Introduction of HNU 303 – Evidence-Based Practice Assignment
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The term evidence-based practise refers to the integration of opinions of experts and clinical expertise in occupational practices. In this study, the impact of infant exposure to a different particulate matter will be discussed. Exposure to particulate matter causes several effects on health such as nose, eye, throat, lung irritation, sneezing, coughing, breathing shortness, and runny nose. In this study, the aim and objectives of this research will be highlighted. The methodological framework will also be discussed providing justification for selecting PEO or PICO. The ethical implications of this research will also be highlighted appropriately in this study.
It has been analysed that RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) is the most common reason for hospitalizing infants. Exposure to particulate matter increases pulmonary pathology severity which causes respiratory infection in animals. subclinical pulmonary crises are developed among infants who remain exposed to particulate matter. The risk for developing severe bronchiolitis enhances when RSV is encountered by infants. As per the view of Uwak et al. (2021, p.106378), the main reasons for the increasing rate of particulate matter is the traffic and woodsmoke. Woodsmoke is the main reason for acute infection in the track of lower respiratory.
Death rate of children for exposure to particulate matters
(Source: Statista.com, 2022)
In the above figure, it has been highlighted that the death rate of children from being exposed to particulate matter is 80.5 per 100000 children (Statista.com, 2022). Based on this data it can be stated that exposure to particulate matter is a problem for infants for their respiratory and pulmonary functions efficiently.
Key policies and current literature
The Clean Air Act described that it is the responsibility of different organisations to maintain the quality standard of air. Environmental Protection Act 1990, elaborated that the organizations need to limit their usage of raw materials, minimize wastes, and are restricted to dispose of wastes in water, land and air. PM2.5 plays an important role in enhancing the risk of developing the pulmonary disease among infants. The diagnosis method for pulmonary diseases caused by particulate matter is based on clinical presentation. However, laboratory confirmations are also available. As per the view of Moody et al. (2019, pp. e1917643), infants are more vulnerable during the wintertime to develop respiratory diseases.
As the infant is in a stage of rapid growth and development exposure to PM (particulate matter) creates different health problems. As per the view of Goshen et al. (2020, pp.1), low weight during birth is a risk factor for different comorbidities among children. The birth weight of an infant can be affected by prenatal exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and PM2.5-10 during pregnancy.
Problem statement: The problem statement includes that lack of knowledge and awareness regarding infant exposure to particulate matters increases their health risk. This is a problem as it is affecting the annual mortality rate of infants across the world. Now, this is a problem as it is increasing several health comorbidities among infants which have a long-term effect. This study will shed light on detecting the main factors associated with enhancing PM (Particulate matter) and the required actions to control them.
What are the effects of infant exposure to Particulate Matter?
Aim & objectives
The aim of this research is to analyse the impact of exposure to particulate matter by infants.
The objectives of this research are highlighted below.
- To determine the main reasons for being vulnerable to being affected by particulate matter among infants
- To evaluate adverse effects of particulate matters on birth outcome
- To detect the required actions to prevent air pollutant's adverse effects during birth
The methodological framework is used to improve consistency, activity reporting, and robustness. This will help to improve the quality of this research and will standardise the research approaches. A secondary data collection method will be followed in this research to collect qualitative data. The PEO research strategy will be followed to gain in-depth information regarding the exposure of infants to pollutants. The descriptive research design will be followed in this research for understanding the research problem in an in-depth manner (Lavigne et al. 2021, p.106486). In this way, appropriate conclusions will be gained by considering qualitative data.
A deductive research approach will be followed in this research to study the reasons for infant vulnerability to pollutants in an unchanged environment. Interpretive Research philosophy will be opted in this research to gain an appropriate perspective regarding an individual's behaviour to acquire knowledge regarding infant exposure to PM (Ortolan et al. 2020, pp.496). Descriptive data analysis techniques will be followed in this research to detect the interrelationship among the variables of this research such as infants' conditions and pollutants.
The PEO approach will be taken in this research to gain an effective answer to the research question. The questions of this research will be based on population, exposure, and outcome. The research question is not focused on gathering numerical data rather the relationship among the variables of this research will be explored. As power the view of Florea and Florea (2020, p.8744), the PEO approach is taken to examine the correlation among variables such as infant exposure and particulate matters.
Population: The study is focusing on infants and their exposure to PM
Exposure: The population that is infants are exposed to PM (Particulate matter)
Outcome: The result of infant exposure to particulate matters includes the development of different pulmonary and respiratory diseases
The PEO approach will be followed in this research as it is the proper framework to address the research question and research objectives. This framework is effective to gather in-depth information to meet the research objectives related to different factors of particulate matters and their impacts on infants.
All the information for this research will be collected from authentic resources such as PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochran library. As opined by Ortolan et al. (2020, pp.497), all information must be up-to-date information and no distress or damage to the data will occur at the time of collection and analysis. Lastly, authentic citations will be used in this study to maintain the authenticity.
Florea, D. and Florea, S., (2020). Big Data and the ethical implications of data privacy in higher education research. Sustainability, 12(20), p.8744.
Goshen, S., Novack, L., Erez, O., Yitshak-Sade, M., Kloog, I., Shtein, A. and Shany, E., (2020). The effect of exposure to particulate matter during pregnancy on lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations during first year of life. Environmental Health, 19(1), pp.1-8. (Online). Available from: https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12940-020-00645-3
Lavigne, É., Talarico, R., van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R.V., Stieb, D.M., Crighton, E., Weichenthal, S., Smith-Doiron, M., Burnett, R.T. and Chen, H., (2021). Fine particulate matter concentration and composition and the incidence of childhood asthma. Environment International, 152, p.106486. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021001112
Moody, E.C., Cantoral, A., Tamayo-Ortiz, M., Pizano-Zárate, M.L., Schnaas, L., Kloog, I., Oken, E., Coull, B., Baccarelli, A., Téllez-Rojo, M.M. and Wright, R.O., (2019). Association of prenatal and perinatal exposures to particulate matter with changes in hemoglobin A1c levels in children aged 4 to 6 years. JAMA network open, 2(12), pp.e1917643-e1917643. (Online). Available from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2757627
Ortolan, A., Lorenzin, M., Felicetti, M., Doria, A. and Ramonda, R., (2020). Does gender influence clinical expression and disease outcomes in COVID-19? A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 99, pp.496-504. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S120197122030607X
Uwak, I., Olson, N., Fuentes, A., Moriarty, M., Pulczinski, J., Lam, J., Xu, X., Taylor, B.D., Taiwo, S., Koehler, K. and Foster, M., (2021). Application of the navigation guide systematic review methodology to evaluate prenatal exposure to particulate matter air pollution and infant birth weight. Environment international, 148, p.106378. (Online). Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021000027
statista.com. (2022). Death rate in children attributable to household and ambient air pollution worldwide in 2016, by region. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/942523/death-rate-children-air-pollution-worldwide-by-region/ [Accessed on 18th April 2022]