Psychological Assignment Case Study

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Introduction of Psychological Case Study

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According to the case Miss K lives in a flat in London and she has been diagnosed with schizophrenia and BPAD. This is representing the fact that she is not mentally stable as well as she had some psychological disorder. Some of the risk factors like self-harm and suicidal tendency were associated with the mental condition of Miss K, which is described as the risk factor in this case study. The history of Miss K is also disclosed in this case study to understand the genetic inheritance of the mental health issues in her family.It is a genetic disorder. If the one parent of the patient has this disorder, there is a 10% chance to inherit this disorder to the patient by 10%. However, if both the parents have schizophrenia, there is a 40% chance of inheritance. This essay aims to understand the role of different treatment techniques to heal the patient who is suffering from schizophrenia and BPAD. The connection between the different models and the techniques is also discussed. Psychological issues are growing a huge amount with the progression of the time. The overall case study is based on the mental health of Miss K and the possible treatment for these patients.Proper planning is very important for improving the health condition of the patient. Hence, the improvement of the mental and physical health of the patient is very important.

2. Criteria 1

The psychological need was a part of this case study (Faden, 2019). Their psychological needs expressed the mental condition of Miss K. Within these criteria 1, the death of the parents of Miss K was chosen as the most impactful incident on her mental condition. Miss K has a family history of schizophrenia. This can be the main cause of her mental condition. However, miss K, lives in a flat in London, alone. Her patent decreased, and her sister lives away from her. These are other reasons for her mental condition. However, during isolation due to COVID 19 restrictions, she felt down and lonely. This was another reason for her condition (Correll and Schooler, 2020). As per this, she became completely alone and started to live in a flat in London. She faced mental depression and anxiety after the death of her parents. This is the beginning of her mental disorder, which comes out as schizophrenia with the progression over time. This condition also develops poor physical, mental, and cognitive health. It also causes depression and anxiety.This thing boosts her mental disorder in her as a result she became a BPAD patient(Brain et al. 2018). Hence, it can be said that being lonely and having mental distress are related to each other. If a person is lonely, the person can develop a mental disorder. On the other hand, mental distress of a person can cause loneliness of the person. Hence, it is very important to overcome loneliness in order to maintain mental health. In the present case, loneliness was the major issue for the development of schizophrenia in Miss K.The communication gap between her sister and the other family members made her completely isolated from the social activity, which is the prime reason behind her mental disorder. However, it can also be said that loneliness also plays a very important role in developing schizophrenia. Social detachment from society is a common cause of every mental patient. This case study is showing the fact that society and friends; the family can keep a person mentally strong. This is showing the fact that A Pearson needs family and social support for mental growth as well as physical growth. Social connections are very helpful to develop a positive bond between individuals. Healthy relations among people can be very helpful to reduce the stress of a person. Chemicals like dopamine and serotonin are helpful to reduce stress (Potkin, et al. 2020).

The bio-psychosocial model (Engel 1980) has been described below-

There are several biological and psychological problems found in this case. The patient lives alone. Her friends confirmed that she does not want to eat or drink anything. However, after physical diagnosis her, no severe physical health condition is not found in her.

However, Miss K is suffering from several mental problems. She has been developed schizophrenia. She is a lonely person (Kane, et al. 2019). She has no connection with her parents or sister. She does not even have a very good relationship with her friends and neighbours. She had poor speech. There was also a risk of self-harm. She heard a voice, “kill kill kill” and she had thoughts of causing harm to other people.

3. Criteria 2

From the development of the symptoms to the formation of chronic schizophrenia, everything is described in this case study. Home treatment was allocated for Miss K in the initial stages for the betterment of her mental condition. Self-help or home therapy can be very important to maintain psychological factors. Home Treatment is very impactful for the initial stage. The focus of the treatment includes mainly the psychological need of the patent for her mental health improvement. She may need to build a strong relationship with society and her sister. This can be helpful for her to reduce her loneliness.

The psychological cognitive theory was also used in these criteria for the proper analysis of the mental condition of Miss K to find out the possible path for the treatment of her mental condition. Person-based cognitive therapy was used under these criteria to provide temporary relief to the patient (Oliveira et al. 2019). This PBCT is made up of the summation of different cognitive theories (Potkin, et al. 2020). This includes different therapies for the treatment of Schizophrenia and all other diseases. The case study also revealed that she faced different kinds of hallucinations, which was a part of Schizophrenia In this case; PBCT can only provide mental support to Miss K. As per the case study, the whole scenario of the situation is analysed with the help of PBCT. PBCT was used in this case because it has different aims to treat menstrual patients. Evaluation of the effect of Schizophrenia, the role of the "Sense of self" and providing the proper help are some of the main aims of this strategy. The analysis of the role of PBCT helped a lot to understand the role of the PBCT and in which way it helped a lot to provide relief to Miss K. “Sense of self” of this strategy helps the patient to accept the mental condition she has which makes them mentally strong. Hence, it can be said that this therapy can be helpful for miss K to maintain her mental problems. According to the case study, miss K hears some voices and these voices make her more violent. However, this technique can provide mental support to deduce her health issue.

Biological Intervention: the patient had a history of Osteoarthritis in 2016. She has been provided 10mg of Citalopram. Osteoarthritis is a common disease at old age. Hence, the patient must take care of this disease. Besides, she does not have any known allergies. This is very important for preparing for her biological intervention. However, it can be said that she must take care of her biological health as well to have a healthy life.

Social intervention: as mentioned before miss K was a nurse in a hospital. However, according to her statement, she was not going to work for a few weeks. Besides, her social life is not good. She loves to live alone in her flat (Lieberman, et al. 2019). She does not have any contact with her sister. Besides, she does not even have a connection with her neighbour as well. Therefore, it is very important for her to be involved in social activities. In order to do that support from her family and friends, can be very helpful for the improvement of her mental condition. She must be involved in social gatherings. Her sister must be convinced to visit her often.

Psychological intervention: “Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy” or MBCT can be very helpful in this case. Miss K has schizophrenia and hears voices. This therapy can be very helpful in this case. This therapy can be applied to those people who hear voices. Besides, physical activities can be helpful for her.

4. Criteria 3

In criteria 3, the view and the opinion are taken from the patient and here the patient is Miss K. After her admission to the hospital, she got proper treatment and mental support from the medical professionals; as a result, she got the recovery. She was provided Sertraline 50mg. However, when the GP diagnosed her next, she was provided citalopram in stade of Sertraline. After the physical and mental treatment, miss K became a settled and calm mental condition. According to her, she became very happy after the proper medication as well as the proper treatment. At the same time, she was also depressed about the fact that her mental condition creates a negative impact on her family, which is not beneficial for her and her family (du Sert et al. 2018). The impact of the treatment and the models, in this case, is also analysed with the help of Miss K’s review. According to her, their mental condition improved because she got daily contact with her sister. She also mentioned that her neighbour’s and colleagues also gave her mental support during her recovery time (Barnett et al. 2019).

Different kind of medication was performed during the treatment. For example, “Amlodipine” is associated with the blood pressure medication and the dose of this medication was lowered to the %mg to avoid the side effect of the previous dose which made her “hypotensive”. Different kinds of breathing exercises, music listening, and going shopping every step put a positive effect on the patient has been seen. Janet chose mainly the drug treatment for her treatment over the CBT. “Sertraline” was one of the most useful drugs during the treatment of Miss K Exercise is very helpful to reduce anxiety, negative mood, and depression and it improves self-esteem. Hence, this is very important to maintain mental health. Besides, listening to music is very important to improve mood. This is also helpful to improve cognitive functions. Hence, depression and anxiety can be reduced by listening to music (McCutcheon, et al. 2020).

Evaluation: after the intervention, Miss K had some improvements in her. Her physical and mental health improved. After the intervention, Miss K did not tend to harm her and others. The voices in her head were less frequent. Her present mental condition became calm and settled. No violence has been observed after the treatment. Besides, her physical health has also improved. There is no other physical problem found after treatment. However, she was not eating properly (Bendtsen, et al. 2020). Hence, it can be said that long-term support is very important for Miss K. long-term support can be helpful to maintain the stable mental condition and physical health of the patient.

5. Criteria 4

“The Mental health Act” is one of the most important ethical legislation In the UK that is very helpful to ensuring the mental health of the people.The rights of a person are also associated with this act. According to the act, the mental patient needs the proper and quick treatment for recovery. Urgent treatment is done in this case because the risk factors like the self-harm and suicidal nature of the mental patient are harmful to this society (Chen et al. 2020). There are different sections are present under this act. Hence, it can be said that this act is very important to improve the rights of the people to treat their mental health. However, in this case, miss K was suffering from a mental disorder. However, this act ensures the security of the treatment of her mental health condition. According to this act, urgent treatment of mental patients must be provided. All the mental issues and the legal obligations associated with these mental health issues come under this act. As per the report, she was mentally weak and she was seeking mental support but the communication gap made her lonely as a result the mental trauma and the anxiety turns into schizophrenia and BPAD. This act helped her by providing quick and proper treatment to medical professionals. After their admission to the hospital, she was completely treated as per this act. The mental health act shows the importance of the proper treatment of mentally disabled people

6. Ethical issues

According to this section of that act, a relative should take care of the mental patient. That relative or the relatives cannot deny taking care of their patient.

“Nursing and Midwifery Council '' or NMC, 2018 guidelines are very important to maintain the professional standards of health care services in the UK. It promotes the safety and healthcare facility of the public. These guidelines are very helpful to maintain trust and professionalism of the health care service providers (Rony, 2021). However, according to these guidelines, the health care service providers must maintain ethical issues during their work. However, the treatment of mental health patients always very needs separate attention for society and health care services providers.

Mental Capacity act”was also applied in this case study during the treatment of Miss K. The mental capacity act of (2005) in the UK covers those mental patients who were not able to make their own decisions. According to the medical professionals, she was not able to take the decision of herself which is the reason behind the application of the “Mental capacity Act” during the treatment of Miss k (Wright, 2022). The mental capacity of the patient is judged before the application of this act and after the proper analysis of the mental situation of the patient this act is applied to them. As a result, she felt better than in her previous mental health condition. This is the reason the ethical issues are given priority in this whole essay to understand the function of the different acts in the mental health care system. In the present case, the social relationship of Miss K is not well. Hence, she has no connection with her sister, friends and neighbours. Due to her schizophrenia, her social skills became very poor. Hence, it was very important for her to have treatment at the mental hospital. However, according to nhs.uk, (2022) “The Mental health Act” ensures the treatment of the patients irrespective of the culture and status of the patient. Hence, it was very important for Miss K.

7. Conclusion

The whole essay is based on the mental health disorder of Miss K. she is suffering from schizophrenia and BPAD both of which are big mental issues. The reasons behind this mental disorder from family issues to loneliness are clearly described in the previous points. The treatment procedure of Miss K, the proper medication treatment is also analysed in criteria number three. The dose compensation of the medicine is also mentioned which helped her lot to recover from her mental disorder without any side effects. In the last two criteria of the essay, the legal acts and the ethical issues are briefly described, which provide a concrete idea about the role of the acts during the treatment of a mental patient. “The Mental health Act” ensures the treatment of the patients irrespective of the culture and status of the patient. Hence, it was very important for Miss K. The whole case study is based on the mental condition and the treatment of Miss K who leaves in a flat in the UK lonely but the topic analysis applies to every mental patient who is suffering from the same kind of mental issues. This essay is the representation of the problems of mental health issues and the procedure to overcome these issues.

References

Barnett, P., Mackay, E., Matthews, H., Gate, R., Greenwood, H., Ariyo, K., Bhui, K., Halvorsrud, K., Pilling, S., and Smith, S., (2019) Ethnic variations in compulsory detention under the Mental Health Act: a systematic review and meta-analysis of international data. The Lancet Psychiatry6(4), pp.305-317.

Bendtsen, M., Müssener, U., Linderoth, C. and Thomas, K., 2020.A mobile health intervention for mental health promotion among university students: randomized controlled trial.JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 8(3), p.e17208.

Brain, C., Kymes, S., DiBenedetti, D.B., Brevig, T. and Velligan, D.I., (2018).Experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of caregivers of individuals with treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a qualitative study. BMC psychiatry18(1), pp.1-13.

Chen, S., Jones, P.B., Underwood, B.R., Moore, A., Bullmore, E.T., Banerjee, S., Osimo, E.F., Deakin, J.B., Hatfield, C.F., Thompson, F.J. and Artingstall, J.D., (2020).The early impact of COVID-19 on mental health and community physical health services and their patients’ mortality in Cambridgeshire and Peterborough, UK. Journal of psychiatric research131, pp.244-254.

Correll, C.U. and Schooler, N.R., (2020). Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Review and Clinical Guide for Recognition, Assessment, and Treatment. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment.

duSert, O.P., Potvin, S., Lipp, O., Dellazizzo, L., Laurelli, M., Breton, R., Lalonde, P., Phraxayavong, K., O'Connor, K., Pelletier, J.F. and Boukhalfi, T., 2018. Virtual reality therapy for refractory auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: a pilot clinical trial. Schizophrenia Research197, pp.176-181.

Faden, J., (2019). Treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a brief overview of treatment options. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry80(4), p.21540.

Kane, J.M., Agid, O., Baldwin, M.L., Howes, O., Lindenmayer, J.P., Marder, S., Olfson, M., Potkin, S.G. and Correll, C.U., (2019).Clinical guidance on the identification and management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The Journal of clinical psychiatry80(2), p.2783.

Lieberman, J.A., Small, S.A. and Girgis, R.R., 2019. Early detection and preventive intervention in schizophrenia: from fantasy to reality.American Journal of Psychiatry, 176(10), pp.794-810.

Oliveira, P., Coroa, M. and Madeira, N., (2019).Treatment options for insomnia in schizophrenia: a systematic review. Pharmacopsychiatry52(04), pp.165-169.

Potkin, S.G., Kane, J.M., Correll, C.U., Lindenmayer, J.P., Agid, O., Marder, S.R., Olfson, M. and Howes, O.D., (2020).The neurobiology of treatment-resistant schizophrenia: paths to antipsychotic resistance and a roadmap for future research. NPJ schizophrenia6(1), pp.1-10.

Potkin, S.G., Kane, J.M., Correll, C.U., Lindenmayer, J.P., Agid, O., Marder, S.R., Olfson, M. and Howes, O.D., (2020).The neurobiology of treatment-resistant schizophrenia: paths to antipsychotic resistance and a roadmap for future research. NPJ schizophrenia6(1), pp.1-10.

Rony, M.K.K., 2021. Diploma in Nursing or Bachelor of Science in Nursing: Contradictory issues among nurses in Bangladesh.Belitung Nursing Journal, 7(1), pp.57-58.

Wright, F., (2022) .Making Good of Crisis: Temporalities of Care in UK Mental Health Services. Medical Anthropology, pp.1-14.

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