Impact of the Pandemic Situation on the Mental Health of Students Case Study

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Introduction of Impact of the Pandemic Situation on the Mental Health of Students Case Study

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Mental health disorder is a significant factor that affects the physical and emotional state of an individual. During the pandemic situation, the mental health of children particularly school students, younger generations, and their families have greatly affected by emotional disorder as most of the time a day they spend alone in the house.

1. Presenting Problems

Identification of the issue in the case and its diagnosis process

The concerned case study helps shed light upon the mental health disruption of a sixteen-year-old girl Amara. During the pandemic situation, like other students, Amara also proceeded with her study through digital platforms from home. Therefore, she was very isolated from the external society, and only a few peers were connected in that pandemic situation (Camm-Crosbie et al. 2019). This situation has a great impact on her mental health of her and her natural characteristics were also changed slightly. She was not at all attentive in her study as well as extracurricular activities and only she enjoyed the break time in school as in that period she could spent time wither her peers.

In order to diagnose the issue of Amara, it is very important to proper counselling her that reflects on the state of her mental health. The diagnosis process of the mental health issues of Amara can be identified through her appearance and behavioural characteristics. The cognition, as well as thought process, is also very helpful to diagnose an actual mental state of Amara. “The psychological evaluation” is the most appropriate diagnosis process for this case as Amara is dealing with a mood disorder (Camm-Crosbie et al. 2019). The psychological evaluation process is working with the application of assessment tools like “Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS)” for detecting the emotional disorders of Amara.

Critical evaluation of diagnosis of this case study

The assessment tools for diagnosing the actual state of the mood and the emotional state of Amara. “Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS)” tools guide to detecting the mental disorders, which guide to properly diagnosis the present and previous symptoms of mood and anxiety. Apart from that, psychotic as well as disruptive behavioural disorders guide to identification process of a patient. The assessment tool is mainly applied to teenagers as it is the time for rapid mood swings and different psychotic disorders. According to recent research, it is disclosed that more than 45% of students or young people are suffering from rapid mood swings as well as different disruptive mental disorders (Camm-Crosbie et al. 2019). During the pandemic situation, the percentage of mental health disorders increased to around 68%, which reflects on their physical health and their academic or professional life.

In order to apply the assessment tools, an individual interview process has to be arranged that affect the epidemiological and treatment process of Amara. This assessment took not only diagnosis the mood disorders of a person but also detect depression level, anxiety, and paraphilic disorders. In this case, Amara is suffering from emotional disruptive, mental impulse-control as well as to conduct disorders that affect several cognitive problems like a mismatch with the society people and behavioural disorders with the families, relatives, and friends.

The assessment tool involves the family as well as the primary care doctor for overcoming the stage. Apart from that, psychiatric and psychotherapist guides to increase her emotional state of Aamara and assist her to communicate with the society people, school teachers, and other members properly. The assessment tools include different treatment processes like “Mood-stabilizing medications” and “Antipsychotic medications” (Camm-Crosbie et al. 2019). Apart from that, Psychotherapy and Brain-stimulation are other types of treatment that can be used for overcoming the situation.

Identification of the predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, and protective factors in this case with proper research approach and theory

Predisposing factors include the risk of developing problems that affect the genetics, psychological temperament as well as precipitating factors of an individual. The predisposing factors consist of fear, anxiety as well as mental stress in an individual, which is found in the case of Amara. As per World Health Report that was conducted in 2020 during the pandemic situation, it is disclosed that predisposing factors of an individual make physical inactivity and that affects the physical health as if increased cholesterol level, blood glucose level as well as fluctuation of blood pressure level (Hughes et al. 2018). “The Self-determination Theory of motivation” is the most appropriate theory for detecting and treating the psychological predisposing factors of Amara, which includes an intrinsic motivation process for providing mental satisfaction as well as emotional development.

 The Self-determination Theory for detecting mood disruption

(Source: Willets, 2018)

The three core components of this theory are competence, autonomy as well as relatedness, which are considered the primary needs of a person. The application of this theory guides to increasing the connection between society and the environment, control over the personal lives monitoring the healthy relationship status with surrounding people.

Precipitating factors of the emotional state consists of psychological disorders, mental illness, and different unnatural behavioural responses of an individual. In this particular case, her emotional needs along with traumatic experiences Aamara include precipitating factors (Willets, 2018). The precipitating factors in terms of mental state refer to a particular event that affects the present life and increases the psychological issues.

The internal and external causes of mental disorders can be detected through theory as well as psychological assessment tools. According to recent research conducted by “The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health” (CAMH) in 2020, more than 38% of school children and young generations are affected by psychological precipitating factors. “Basic Psychological Needs Theory” is the most appropriate theory for predicting the precipitating factors (Hughes et al. 2018). The basic emotional needs of human beings require a proper mental-emotional attachment, self-enhancement as well as mental well-being.

Perpetuating emotional factors consist of the emotional condition of the patient as well as the relationship status with family, community as well as different pre-existing factors like socio-demographic variables age, sex, and environmental temperament. As per “Child and Adolescent Mental Health” the “Nikolas Luhmann's Self-Perpetuating Systems Theory” is the most important theory that guides the identification process of the different processes to solve the psychological problems (Camm-Crosbie et al. 2019). In this case, Amara has faced a mood disruption state that mainly happened as she spent a long period at the home being isolated from the external society. According to Mitchell, Frazier & Sayer (2020), in order to provide proper treatment the mood disruption, social communication is very important and a hyper-complex society is the main reason for these psychological problems.

Protective psychological factors are another significant psychological element that includes individual attributes, physical activity level as well as strength of social identity that affect the stress level and the problem-solving skills in the context of an emotional state. As per the perception of Knobloch, Knobloch?Fedders & Yorgason (2019), mental health symptoms can be identified with the application of the “Longitudinal application of the relational turbulence model” that guides to evaluate of the intimacy, relational uncertainty as well as the interdependence of social relationship of an individual.

2. Core underlying framework:

The formulation model is a type of behavioural model that includes the different stages in which the knowledge of the psychological system is transferred into the numerical form. Developing and proper implementing a formation model is very important for recognizing the actual psychological state (Milner et al. 2020). The formulation model guides the building of a numerical architecture for detecting the psychological issues as well as providing the ideas for mitigating the issues.

 Diagram of formulation model

(Source: Pollock et al. 2020)

The formulation model of behavior development guides to increase the emotional stability as well as the maturity of a person. The formulation model for this case study includes the principal purpose of the assessment and recognizes the actual psychological issue. According to Clifton (2019), the formulation model is very effective for detecting emotional growth as well as personal performances for survival as well as reproduction. The application of this model surrounding the environment plays an important role. In order to develop a formulation model of a particular case study, making out the actual problem is very important, and formulation of the model to resolve the issues. Collection of data and generate the input data into the model guides to resolving the psychological issues (Henderson & Gronholm, 2018). The approach of this model that is very suitable for Amara's case studies the recognizing the mix of psychological problems and in this case, Amara is suffering from the mood-swing disorder as well as a low motivation level after the pandemic situation. The constructive approaches of this model are more fundamental for this case study as to resolve the issues excellent analytical skills are role important. As per the perception of HasannezhadReskati, Mirzaian & Hosseini (2020), the “Critical Path Method” (CPM) is an appropriate theory for this model that guides to critically examine the situation and provides a recommendation to resolve the issues.

The effect of “acceptance and commitment-based training” plays an important role for detect the issues of Amara and find out the actual reason for emerging these types of mental health challenges. According to Júnior et al. (2020), the COVID 19 pandemic, creates several mental health issues for the student and the younger generation. Apart from that, the senior citizens also suffer from depression, anxiety, and fear of the pandemic situation due to the outbreak of corona virus. According to the recent report of NHS 2021, it is disclosed that more than 72% of students are addicted to alcohol, tobacco, and other dangerous addiction during the lockdown period due to overcoming depression, anxiety as well as fear of results (Alshahrani, 2018). The social communication system is greatly affected by this type of psychological disorder. The defence mechanism, environmental connections, self-acceptance as well as self-adaptability skills are also decreased in an uncertain situation.

The theoretical framework of the formulation model guides to improve the state of mental health by increasing the specific cognition of humans. As per the point of view of Ayhan et al. (2020), the “Biophysical theory” is the most appropriate theory for the formulation of a model according to this theory; problem identification is the most important and the basic stage of this model. The biophysical approaches guide making the social factors as well as the psychological factors of an individual (Vargas, Huey & Miranda, 2020). In this case study, the concerned approach guides the evaluation process of the actual reason for the social isolating attitudes of Amara and the reason to low motivation levels as well as rapid mood swings behavior.

The formulation is different from diagnosis it is far beyond the process of diagnosing. In this case, diagnosis refers to the identification of the psychological problems of Amara while the formulation is the whole process of treatment. The principal mental disorders have resulted from genetic disorders and unnatural personality development that affect different psychological factors on emotional well-being. As stated by Vargas, Huey & Miranda (2020), “The nine-part model or theory” is another significant theory in this context that is based on personal feelings, behavioural disorders, and the environmental situation of a person. These three components control the individual thoughts and perceptions as well as self-motivation level. 

The nine-part model of behavioural development

(Source: Júnior et al. 2020)

As per this model the environmental factors control the thinking process, behavioural characteristics, and rapid mood swings. The biological development of an individual is also influenced by environmental factors. According to this theory, low mood and decreasing motivation level is the main problem that resists communicating with external society. Proper guidance from family and academic guardians can resolve the psychological disorder (Ayhan et al. 2020). The longitudinal test is very effective for detecting the main reason for low mood or motivation level as well as decreasing social communication of a person.

3. The Intervention Plan: 

The intervention plan for recognizing the behavioural characteristics of an individual is mainly developed for accessing the “functional behavior assessment” of a person. The core components of the intervention plan of behavioural assessment consist of the 4R model (King, 2018). These particular models include reducing and replace of emotional development. Apart from that, reinforcing as well as responding structure also guides to accurately identifying the psychological state.

Behavior

Low mood and low motivation level is her behavioural issue of Amara and for that reason, she does not properly communicate with the external society as well as academic leaders. Amara also faced an issue in terms of academic career development as well as physical health development.

Functions

The behavioural changes happened because of isolation in the home for a long period rather than any external communication. During the lockdown period, Amara spent a greater among of time in the home-engaged learning system through digital media. During that period, Amara had not any connection except with some of her peers that were through social media.

Intended behavior

During the normal situation after the pandemic, Amara should heartily communicate with her classmates and society people and be attentive to her study. In contrast, Amara became isolated and did not communicate with others except with some of her close friends (HasannezhadReskati, Mirzaian & Hosseini, 2020). Her academic career is also negatively impacted by her behavior. 

Productive plan

? Identification of focus area

? Recognizes the behavioural obstacles

? Set a time for treatment

? Evaluate the collected information from a specific case study

? Experimental statement to improvise or reiterate the psychological condition

Reactive plan

? Monitoring the actions of Amara

? Observing the responses of Amara

? Reinforce different psychological therapy for resolving the mental challenges

? Plan an intervention strategy

? Follow a routine to measure the behavioural development 

Reinforces

? Prevent the antecedent

? Preceding the events which are less important

? Application of evidence-based resolve strategies

? Focus on the principal issue and measure the development process 

Data collection process

The data collection process of this case study can be arranged through a personal interview. Apart from that, the family members, society people, as well as academic leaders, can provide some important data in terms of behavioural changes (Clifton, 2019) A close survey of the classmates of Amara can provide valuable information for this case study. 

Notes

The case study mainly focuses on the impact of the pandemic situation on the mental health of students and their behavioural changes.

Table 1: The Intervention Plan for Amara's case study

For this particular case study, the intervention plan focus on the reason for her low mood and motivation level of Aamara. Her behavioural changes are greatly affected by her emotional state and her communication issues with Amara. Apart from that, her academic career of Amara was decreased by her psychological state. The intervention plan for her behavior development of Amara is built with the assistance of her family members, society people as well as academic leaders in her school (Knobloch, Knobloch?Fedders & Yorgason, 2019). Her classmates and siblings are also very significant personalities in order to build the intervention plan. The principal reason for choosing this particular intervention plan is that this plan includes a different section that guides the evaluation of her actual psychological position of Amara and recommends a different action plan for resolving the behavioural disorder. The productive and reactive plan is provided in the intervention plan that guides to proceed with future actions (Mitchell, Frazier & Sayer, 2020). The intervention plan includes a proper data collection process and reinforces that are very helpful for behavioural development.

Conclusion

Conclusively it can be stated that the particular case study relies on the psychological disorder of Amara due to social isolation during the pandemic period. A diagnosis process has been mentioned to identify the actual reason for her psychological disorder. The theoretical framework of the formulation model guides the process of treatment and the intervention plan provides a correct path for resolving the issues of Amara. 

References

Journal

Alshahrani, W. (2018). A literature review of healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards patients with mental illness. J Med Res Health Educ2(1), 1-5. Retrieved from: https://www.eartbreak.com/articles/a-literature-review-of-healthcare-professionals-attitudes-towards-patients-with-mental-illness.pdf 

Ayhan, C. H. B., Bilgin, H., Uluman, O. T., Sukut, O., Yilmaz, S., &Buzlu, S. (2020). A systematic review of the discrimination against sexual and gender minority in health care settings. International Journal of Health Services50(1), 44-61. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0020731419885093

Camm-Crosbie, L., Bradley, L., Shaw, R., Baron-Cohen, S., & Cassidy, S. (2019). ‘People like me don’t get support’: Autistic adults’ experiences of support and treatment for mental health difficulties, self-injury and suicidality. Autism23(6), 1431-1441. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1362361318816053 

Clifton, T. E. (2021). The interaction of friendship difficulty and foster status and its association with mental health (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from: https://baylor-ir.tdl.org/bitstream/handle/2104/11613/CLIFTON-THESIS-2021.pdf?sequence=1

HasannezhadReskati, M., Mirzaian, B., & Hosseini, S. H. (2020). Effect of acceptance and commitment-based training on difficulty in emotion regulation and health in women with breast cancer: A clinical trial study. Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences21(4), 22-28. Retrieved from: http://goums.ac.ir/journal/files/site1/user_files_56ad45/m1323-A-10-2949-1-8044e97.pdf 

Henderson, C., &Gronholm, P. C. (2018). Mental health related stigma as a ‘wicked problem’: the need to address stigma and consider the consequences. International journal of environmental research and public health15(6), 1158. Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/15/6/1158/pdf

Hughes, G., Panjawni, M., Tulcidas, P., &Byrom, N. (2018). Student mental health: The role and experiences of academics. Retrieved from: https://derby.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10545/622114/Student+Mental+Health+-+the+role+and+experiences+of+academics.pdf?sequence=3

Júnior, J. G., de Sales, J. P., Moreira, M. M., Pinheiro, W. R., Lima, C. K. T., & Neto, M. L. R. (2020). A crisis within the crisis: The mental health situation of refugees in the world during the 2019 coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. Psychiatry research288, 113000. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc7156944/ 

King, L. (2018). Link lecturers' views on supporting student nurses who have a learning difficulty in clinical placement. British Journal of Nursing27(3), 141-145. Retrieved from: https://bucks.repository.guildhe.ac.uk/id/eprint/17367/1/17367_King.pdf 

Knobloch, L. K., Knobloch?Fedders, L. M., & Yorgason, J. B. (2019). Mental health symptoms and the reintegration difficulty of military couples following deployment: A longitudinal application of the relational turbulence model. Journal of clinical psychology75(4), 742-765. Retrieved from: https://epublications.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1472&context=psych_fac

Milner, K., Crawford, P., Edgley, A., Hare-Duke, L., & Slade, M. (2020). The experiences of spirituality among adults with mental health difficulties: a qualitative systematic review. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences29. Retrieved from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/ADE2530ED239C4A12DCFA540611BBF74/S2045796019000234a.pdf/div-class-title-the-experiences-of-spirituality-among-adults-with-mental-health-difficulties-a-qualitative-systematic-review-div.pdf

Mitchell, L. L., Frazier, P. A., & Sayer, N. A. (2020). Identity disruption and its association with mental health among veterans with reintegration difficulty. Developmental psychology56(11), 2152. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300608/

Pollock, A., Campbell, P., Cheyne, J., Cowie, J., Davis, B., McCallum, J., ... & Maxwell, M. (2020). Interventions to support the resilience and mental health of frontline health and social care professionals during and after a disease outbreak, epidemic or pandemic: a mixed methods systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (11). Retrieved from: https://www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD013779/pdf/full

Vargas, S. M., Huey Jr, S. J., & Miranda, J. (2020). A critical review of current evidence on multiple types of discrimination and mental health. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry90(3), 374. Retrieved from: https://midus.wisc.edu/findings/pdfs/2109.pdf 

Willets, L. (2018). Exploring the impact of personal therapy and factors that affect disclosure of mental health difficulties in applied psychology trainees (Doctoral dissertation, University of Liverpool). Retrieved from:

Websites

bristolcbt (2022). the-nine-part-model-dyadic-formulation, Available at: https://www.bristolcbt.co.uk/publications/the-nine-part-model-dyadic-formulation/ [Accessed on 25th April 2022]

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