Health Inequalities In Relation To Oral Cancer Assignment Sample

Exploring Health Inequalities in Relation to Oral Cancer: Assignment Insights

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Introduction Of Critically Analyse The Extent To Which Social Determinants Of Health

Critically Analyse The Extent To Which Social Determinants Of Health Explain Health Inequalities In Relation To Oral Cancer In Adult Males In India

Health is a "complex entity" which is indirectly or directly influenced by numerous factors, knowing about these factors is essential for the service of health and also leads to delivering effective plans and treatment. The majority of these health inequities are casing because of several reasons, such as life, work, age and shows effects on health. As stated by Baniasadi et al. (2021), oral cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer in India, which is mostly seen in Indian men. “Oral squamous cell carcinoma” helps to dominate all the cases of oral care cancer. Consumption of tobacco includes “Smokeless tobacco”, and “Betel-quid chewing”. “Unhygienic oral condition”, and “consumption of alcohol” all of these various infections show a risk to increase of oral cancer.

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There are some influences on the environment. Psychosocial, economic and political determinants show reflection in the general case of oral health. This essay describes and critically analyzes the various risk factors related to Oral cancer in men in India. Also, this helps to show the statistical distributions of oral cancer in India, which by various virtues, such as Environmental factors, and socio-economical positions. This essay also focuses on some techniques which can be developed by India to prevent such diseases. In this essay, some of the social determinants such as "Economical stability of Oral hygiene", "Education Access and Quality as a social determinant" and "Healthcare Access and Quality as a social determinant" also have been discussed and critically analysed. In this essay, there is also some of the policies included such as the "National Oral Health Policy" and “Trust Policy for Oral Hygiene" also included to provide a framework related to the prevention of "Oral disease" and also help to promote these policies to make differences in the health of the human and this will also help to assess effectively in Oral cancer among males in India.

Main Body

Social determinants I

Economical Stability as a Social Determinant

"Social determinants of health" are some factors in a person's life which affect well-being and health. There are five categories of health inequalities. First, the determinant is the "Economic stability category". It is opined by Foote et al. (2023), the income of a person, their cost of living, economic status, socioeconomic values, housing stability and food security, all the security play a vital role in the health of the people. It has also been estimated that there are some poor economical conditions which need lots of money. And health is not cheap in today's world. Similarly, It is also said by Lu et al. (2019), In India, there are some housing which dependent on low income but still those families are expecting to pay a percentage of the rent, and they have also been facing food insecurity. This instability in economic conditions and unequal distribution of opportunities and income also cause differences among the group of society. As this inequality occurs, this shows an economic burden on oral cancer, which has been underestimated and substantial. This study also shows the rate of oral cancer among males aged between 60 to above 60 is higher, and the rate of mortality is also higher. As males cannot afford the treatment of oral cancer as it is very costly to treat, for this reason, Economical factors are influencing the rate of mortality of oral cancer in India. This further emphasized that Oral cancer is an "Economic-mediated disease".

Economic stability refers to the security of having a stable income to meet sufficient basic needs, while in economic insecurity a house shows rare income below 200% and which leads to the poverty level. As proposed by Nagao & Warnakulasuriya (2020), economic stability also can be described as the ability and power to access resources for well-being. This indicates that the individual is poor and cannot provide basic economic needs. Contradictory, it is also opined by Warnakulasuriya & Greenspan (2020), the economic burden and cost of oral cancer treatment are underestimated and substantial. The cost of "OCC", "LC", and "OPC" are costly in respective to other treatments. This high-quality treatment cannot be afforded by individuals with poor economical income. In India, there are highlighted some of the importance of diagnosis early to determine the minimum cost of the health system. As told by da Silva Lins et al. (2019), these health care costs, outpatient costs, inpatient costs and all the costs are higher. For an economically poor country like India, it gets difficult to provide this much to prevent oral cancer, so this further causes barrier in economic status and it also gets financial burden in the country as well as on the patients [refers to appendix 2].

In recent years the research on public health has been focusing on the "Social determinants of health". As opined by Peres et al. (2019), individuals from more deprived areas, to be precise lower in income and education, this groups of the individual has a higher mortality rate for oral cancer and also indicate the rate of being pore particularly attacked with more other cancers. Inequalities of income can also cause the rate of morbidity as they do not afford such money to prevent these diseases, and also lack education, they are not well aware of the consumption of tobacco, and better oral hygiene, which leads to a higher risk of oral cancer. Similarly, as told by Ramos?Gomez et al. (2020), Economical stability also shows an effect on the higher mortality rate and this shop's lowest chance of their survival. The rate of survival of cancer patients is lower in most of the deprived areas, with the highest "ethnic minority groups". This rate of cancer mortality shows the inequality among people having different economical stability. Economic stability shows more mortality rate of cancer because it does not allow them to treat in a better place and they still lack knowledge about the consumption of tobacco and smoking. This analysis shows the importance of economic stability to develop better treatment for oral cancer and also provide them with good education related to awareness of oral cancer.

Social determinants II

Education Access and Quality as a social determinant

Oral cancer in India is a common health issue that has had an adverse impact on a large part of India. As opined by Peres et al. (2019), several factors have imposed a threat to the population causes due to health inequalities. It is evident that the "low-income population" has a higher risk which leads to increased risk and exposure to oral cancer. "Social determinants of health" allow measuring the factor that affects the population due to health inequalities facility in terms of economy, education, society and health benefits. The information gathered from the findings of the article reveals that education accessibility is observed to be lowered which causes the wide exposure to oral cancer among the male population in India. Similarly, as mentioned by Pérez (2021), the low-class population is unable to get education facilities which made the population consume tobacco which triggers oral cancer. Oral health hygiene awareness has been evident low among the Indian population due to the low frequency of education. In the same way, the data extracted from the analysis depicts that the male population has comparatively higher exposure to oral cancer by 50% in developing countries as compared to developed countries by 35% (Gco.iarc.fr, 2020) [refer to Appendix 4]. Therefore, from this critical evaluation, it can be concluded that the major reason is the fewer facilities for developing awareness of oral health practices in rural areas of the population. It made the population involved in the high consumption of tobacco in India.

According to the CDC, it is determined that 58.4% of males have been involved in oral cancer in northern India whereas women with 15.4%. The population with age between 70 to 74% in the northeast region found has been exposed by 58.4% of males and 60.2% of women due to less awareness of oral health. The population with ages between 40 to 69 % in the East found has exposed 75.5 % of males and 24.3% of women due to less oral health awareness (Cdc.gov, 2022). In the same way, according to Kino et al. (2021), the mortality rate has increased the overall burden of oral cancer among the population which makes India rank among the top five countries. The information gathered from the findings of the article reveals that the population with ages between 70 to 75% in the central region found has been exposed to 64.8% of males and 37.2% of women due to a lack of education facilities [refer to Appendix 3]. On the contrary, as referred by de Abreu et al. (2021), developing hygiene awareness of oral cancer in India among the health care professional, patients and families helps in the development of the high incidence of “tobacco-related cancer”. The data extracted from the analysis depicts that the population with ages between 60 to 69% in the south region found has been exposed to 67.9% of males and 32.6% of women due to insufficient oral hygiene. Henceforth, from this critical analysis, it can be summarised that oral hygiene in India in each of the regions needs to be developed with effective policies to develop oral cancer awareness.

Education accessibility is the primary right of the population which brings sensibility among the population thereby developing hygiene awareness. The incidence rate of the lip and the oral cavity stand in the third position in India after breast and cervix uteri. As stated by Yom & Lor (2021), “oral health habits” along with “access to care” are highly influenced by the health social determinants. The “health promotion strategies” delivery has a significant impact on oral disease reduction prevalence. The information gathered from the findings of the article reveals that the incidence rate has turned out to be 9.8% and a 5.4% mortality rate in India [refer to Appendix 3]. Similarly, as suggested by García-Martín et al. (2019), education accessibility and the quality of education have the ability to improve the health of the public. The data extracted from the analysis depicts that oral cancer well-being is strongly influenced by status, condition, knowledge and awareness. Therefore, from this critical evaluation, it can be determined that education plays a critical role in mitigating health inequality.

Social determinants III

Healthcare Access and Quality as a social determinant

Healthcare settings facilitated quality of care which has been broadly divided into low and “high-class income” populations. As opined by Srivastava et al. (2020), the social factor has an impact on the “lower socioeconomic positions” that are associated with health inequalities. The data extracted from the analysis depicts that healthcare accessibility has increased the mortality rate that has been effectively optimised among the low-income population in India. Similarly, as mentioned by Borse et al. (2020), the consumption of tobacco has been found to be higher in males which cause the population to have high-risk exposures. The information gathered from the findings of the article reveals that the population with ages between 60 to 69% in the southern region found has been exposed to 61.5% of males and 18.5% of women due to common risk factors [refer to Appendix 5]. In the same way, “oral health-related quality of life” (OHRQoL) has developed a concern of delivering care to the patient to improve the population better outcomes (Gco.iarc.fr, 2020). Hence, from this critical evaluation, it can be concluded that socio-demographic characteristics have been prominently linked with the increased risk of a mortality rate within the male population due to the high consumption rate. Healthcare accessibility can generate awareness among oral cancer patients.

The determinant of “oral-health-related behaviours” has been highly influenced by the mal practising of oral hygiene practice and the lack of awareness. According to Mathur and Singh et al. (2020), healthcare professional in this aspect has a primary role in developing oral hygiene awareness and providing diagnosis and effective treatment to reduce the oral cancer incidence rate. The information gathered from the findings of the article reveals that oral-health-related behaviours are the positive social determinants that need to be provided social support, and education. However, as referred by (2020), oral disease's increasing prevalence is predominantly not only due to less awareness but also due to the adoption of healthy habits. The data extracted from the analysis depicts that social determinants can be used in promoting healthy behaviours that change the behaviour of the individual. In the same way, facilities provided by the healthcare settings have imposed a drawback for the low to middle-income population to take the regular interval of dental services. This imposes a great lower "human development index" are more involved in not adopting on taking dental services (Cdc.gov, 2022). Henceforth, from this critical analysis, it can be summarised that social factor has highly influenced health hazards that give rise to the development of health deterioration.

“Oral squamous cell carcinoma” accounts for the 40% of the India as compared to the other countries. It gives rise to the development of the more than 4% due to the no diagnosis. As stated by Tran et al. (2022), the Indian subcontinent has increased oral cancer which leads to the development of the second highest which is estimated to be drafted and important with an estimated number of cases which up to 100,000. The data extracted from the analysis depicts that health accessibility helps in improving the oral cancer incidence rate. the social factor has an impact on the "lower socioeconomic positions" that are associated with health inequalities. The data extracted from the analysis depicts that healthcare accessibility has increased the mortality rate that has been effectively optimised among the low-income population in India. Likewise, as suggested by Pérez (2021), healthcare's effective availability of quality care and the improved delivery of care have not only developed awareness among the population but also helps in curing disease. The information gathered from the findings of the article reveals that oral cancer among males has been effective among the low-income population which drafts a healthcare facilities gap that makes a difference between urban and rural disparities. Therefore, from this critical evaluation, it can be determined that health accessibility and quality as a social determinant allow minimising the death rate of the population and increasing the number of the population. With the help of these determinants, probability and health behaviour can be effective triggers among the population. Healthcare's effective availability of quality care and the improved delivery of care have not only developed awareness among the population but also helps in curing disease.

Policies

Oral health policy aims to "Provide a framework" related to the prevention of many oral diseases and also promote healthy support and this policy and programme also helps to make a difference in health. "National Oral Health Policy" is one of them. As said by Abati et al. (2020), the “National Oral Health Policy” shows accounts and the oral health situation of the country, and also helps to provide comprehensive, integrated “oral health care” in the previous health care facilities. This policy helps to determine the oral health of people in India. This also reduces the rate of morbidity which can occur from oral diseases. To integrate this problem, the “National Oral Health Policy” also presents these services, to encourage them to promote better oral health as oral health is important to prevent tooth decay and disease in gum. However, this policy was developed in India for better adaptations in policies related to Oral health. Similarly, it is also stated by Galvão & Roncalli (2021), the" Trust Policy for Oral Hygiene" also sets some of the "Evidence-based guidelines" related to oral hygiene. This policy also guides the management of the routine oral hygiene for all patients. This includes a process with sore, dry, uncreated, or coated mouth or tongue "management of dentures”. This policy also helps to guide staff to provide "Mouth care" for patients who have been suffering from dysphagia. This policy also helps to highlight the importance of mouth care. According to Cankaya et al. (2020), good oral condition is important for drinking and communication and also prevents infections and reduces the risk of aspiration. However, in India, people are more lending towards the “National Oral Health Policy” to the prevention of Oral cancer and also to spread awareness related to oral health and hygiene.

Conclusion

“Social determinants of health” allow measuring the factor that affects the population due to health inequalities facility in terms of economy, education, society and health benefits. Oral health hygiene awareness has been evident low among the Indian population due to the low frequency of education. The mortality rate has increased the overall burden of oral cancer among the population which makes India rank among the top five countries. Developing hygiene awareness of oral cancer in India among the health care professional, patients and families help in the development of the high incidence of “tobacco-related cancer”. Oral cancer well-being is strongly influenced by status, condition, knowledge and awareness. Education plays a critical role in mitigating health inequality. Economic stability also can be described as the ability and power to access resources for well-being. This indicates that the individual is poor and cannot provide basic economic needs.

Healthcare accessibility has increased the mortality rate that has been effectively optimised among the low-income population in India. Socio-demographic characteristics have been prominently linked with the increased risk of a mortality rate within the male population due to the high consumption rate. Healthcare accessibility can generate awareness among oral cancer patients. The determinant of “oral-health-related behaviours” has been highly influenced by the mal practising of oral hygiene practice and the lack of awareness. Health accessibility and quality as a social determinant allow minimising the death rate of the population and increasing the number of the population. The “National Oral Health Policy” shows accounts and the oral health situation of the country, and also helps to provide comprehensive, integrated “oral health care” in the previous health care facilities. The” Trust Policy for Oral Hygiene” provides guidance on the management of routine oral hygiene for all patients.

References

Journals

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Websites

  • Gco.iarc.fr, (2020), India Source: Globocan 2020, Retrieved at: 02 May 2023, from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today/data/factsheets/populations/356-india-fact-sheets.pdf
  • Cdc.gov, (2022), Trends in Incidence of Cancers of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx, Retrieved at: 02 May 2023, from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6915a1.htm
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