potential issue.

Figure 1.2: Mental health issues in youth

(Source: Cdc, 2022)

Self-harm might be in different forms that might even be fatal in extreme cases. The image below shows that apart from harming themselves and thinking about ending themselves, some of the youth percentages of youth have also thought of attempted suicide. Almost 8% of females and 14% of males have indulged themselves in suicidal attempts (Somerset, 2021). Despite these concerning data, global awareness regarding the matter tends to be negligible since the graphs are increasing. This is the current issue that needs the immediate attention of the policymakers and NGOs and most importantly family, patients and schools. As opined by Castillo et al.(2019), there needs to be social interventions to reduce the number of cases and enhance the quality of life of these youth. The first requirement for that would be to identify the reason behind self-harm tendencies based on which the appropriate interventions could be designed. The study shed light on the mental conditions of youth that compel youth to consider such harsh steps.

Figure 1.3: Self-harm in the youth population

(Source: Somerset, 2021)

1.4 Aim and Objectives


The study aims to reduce the occurrence of self-harm based on which a path could be developed to handle mental stability.


RO1: To identify the factors that trigger self-harm in youth

RO2: To evaluate psychological influences on mental health

RO3: To analyse the contribution of negligence at home on mental health and self-harm

RO4: To point out the impact of pressure boost on self-harm tendencies

1.5 Research questions

RQ1: How does psychological trauma influence self-harm tendencies?

RQ2: How do home and negligence contribute to self-harm?

RQ3: What is the impact of pressure on mental health and self-harm?

RQ4: What is the role of existing mental issues on self-harm?

1.6 Significance and scope of study

The study provides a detailed overview of the contributing factors of mental health issues and self-harm tendencies in youth along with graphic evidence. This is expected to raise concerns of the individual governments and policymakers who work on such cases. This study will also provide a detailed analysis of mental conditions in such youths which might help psychology professionals. People affected with a condition that according to them, is inappropriate to be disclosed, might reveal them when they face actual data (Biernesser et al. 2020). Hence, this study could help affected individuals to reveal their issues.

1.7 Summary

The background has revealed how mental issues contribute to self-harm and the reasons why these issues occur. The rationale has pointed out mental issues as a potential issue and self-harm tendencies as a recurring issue. It has been justified why these matters require immediate attention from health professionals, governments and policymakers.

B. Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

There is a higher prevalence of issues of poor mental health among young adults today. Young adults have been observed to be increasingly prone to mental health that is triggered due to illnesses and poor caregiving. Youths today have shown higher resilience towards early-age suicide and self-harm. The chapter has included the factors that act as triggers towards self-harming among young adults. Various influences towards mental ill health among youths have been identified in the chapter. Domestic negligence has also been considered one of the causes of self-harm in youths today. The literature gap has successfully identified the lack of research studies based on prevailing youth self-harm.

2.2 Factors responsible for triggering self-harm among youths

There are various factors that have been identified as acting as triggers of self-harm among young adults. As mentioned by Hetrick et al. (2020), the factors include “poor caregiving”, “pressure boost”, “chronic diseases”, “poverty”, “family dissociation”, and “childhood trauma”. Poor caregiving has been observed as one of the factors for ill mental health among youths. As opined by Auerbach et al. (2021), parents have been found to show poor caring services towards youth which has caused poor mental health. It has resulted in the rise of depression and anxiety which in adverse conditions has led to early suicides and self-harm. Asarnow and Mehlum, (2019), have mentioned that pressure boosts act as a factor of self-harm in youth due to increasing social and educational pressure. An alarming cause of boosting pressure is differentiation in the social and educational sectors.

The prolonged existence of diseases that are deemed to be chronic like obesity, COPD and diabetes among youths today. As stated by Bevan Jones et al. (2020), the prevalence of chronic diseases has caused mental anxiety and depression which in turn resulted in committing suicide. Suicidal incidences at an early age have been observed to be increasing in young adults due to long-term diseases. As opined by Biddle et al. (2018), low income is another factor of self-harm which is known to give rise to poverty. Poor income has resulted in an inability to avail of the facility of employment and higher education thus showing the tendency of youths towards self-harm. According to Brennan et al. (2022), dissociation in the family has given rise to childhood trauma that has caused depression as well as anxiety. The separation between parents acts as the primary reason towards self-harm in the form of early suicide among young adults.

2.3 Influence of psychology on poor mental health

Poor mental health is known to be one of the primary causes of psychological degradation in youths. As stated by Brereton and McGlinchey, (2020), poor regulation of emotions has been observed due to ill mental health thereafter affecting the emotional health of young adults. Young adults have been found to be susceptible to an early declination of emotion because of depression. As mentioned by Curtis et al. (2018), there is an adverse influence of anxiety on the psychology of youths which has led to harming themselves through reckless acts. Various recognisable acts of recklessness include “cutting nerves”, and “suicidal acts”.

Poor psychological health has shown increasing adversity towards mental illness thereafter causing poor habits. Knipe et al. (2022), have stated that self-harm and suicide are interrelated with each other since they act as cause and effect. Depression caused by illness and poverty has shown higher incidences of self-harm in society, especially among young adults. Knowles et al. (2022), it is mandatory to control the rising incidences of early suicide as well as self-harm by including effective psychological treatment. Treating mentally poor youth by using modern medical remedies has been considered to be beneficial towards improving mental health and reducing self-harm.

2.4 Contribution of domestic negligence on self-harm and mental health

Domestic violence and negligence have been found to affect the mental health of young adults in society. As opined by Kostyrka?Allchorneet al. (2023), society today has shown an increasing prevalence of domestic violence. Parents today have shown reluctance towards the health and well-being of their young children. As mentioned by Marchant et al. (2018), many incidences of poor caregiving are observed among parents due to family chaos and dissociation. Increasing cases of divorce among parents have resulted in ill mental health thereby giving rise to suicide as well as self-harm. Self-harm among young adults is caused due to rising occurrences of family ill-being.

Negligence has been imparted by parents and families today towards their children due to the high rate of financial and employment race in society. As stated by Mughal et al. (2022), parents have oriented themselves towards the race of high-income to fight poverty. Poverty is thereby considered to be responsible for poor caring services from parents to children. These factors have caused higher incidences of self-harm both suicidal and non-suicidal acts among youths. Simeset al. (2022), family negligence is deemed to be a primary cause of self-harm among youth in the community that requires remedy to avoid adversity. Age groups of “16 to 25 years” have shown higher reliance towards suicide, self-harm and other psychological acts.

2.5 Pressure boost and its impact on the tendency of self-harm

Pressure boosts like unemployment, poor education, and domestic violence have shown higher incidences of being intended to self-harm. As mentioned by Taylor et al. (2018), the factor of unemployment has induced the rate of poverty which in prolonged cases has resulted in depression. Anxiety, as well as depression, is the effects of pressure which in adverse situations results in an increasing tendency toward self-harm. As opined by Wilson, (2020), self-harm in association with suicide has been considered to be a common act of recklessness among young adults today. Other than domestic violence and poor education facility, overuse of the internet has also caused depression and a tendency towards self-harming acts thereafter.

Self-harming is known to create an alarming rate of increasing incidences among youths who have been suffering from mental disorders. Witt et al. (2020), have mentioned that prolonged depression and anxiety among young adults have increased the rate of early death and harmful non-suicidal actions. Increased cases of early death have revealed that the tendency of harming ownself has elevated by leaps and bounds in the world today. It is evident that harming ownself is a highly intended action among young adults because of poor being of mental health.

2.6 Theoretical framework

The findings of this study suggest that most of the factors leading to mental health issues in youth are related to their experiences in life. This includes childhood trauma, societal pressure and incidents like bullying that have made these individuals more susceptible to self-harm. As mentioned by Beauchamp et al. (2019), the “social cognitive theory” mentions that the behaviours displayed by an individual are a representation of the experiences that have had with society, this explains why experiences in life might affect mental stability and what implications they might have. The experiences gathered over a lifetime have the ability to improve the mental health conditions of youth or make them even worse. As mentioned by Magoro and Phahlane, (2019), this is because mental status is extremely sensitive and has the capability to alter as an effect of minor changes. The theory can be used to make an attempt in understanding human behaviour which is vital in this study. The study has been based on an evaluation of the behaviour of youth indulging in self-harm and hence this theory has been chosen to meet the aim.

There are several factors that contribute to those experiences in youth which compel them to display certain irrational behaviours. The image above demonstrates that there are three aspects of the cognitive behavioural theory that are used to define the areas responsible for behavioural changes. As said by Magoro and Phahlane, (2019), these aspects are social aspects that include environmental factors, cognitive factors that include personal factors and personality which include behavioural factors. In this case, environmental factors would include incidents in family, educational institutions and society that cause behavioural changes. Cognitive and personality aspects would cover the original traits in an individual that might either help them recover from the issues or make their cases worse.

2.7 Conceptual framework

(Source: Self-developed)

2.8 Literature Gap

The research study lacked information on self-harm among youth today and their adversity in society. As mentioned by Knipe et al. (2022), though increasing cases have been revealed about youth suicide and self-harm in society, studies have not been conducted accordingly. Limited information regarding the adverse situation of mental health among young people has been observed. As Brennan et al. (2022), studies have been devoid of information regarding the number of self-harming cases among youths and their relevant causes or factors. Information on the adversity of mental ill-health has not been elaboratively provided in previously conducted research studies.

2.9 Summary

The above information has revealed that factors like domestic violence, poverty, family separation and chronic illness have resulted in self-harm and poor mental health. An increasing number of cases of early suicide among youth have been observed in society. Domestic violence as well as negligence has also been recognised as one of the reasons for mental ill-health and self-harm. It has also been found that early research studies have not highlighted information relating to self-harm, suicide and mental ill-being in young adults in the present-day world.

C. Methodology

The methodology of three papers is discussed. The methodology used by Shahmoradiet al. (2021), includes the analysis of the sample provided by “558 adolescents” of the age range 13-17 years. Self-harm Inventory (SHI), difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Levels of Self-criticism questionnaire (LOSC) are also completed online. On the other hand, Bhattacharjee and Ghosh's (2021), reviewed available secondary data related to suicide, protective factors and risks associated with thoughts of suicide. A total of 53 articles, including government reports, working papers, case reports and many more are mainly studied in this research. The methodology adopted by John et al. (2018), includes the examination of the “33” literature that determines the relationship between the involvement of cyber bullying and behaviours of self-harm and suicide. It includes the meta-analysis of data collected that is mainly collected for the people of the age group below 25.

3.1 Introduction

The methodology includes sequential steps of collecting and analysing data while conducting a research study. It is a process which includes philosophy, approach, design and data collection of a research study. Data are then analysed comprehensively along with considering the ethical prospects of conducting research. Prevailing gaps in research have also been recognised as a part of the methodology.

3.2 Research philosophy

A philosophy that has been followed in the research conducted is “Interpretivism”. Interpretivism is known to be a process which is based on natural incidents occurring in the environment or society (Pham, 2018). It is a philosophical method which shows an understanding of social reality based on social practices and methods.

Justification: Interpretivism philosophy has been adopted with the view to create a clear understanding of the chosen research topic. It gives reality-based information to readers showing relevance towards data that have been collected (Pham, 2018).

3.3 Research approach

An approach of “Inductive” has been adopted in the conducted research study. “Inductive” approach uniquely identifies every observation and recognises data patterns accordingly (Hayes and Heit, 2018). Effective identification of relevant data and their patterns have resulted in framing a reliable conclusion to the research study. This approach is thereby considered to be beneficial for accumulating appropriate outcomes from conducted research (Hayes and Heit, 2018).

Justification: Inductive approach has been found to be a reliable approach to understanding the appropriateness of the data so collected. It shows a unique process of identifying data and its pattern based on the research topic (Hayes and Heit, 2018).

3.4 Research design

The design that has been followed in conducted research is “Descriptive” in nature. “Descriptive” research design is known to provide an elaborate description of gathered information (Doyle et al. 2020). The description of the information so collected has aided in highlighting a clear concept about the topic of a research study.

Justification: Descriptive design has been adopted with the view to providing elaborative knowledge of the research topic “mental condition of young adults who actively engage in self-harming”. A description has been found to show higher relevance and concept of information to readers (Doyle et al. 2020).

3.5 Data collection method

The collection of data has been done using the method of “secondary qualitative” wherein “6 articles” have been chosen. A chosen group of people for collecting data includes “25 years and below” and the study has been conducted using 6 selected articles. Articles have been thoroughly studied and analysed while conducting the research study (Auerbach et al. 2021).

Justification: Secondary method has been adopted to collect for a better understanding of the existing information collected. Data from selected articles have revealed the relevance of data based on existing incidences in society (Auerbach et al. 2021).

3.6 Data analysis method

Analysis of data has been conducted by creating themes based on the objectives of the research study. “Thematic analysis” has been conducted to reveal relevant information to readers and maintain the authenticity of a research topic (Hetrick et al. 2020). Correct information has been revealed to show higher resilience towards research conduction. Themes are to be developed to increase the rate of the relevance of data so collected (Hetrick et al. 2020). Themes highlight every possible outcome of data findings in a research study thus revealing a high grade of appropriateness.

3.7 Exclusion and Inclusion Criteria

Exclusion Criteria Inclusion Criteria
? Irrelevant information based on a research topic. ? Articles other than those peer-reviewed. ? Older information ? Irrelevant sources of data. ? Improper research ethical considerations. ? Relevant information on a research topic ? Peer-reviewed articles ? Recently collected information ? Data from relevant sources ? Proper consideration of research ethics

3.9 Source of Database

Various database sources have been used while conducting the research study including “Google Scholar”, “Proquest”, and “PubMed”. These sources have been chosen because of their reliance on providing relevant data (Biddle et al. 2018). Data so accumulated have been found to be highly reliable and justified for research conduction.

3.10 Ethical consideration

Data protection has been highly prioritised while conducting the research study. Data has been protected in password-protected archives, google drive and the system database (Gov.uk, 2019). Data are not kept for longer periods of time in association with using improved cyber security. Ethical consideration includes prohibiting data theft and data loss which constitutes the personal information of participants (Gov.uk, 2019).

3.11 Research gap

Research has been found to lack information about the mental ill-being of youth in society today. Today there is increasing incidences of suicides among young adult and the number of fatality due to poor mental health has increased (Marchant et al. 2018). The research so conducted has also lacked information regarding reasons for increasing cases of poor mental health among youths. Information regarding remedies to the issue of self-harming in young adults has also been lacking in previously conducted research studies (Marchant et al. 2018). Therefore, it is inferred that research has been devoid of information regarding increasing suicidal tendencies and self-harming among young adults.

3.12 Summary

The above information has revealed that interpretivism has been used as a philosophy of the research study. It is based on data found in social reality and experiences in the surrounding environment. The inductive approach has been chosen to recognise existing patterns of information by uniquely identifying every observation. A descriptive design has been adopted to elaborate data so accumulated and highlight the clear concept of a selected research topic. The above information has also revealed that 6 articles have been selected for collecting relevant data. Analysis of data has been conducted accordingly by forming themes based on research objectives.

D. Findings

4.1 Introduction

Secondary data collected from existing literature have been analysed to evaluate mental health conditions in youth that lead to self-harm. Only articles that have met the inclusion and exclusion criteria have been selected and others have been excluded with the help of PRISMA framework. 7 articles have been selected for this purpose and the findings obtained by their authors have been identified. These findings have been presented in tabular form as shown below which have been analysed later.

4.2 Findings and analysis

Author Country Method Findings
Fleming et al. 2019 New Zealand ? Interactive workshops ? Focus groups ? General inductive approach Digital tools for mental health are not successful when they rely solely on the youth for seeking help. Besides, a single approach might not be equally appealing to all. Diverse preferences have been observed in participants in matters of experiencing a tool. Age and extent of needing mental health have been found to be different in gamers, sceptics, engagers and straight-talkers. Digital mental health tools have provided an immediate response in case of different issues.
Mars et al. 2019 United Kingdom ? Population-based cohort study ? Logistic regression analysis 310 participants have has suicidal thoughts and 380 participants have indulged in self-harm. Transition predictors in suicidal thoughts included cannabis use, illicit drug usage, self-harm exposure due to friends and family and personality traits. It has been assumed that most of these youths would avoid making attempts on their lives. Besides, asking these individuals about the particular risk factors that have contributed to their situation might bring additional risks. However, these would help clinicians in identifying those individuals who are at higher risk of individuals in any form of self-harm in future.
Camm-Crosbie et al. 2019 Global ? Online survey ? Thematic analysis Numerous reasons have been found to contribute to depriving access to mental health services to youth. First reason is a gap identified in available mental health services followed by an assumption that functional ability in autistic people is higher. A perception that these adults have an ability to cope when in fact they have been struggling is another reason. Finally, a lack of financial support and longer waiting lists, even for those autistic adults who have reached the edge of suicidal attempts, have been identified as another reason. A lack of understanding among professionals regarding autism has been a barrier to accessing the appropriate treatment option. Participants have revealed that these issues have made accessing healthcare challenging and the double-empathy problem has been highlighted.
Kiekenset al. 2019 Global Leuven College survey One-year incidence of NSSI first onset has been found to be nearly 10.3% in the first year followed by 65 in the next year. Both sporadic and repetitive NSSI has been evident during both these college years. Proximal and distal risk factors behind NSSI onset have been hypothesised. Among them, dating violence has been identified as the major risk factor along with impairment of roles in daily lives. It has been assumed that an intervention would be helpful in reaching 23% of students reporting sporadic NSSI and 36% reporting repetitive during their college life.
Strauss et al. 2020 Australia ? Trans Pathways data ? Online cross-sectional survey ? Linear and logistic regression A huge portion of transgender youth in the country have been found to be experiencing mental issues, majority of whom have indulged in self-harm. Cases of suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts have also been common. Depression and anxiety have been the contributing factors. Besides, negative experiences such as peer rejection and precarious accommodation, bullying and discrimination have led to poor mental health outcomes. Precarious accommodation and adjustment issues in educational settings including homelessness have been the greatest contributors.
Iobet al. 2020 United Kingdom Social study with non-probability sample The patterns of abuse, self-harm thoughts, suicidal thoughts and actual self-harm have been identified. In each case, the number of women reporting the incidents has been higher than men. Also, Black people, “Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME)” groups and people having to experience socioeconomic disadvantages have reported higher incidents of self-harm. Socioeconomic disadvantages included disability, unemployment, mental disorders, chronic physical illnesses, and being diagnosed with COVID-19. Psychiatric medications have been found to be most commonly used support but only a minor portion of affected individuals have been accessing them.
Arendt et al. 2019 United States ? Hypothesis testing ? US panel survey Suicide has been evaluated to be occurring in huge numbers in case of the youth population and media has been identified as one contributing factor, this is because of the depictions shown by them regarding suicidal behaviour. Publicly available graphic and explicit content depicting self-harm has been a reason. Exposure to such content has been leading to emotional disturbance, suicidal ideation and self-harm. These findings have been found to have impacted the youth hugely, leading to contagion and having bright several implications. Sociodemographic factors including age, gender, race and education have been used as control variables in regression analysis.

Based on the findings obtained from the articles, most authors have confirmed the fact that there are several socio-demographic factors that contribute to mental issues in youth, these mental issues have been found to alter mental sustainability and pushed them on the edge of self-harm. Data provided by authors have stood as evidence of how self-harm tendencies have even made these individuals choose suicide as an option for which they have indulged in the several attempts. Different ways have been used to collect data but almost all findings have met a common point, which is mental health issues leading to self-harm.

Apart from this, it also conducted three more studies for measuring this relationship. Thus, it can be provided by most of the studies that cyber bullying greatly affects the mental health of young people. Therefore, to stop such practices there is a need to develop certain policies and programmes in schools to prevent cyber bullying.

Evaluating the available data, many insights have been gathered that have indicated certain important aspects that have played such an important role in the young adults on the level of self-harming. The data collectivity and analysis have demonstrated that young adults in the country of UK are observed struggling with mental states where the regulators such as issues with relationships and issues regarding family situations are the most important causes that have been located in the youth.

On the other hand, there are also cases related to drug abuse which is one of the most important causes of self-harming that has been derived from the data collection. Most families in the country are observed with inter-family problems that regulate the negativity in young adults (Gong et al. 2022). Medical councils based upon psychological evaluations have also explored that most young adults have faced issues with their relationships and family situations that caused them to get in touch with drugs. It can be said that the families and the closest of the young adults should be aware of this mental well-being. The more mental wellbeings can be ensured the more the percentages of self-harming or suicide attempts can be reduced in young adults.

4.3 summary

In the respected chapter on Findings and analysis, the insights that have been collected from the data collection have been evaluated with descriptive analysis. The chapter has indicated and evaluated the crucial facts and elements which are responsible for the regulation of the respected issue of Self-harming that can be evaluated to have a closer view of the respected problem that is indicated through the research.

E. Discussion

5.1 Introduction

This section clearly addressed that; suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and self-harm comparatively appeared at in higher rate in young adults and being very despite, the young adults were approaches towards death. Among the young adults, there are school students were there mostly studying in high schools were committing suicide due to severe mental disabilities takes place in them.

5.2 Discussion

It has been seen that the young youths of society develop negative attitudes that lead them towards destructive motives. There are reasons for the different cases where self-harming has been noticed. In certain cases, such issues of misunderstanding in relationships have been noticed which is one of the multiple reasons that has caused self-harm in young youths. In the below section, the points have been mentioned that can be evaluated to create the ideas on the basis of the reasons.

  • Immature relationships and misunderstanding: the cases of suicide attempts have indicated the aspects of immature understanding in relationships. The young adults have been seen with involving in negative activities after the misunderstandings in the relationships, both males and females have been observed with a lack of maturity in their life that has caused them to pay in the future. Research has demonstrated that the age group of young adults starting from 18 to 25 years is prone to emotional imbalances which are the most important element that causes the persons to get in touch with negative activities (Hetrick et al. 2020). On the other hand, there are also other reasons that are also located through the data collection that are the causes of young adults harming themselves.
  • Inequality with the family expectations and personal desires: Research and reports have demonstrated that most of the time the family members of young adults start expecting things just after they step into adultery. In this context, the person may have his or her own desire that they want to reach. The problem starts with the family pressure and misbehaviour that is faced by children or young adults. Families and family members have been seen with the generation gaps that has fueled the issues with the misunderstanding’s most of the families have been seen as expecting higher accomplishments from their children. It has been seen that due to the reason unfulfilling family expectations young adults have taken negative decisions as it creates immense pressure on the mental health of young adults (Lavis and Winter, 2020). In this context, the families of young adults have to be sure about the wellbeing’s of their children. Supporting the growing adults rather than ignoring them can bring changes in the respected situation of self-harming.

Young adults may have their own desires and needs that they want to fulfill, in this context the parents need to support their children so that they can ensure better health for their children. Parents of young adults need to be aware of the individuality of their children so they can have their own dreams to fulfill. Parents and the closest person are the ones who can rescue them from the respected issues of self-harm.

  • Peer pressure and disabilities: it has been seen that growing adults in different societies have different needs that they want to fulfill. On the other hand, there are also such families who are financially down than the other families. Such families which are financially stable lives standard or luxurious life. On the other hand, the other families who are financially down cannot afford the standard lifestyle (Sinha et al. 2021). In such cases, the adults get vulnerable as they also desire to lead the life that the other developed five families are living. In this context, the adults get depressed as a result of the failure to maintain equality in society four young adults have luxury bikes society, on the other hand, the fifth one does not have the financial stability that can afford a bike to match their status. Such young adults force their families to match their status with the other once where they cannot match the status for the lack of financial stability. In this situation, the young adult gets depressed and develops a negative attitude where self-harming is one of the most prominent facts.

The impact of social media on adolescents has been observed as making them sexual victims (Arendt, et al. 2019). The reason is, by influencing and instigating someone, most teenagers may use it to explore them and disrupt their confidential privacy near everyone. That comparatively makes them the victim. However, globally most of these issues have taken place and 74% of young adults, mostly girls, became victims of sex crimes (Miller et al. 2021). Among them, mostly in the Asian continents, there are 54% to 60% of girls got trapped and emerged as a victim of sex crimes. The study made by Cybulski et al. (2021) addressed that; physical health and suicidal tendencies are directly proportional to each other. The reason is, poor mental health or abnormalities in mental health can easily lead someone towards causing suicide and made self-harm. That is why another study managed by Stänicke, (2022) shades that; abnormalities in physical health and death by committing suicide can be presented as intermixed. In adults, the increase of physical health disabilities may indicate; traumatic brain injury, congestive heart failure, COPD, AIDS, cancer, migraine, renal diseases and sleeping disorders may lead them easily towards the multimorbidity rate. In them, due to that case, the two folded suicide deathshave comparatively increased due to committing suicide. As argued by Moss et al. (2023) shades, for evaluating this, the collection of socio-demographic information is important. Another study adheres by Zhao et al. (2022) shades that; the collaboration of cancer and COPD risks can easily lead young adults to commit self-harm. The reason is at that time, their brain got paused and they were comparatively unable to take any kind of decision.

In the sub-continents of Asia, most of the children have faced pressure because of the study complexities (Townsend et al. 2021). In case of not fulfilling their study criteria, their mental stability gets comparatively blocked and at that time, they are completely unable to take any decisions. That is why they have committed suicide. However, in evaluating the global databases it is important to address that, every year almost 800000 people were committed suicide. Due to this case, their mental disturbances are completely responsible. Among all the suicide cases, 164000 people are there who were accepting suicide because they could not accept their failure. The reason is at that time, they were completely unable to make any suitable decisions for them (Townsend et al. 2022). Global death also gets increased due to committing suicide and there are 36% are female and the rest are male

In addressing all the data sets, clearly informed that; here all the females committing suicide were belonging from the age of 15 to 18 years. However, all the males that were committing suicide are belonging from 15 to 21 years old age (Townsend et al. 2021). It is important to address that; mental health awareness is needed and is recommended for people to take control of their mental behaviour. In evaluating the population of the UK, among their adult population, 53% of adults are there who were experiencing mental health disabilities. Their ages may range from; 17 to 18 years old. Another study made by; Chen et al. (2021) shared piece of information that; in the UK among their 1.2 million population 629,000 adolescents are there who attempted suicide due to having mental disabilities.

In evaluating the report of 2021 and 2022 addressed that, the suicide rate is increased globally and it is increased up to 28% than the previous years and takes the life of 6400 young adults (Turner and Colburn, 2022). Researchers have addressed that, this may happen because of the increased rate of domestic violence. It is important to address that, in the UK, 20% of young adults are there who are seeking treatment in health centres and clinics (Stagaki et al. 2022). The reason is those mentioned categories of young female adults were suffering from emotional, physical and sexual violence. However, this study is mostly going to focus on the relationship between verbal, emotional, physical, psychological and domestic outbreaks of violence. That comparatively leads young adults towards anxiety, depression and stress. That condition may have a negative impact and harm their quality of good life (Russell et al 2019). These addressed conditions were going to lower mental health stability. It is comparatively important to address these common risk factors based on these; young adults may cause self harm their life. In some cases, this may lead to a situation where in most cases; because of domestic abuse, young adults were killed by their family members (Mota, 2020). However, globally, there are 60% to 70% of young adults are killed by their parents and in that case, domestic violence is mostly responsible.

The study made by Huang et al. (2022) comparatively addressed that; during the time of covid pandemic domestic violence gets increased and at that time it can affect the mental health condition of young adults. That leads them towards committing suicide. At that moment, 23% of survivors are there who were attempting suicide due to a 3% increase in domestic violence. In evaluating the global crime record clearly addressed that; for young adult males and females, domestic violence may emerge as in most prevalent form (Stewart et al. 2022). It can easily damage the mental stability of people and lead them in causing self-harm. Among the young adults, females who have been involved in the relationship have faced the issue most. Approximately, 21% to 48% of young females are there who were physically and sexually getting abused by their partners and that brings a deep scar in them in coping with their emotions (Russell et al 2019). However, in several male and female adults, the reason for domestic violence may easily bring the condition of psychiatric disability in them (Mota, 2020).

5.3 Summary

The summary evaluation from the chapter; deeply evaluated the themes that are analysed in the literature section. From there it is important to address the important risk factors that are responsible for creating these severe issues. This discussion section comparatively made the analysis of the created themes accordingly and compared them with the literature review section. The discussion here is made to shade the impact of domestic abuse, use of excessive internet and mental disabilities and their mode of penetration. That can easily lead an individual towards committing suicide.

F. Conclusion

6.1 Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above description that the very issue of self-harming is a prominent fact that has affected the youth with the negativities. In this context, a few elements are marked as the regulators of self-harming in young adults such as Anxiety disorders, Depression and mood changes due to any emotional aspects, issues with family and closest ones and other elements also which are analyses in the above discussion. Evaluating the above literature and data evaluation it has been located that youth has chosen methods of diluting the anger that is within. Reports and data collection has demonstrated self-harming methods such as Cutting, Burning, hitting and other painful ways.

From the findings of the three selected journals, it can be concluded that there are certain factors that are responsible for committing self-harm by young adults. The risk factors are making these youth more prone to self-harm. Therefore, they need to encourage practicing techniques and skills such as problem-solving, and spirituality. As this can helps in avoiding the behaviours and thoughts of self-harming. Apart from this, there is also a need for the inclusion of certain programs that can prevent cyber bullying as this is greatly influencing the behaviours of suicide and self-harm in young people.

It is the lack of proper parental guidance that causes such negative attitudes within the youth. The very lack of mental council and positive recommendations affected the youth on the level of finding solutions for such emotional imbalances. However, there is a need of evaluating the moods of the person and addressing solutions in case the person is having such critical psychological blockages.

6.2 Linking with objective

Objective 1: “To identify the factors that trigger self-harm in youth”

The very first objective of locating the “factors contributing to young adults committing self-harming” is analysed and linked with literature point number 2.2 in the literature review section from where the insights have been gathered. In this context elements such as poverty, chronic disease, family situations, and childhood trauma is indicated as the primary reasons for self-harming (Roth et al. 2021). On the other hand, there are also other facts that are located such as certain health conditions such as obesity and diabetes getting highlighted as the reasons for increasing percentages of self-harming that needs to be treated in the best possible ways.

Objective 2: “To evaluate psychological influences on mental health”

Objective 2 has been evaluated in the literature point number 2.3 from where the related insights have been gathered where the regulators of psychological imbalances have been justified that canbe evaluated to make the ideas cleare about the objective. Evaluating the document it can be said that there is a lack of education and intervention for youth that causes mental stress with a deep impact (Abdulsalam and Alhothali, 2022). Other insights such as lack of understanding, and hormonal changes in certain ages have regulated the issues that need to be treated in the best possible ways. Emotional blockages have become another important element that makes the person feel responsible about a certain situation and it causes anxiety that leads towards the expression of anger.

Objective 3: “To analyse the contribution of negligence at home on mental health and self-harm”

The respected objective is linked with the analysis of the literature point number 2.4 from where the insights have been gathered. In this context, the insights have aimed towards the aspects of the negligence of the family toward the teenage member (Khasawneh et al. 2020). Certain families have been observed isolating their grown children for any reason such as resulting in lower marks in the examination, relationships and other elements also that have caused young adults to be conservative.

Objective 4: “To point out the impact of pressure boost on self-harm tendencies”

The respected objective is linked with the literature point number 2.5 which has explored insights such as issues with unemployment, poor education and certain domestic violence caused by the element that has impacted the most for the young adults and that caused negative endings such as harming and suicide attempts (Xiao, 2022). However, all of the objectives have been evaluated throughout the document that can be evaluated to develop ideas.

6.3 Recommendation

Certain recommendations can be addressed that can bring developments in certain situations such as,

Recommendation 1: Proper educational development

Specific It is important for families and the government to make sure about proper education in society that can bring recovery on the mentioned issues. The more the youth and young adults will be connected with education the more the chances of developing distances with such mental complexity can be observed (Gosling et al. 2022).
Measurable The more the developed educational system can be applied the more the changes on the level of the issues can be observed. The recommendation can be measured with the help of evaluating the cases of self-harming in future that can be measured with the percentages
Achievable Educational development and proper education can be provided for the young youth with the help of government intervention (Karamat and Dallos, 2023). The educational goals can be achieved by implementing frameworks in such areas where the percentages of self-harming have been observed.
Realistic The mentioned recommendation is top most realistic as education develops the psychological space of a person that helps to develop a better lifestyle for the individuals
Time In such areas where the percentages of self-harming among adults are higher within 1 year of time proper educational frameworks can be implemented which will be focused for the future generation (Ngo et al. 2022).

6.4 Limitations of the study

The respected study is limited to the aspect of personal opinions that could be gathered from the primary data collection on the research field. On the other hand, there are also other facts that are located such as certain health conditions such as obesity and diabetes getting highlighted as the reasons for increasing percentages of self-harming that needs to be treated in the best possible ways. However personal opinion-based data has been avoided in the document as the research is based on secondary qualitative data.

6.5 Future scope

Further research can be executed by considering the primary quantitative data that can share specific data based on the specific opinions that could be collected from the individuals. On the other hand, future research can be executed that can be location-based. Other insights such as a lack of understanding between people and, and hormonal changes in certain ages that impact mental states can be taken for further research.


Selected three

Bhattacharjee, A. and Ghosh, T., 2021. Suicide among youths identifying risks and protective factors.

John, A., Glendenning, A.C., Marchant, A., Montgomery, P., Stewart, A., Wood, S., Lloyd, K. and Hawton, K., 2018. Self-harm, suicidal behaviours, and cyberbullying in children and young people: Systematic review. Journal of medical internet research, 20(4), p.e9044.

Shahmoradi, H., Masjedi-Arani, A., Bakhtiari, M. and Abasi, I., 2021. Investigating the Role of Childhood Trauma, Emotion Dysregulation, and Self-criticism in Predicting Self-harming Behaviors. Practice in Clinical Psychology, 9(4), pp.321-328.

Selected articles

Article 1

Fleming, T., Merry, S., Stasiak, K., Hopkins, S., Patolo, T., Ruru, S., Latu, M., Shepherd, M., Christie, G. and Goodyear-Smith, F., 2019. The importance of user segmentation for designing digital therapy for adolescent mental health: findings from scoping processes. JMIR mental health, 6(5), p.e12656.

Article 2

Mars, B., Heron, J., Klonsky, E.D., Moran, P., O'Connor, R.C., Tilling, K., Wilkinson, P. and Gunnell, D., 2019. Predictors of future suicide attempt among adolescents with suicidal thoughts or non-suicidal self-harm: a population-based birth cohort study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 6(4), pp.327-337.

Article 3

Camm-Crosbie, L., Bradley, L., Shaw, R., Baron-Cohen, S. and Cassidy, S., 2019. ‘People like me don’t get support’: Autistic adults’ experiences of support and treatment for mental health difficulties, self-injury and suicidality. Autism, 23(6), pp.1431-1441.

Article 4

Kiekens, G., Hasking, P., Claes, L., Boyes, M., Mortier, P., Auerbach, R.P., Cuijpers, P., Demyttenaere, K., Green, J.G., Kessler, R.C. and Myin-Germeys, I., 2019. Predicting the incidence of non-suicidal self-injury in college students. European psychiatry, 59, pp.44-51.

Article 5

Strauss, P., Cook, A., Winter, S., Watson, V., Toussaint, D.W. and Lin, A., 2020. Associations between negative life experiences and the mental health of trans and gender diverse young people in Australia: Findings from Trans Pathways. Psychological medicine, 50(5), pp.808-817.

Article 6

Iob, E., Steptoe, A. and Fancourt, D., 2020. Abuse, self-harm and suicidal ideation in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 217(4), pp.543-546.

Article 7

Arendt, F., Scherr, S. and Romer, D., 2019. Effects of exposure to self-harm on social media: Evidence from a two-wave panel study among young adults. New Media & Society, 21(11-12), pp.2422-2442.


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Chen, R., Wang, Y., Liu, L., Lu, L., Wilson, A., Gong, S., Zhu, Y., Sheng, C., Zeng, Y., Li, Y. and Ou, J., 2021. A qualitative study of how self-harm starts and continues among Chinese adolescents. BJPsych open, 7(1), p.e20.

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D s, J., Aelick, K., Babineau, J., Bretzlaff, M., Edwards, C., Gibson, J.L., Colborne, D.H., Iaboni, A., Lender, D., Schon, D. and McGilton, K.S., 2021. Social connection in long-term care homes: a scoping review of published research on the mental health impacts and potential strategies during COVID-19. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 22(2), pp.228-237.

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Gong, A.K., Yun, J.H., Kim, I.S., Yuh, M.A., Woo, S.H., Kim, J. and Hong, S., 2022. Factors affecting emergency medical utilization after self-harm and effectiveness of community-based suicide prevention provisions in preventing self-harm: a nationwide registry-based study in Korea. Community mental health journal, pp.1-12.

Gosling, H., Pratt, D. and Lea, J., 2022. Understanding self-harm urges and behavior amongst non-binary young adults: A grounded theory study. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, pp.1-31.

Hasking, P., Lewis, S.P., Bloom, E., Brausch, A., Kaess, M. and Robinson, K., 2021. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on students at elevated risk of self-injury: The importance of virtual and online resources. School psychology international, 42(1), pp.57-78.

Hayes, B.K. and Heit, E., 2018. Inductive reasoning 2.0. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 9(3), p.e1459.

Hetrick, S.E., Subasinghe, A., Anglin, K., Hart, L., Morgan, A. and Robinson, J., 2020. Understanding the needs of young people who engage in self-harm: a qualitative investigation. Frontiers in psychology, 10, p.2916.

Hetrick, S.E., Subasinghe, A., Anglin, K., Hart, L., Morgan, A. and Robinson, J., 2020. Understanding the needs of young people who engage in self-harm: a qualitative investigation. Frontiers in psychology, 10, p.2916.

Huang, Y., Zhang, S., Zhong, S., Gou, N., Sun, Q., Guo, H., Lin, R., Guo, W., Chen, H., Wang, J. and Zhou, J., 2022. The association of childhood adversities and mental health problems with dual-harm in individuals with serious aggressive behaviors. BMC psychiatry, 22(1), p.385.

Karamat Ali, R. and Dallos, R., 2023. Self-Harm: Moving from Dyads to Triads. In Attachment Narrative Therapy: Applications and Developments (pp. 161-193). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Khasawneh, A., Chalil Madathil, K., Dixon, E., Wi?niewski, P., Zinzow, H. and Roth, R., 2020. Examining the self-harm and suicide contagion effects of the Blue Whale Challenge on YouTube and Twitter: qualitative study. JMIR mental health, 7(6), p.e15973.

Knipe, D., Padmanathan, P., Newton-Howes, G., Chan, L.F. and Kapur, N., 2022. Suicide and self-harm. The Lancet.

Knowles, S., Sharma, V., Fortune, S., Wadman, R., Churchill, R. and Hetrick, S., 2022. Adapting a codesign process with young people to prioritize outcomes for a systematic review of interventions to prevent self?harm and suicide. Health Expectations, 25(4), pp.1393-1404.

Kostyrka?Allchorne, K., Stoilova, M., Bourgaize, J., Rahali, M., Livingstone, S. and Sonuga?Barke, E., 2023. Digital experiences and their impact on the lives of adolescents with pre?existing anxiety, depression, eating and nonsuicidal self?injury conditions–a systematic review. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 28(1), pp.22-32.

Lavis, A. and Winter, R., 2020. # Online harms or benefits? An ethnographic analysis of the positives and negatives of peer?support around self?harm on social media. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 61(8), pp.842-854.

Lewis, S.P. and Hasking, P., 2019. Putting the “self” in self-injury research: Inclusion of people with lived experience in the research process. Psychiatric Services, 70(11), pp.1058-1060.

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Marchant, A., Hawton, K., Stewart, A., Montgomery, P., Singaravelu, V., Lloyd, K., Purdy, N., Daine, K. and John, A., 2018. Correction: A systematic review of the relationship between internet use, self-harm and suicidal behaviour in young people: The good, the bad and the unknown. PLoS one, 13(3), p.e0193937.

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