Infectious Disease And Long Term Condition Assignment Sample

Navigating Infectious Diseases and Long-Term Conditions: Assignment Analysis

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Introduction Of Infectious Disease And Long Term Condition

Type 2 diabetes is chronic and common diseases in India are you doing is characterized by the high levels of blood sugar. It can be found that Type 2 diabetes mellitus is also gold adult-onset diabetes (Galicia-Garciaet al. 2020). The reason behind this name is it begins to develop in humans during middle and last adulthood. However,nowadays children and teens are also developing this condition. It is more common than type one diabetes and different than that. In India, almost 77 million people above 18 years old suffer from type-2 diabetes and the number of prediabetic people is approximately 25 million (Berbudiet al. 2020).

Tuberculosis or TB is an infectious disease that official dealerships spirit this is Tim and lungs which is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis species of bacteria. It spreads through air and infected people while coughing sneezing and spitting. Tuberculosis is a really common disease all over the world and 25% of the global population is estimated to have been infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, Roden & Shulman (2019) argued that only five to 10% of the infected people develop the disease. In certain countries such as India, a vaccine consistsBacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) did you know has been given 2 the babies to Prevent the disease. This report is going to talk about the symptoms prevention diagnosis treatment and statistical data of these two diseases.

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Type-2 Diabetes

Brief description of Type-2 Diabetes and summary of the prevalence and causes of this condition/issue

Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that can be caused when our pancreas cannot produce enough amount of insulin or when the body cannot use the insulin effectively (Diverset al. 2020). Insulin is a hormone that regulates and maintains the blood sugar level. Barronet al. (2020) stated that Type-2 diabetes is a symptom of hyperglycemia when the blood sugar is getting high and the effect of this is uncontrolled diabetes that can severely damage body parts and nerves or blood vessels.

After eating food the digestion system begins. According to Cannon et al. (2020), the carbohydrates are then broken down into sugars and glucose. Glucose gives energy to body cells and provides energy for one working them stop the hormone insulin trouble through the blood with the glucose and penetrate the cell and help them to indeed the glucose (Harvard Health Publishing, 2022). Gregory et al. (2021) opined that high blood sugar levels are a hallmark of diabetes type 2, a chronic metabolic condition caused by the body's ineffective utilisation of insulin. Cardiovascular illness, nerve damage, kidney damage, eye damage, and foot damage are long-term effects of type 2 diabetes.

The causes of diabetes in India are complex and include socioeconomic factors like poverty and limited access to healthcare, genetic predisposition, lifestyle factors such poor foods and sedentary behaviour, and lifestyle factors like sedentary behavior (Gurunget al. 2020). In India, a significant majority of those who have diabetes are undiagnosed, which can result in complications and worse health consequences.

Why Type-2 Diabetes present a public health problem considering the physical, psychological and socio/economic impacts

Due to its high prevalence and the resulting physical, psychological, and socioeconomic effects, diabetes poses a serious public health issue in India. With a current estimated prevalence of 77 million people living with diabetes and a predicted increase to 134 million by 2045, India has been dubbed the “diabetes capital of the world” (International Diabetes Federation, 2021). Drucker (2020) also stated that a lack of awareness, inadequate screening, and subpar disease management contribute to India's high prevalence of diabetes.

Diabetes has major physical effects since it may cause several issues that affect different organs including the heart, kidneys, eyes, and nerves (Oguntibeju, 2019). In India, diabetic complications bear a hefty share of the cost of illness and death. Over 40% of cases of end-stage renal disease are caused by diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic retinopathy is a major contributor to blindness (Goyal & Jialal, 2022). Additionally, cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks and strokes, which account for one-third of all fatalities in India, are significantly increased by diabetes (World Health Organisation, 2018).

Diabetes's psychological effects are frequently disregarded, although they are just as significant. Pearson, (2019) argued that significant lifestyle changes are needed to manage diabetes, but they can be difficult to keep up over time, which can result in poor treatment compliance, poor glycemic control, and a reduced quality of life. Due to the strain and difficulty of treating their disease, people with diabetes may also feel depressed, anxious, or socially isolated (Targher et al. 2021).

As argued by Artasensi et al. (2020), the effects of diabetes on society and the economy are very significant. Diabetes is an expensive condition to treat, and those who have it frequently struggle financially because of the price of supplies, hospital stays, and prescriptions (Tripathy et al. 2017). Additionally, Goyal & Jialal (2022) mentioned that complications from diabetes can result in diminished productivity, increased absenteeism, and premature mortality, all of which can have a significant impact on the economy of the country.

In India, public health initiatives to combat diabetes have mostly centred on raising awareness through campaigns, screening initiatives, and bettering access to care. The Indian government has started a number of initiatives, such as the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Stroke (NPCDCS), which aims to prevent and control non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, through a comprehensive approach to health promotion, disease prevention, and early detection (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2021). The Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) programme, which aims to give the general population access to inexpensive generic pharmaceuticals, is another action the government has taken to improve access to important medications and supplies, such as insulin (Targher et al. 2021).

How Type-2 Diabetes is being addressed by public health organisations and policies in India

In a developing economy like India, The main cause of continuous growth of type-2 diabetes is obesity due to unhealthy lifestyles (Wagner et al. 2021). The other concerning matter is that among this huge people, approximately 57% were undiagnosed. The increasing count of type 2 diabetes provokes the fearsome experience of multiorgan diseases to consist of microvascular and macrovascular organ disorders (Anjana et al., 2017). On the other hand, Taylor, Al-Mrabeh, & Sattar (2019) highlighted that 90%of cases of diabetes are caused by type 2 diabetes. An epidemiological transition has been happening in India that is causing a decrease in the mortality rate by communicable, maternal, nonmetal and nutritional diseases (CMNNDs) and increasing the rate of mortality by NCDs and injuries (Pivariet al. 2019).

The burden of diabetes in India it’s continuously increased since 1990 and it got accelerated since 2000 (Tandon et al. 2018). As per IDF the diabetes prevalence in India has increased from 7.1% in 2009 two 8.9% in 2019 (International Diabetes Federation, 2019). In 2019, India hold the rank of second after China in diabetes patients.12.1 million people who belong to the group under 65 years old are suffering from type 2 diabetes so stop approximately 43.9 million people which is nearly 57% of the adults according to all diabetes patients are undiagnosed (Misra et al. 2006). Port regarding diabetes in India by the “Indian Council of Medical Research” showed that 3.5% to 8.7% of people from rural areas and nearly 5.8% to 15.5% of people in urban areas are affected by diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2022).

In order to combat the increased prevalence of diabetes, public health organisations and policies in India have undertaken a variety of initiatives. The National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Stroke (NPCDCS), which was introduced by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in 2010, is one of the main tactics (Mohan & Pradeepa, 2021). The programme offers a complete package of treatments, including screening, diagnosis, treatment, and management, with the goal of preventing and controlling non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including diabetes.

A number of initiatives have been put in place under the NPCDCS to enhance healthcare access and diabetes control (Tigga & Garg, 2020). These include building district hospitals up to offer services for NCDs, opening NCD clinics at primary health centres, and enhancing the ability of healthcare professionals to manage diabetes. The programme has also educated Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) to screen and refer diabetic patients to medical facilities. Another example is the National Health Mission that was established in 2013 with the goal of offering all Indians access to high-quality, affordable healthcare. Mesinovic et al. (2019) stated that by enhancing the network of primary health centres and offering training to healthcare professionals, the mission has improved the primary healthcare system.

The government has put measures into place to enhance diabetes management and prevention. For instance, the Food Safety and Standards Act of 2006 govern the production, handling, and sale of food items in the nation with a goal of lowering the consumption of unhealthful foods (, 2023). The Eat Right India initiative, which aims to encourage healthy eating practises and lower intake of salt, sugar, and harmful fats, has also been established by the government. However, the fight against diabetes in India still faces a number of obstacles, notwithstanding these measures. One of the biggest obstacles is the general public's lack of knowledge and education regarding diabetes, which can cause delays in diagnosis and subpar care of the illness. Riddle et al. (2022) also argued that access to treatment and management may be hampered by the high cost of diabetes care and the widespread lack of insurance coverage.

Tuberculosis (TB)

Brief description of Tuberculosis (TB) and summary of the prevalence and causes of this condition/issue

Tuberculosis or TB is an infectious disease that is mostly affects our respiratory system or the lungs and caused by a bacteria named Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Sathiyamoorthyet al. 2020). It can infect through the air when it is passage or distributed by infected people with their coughing sneezing and spitting. Burugina Nagaraja et al. (2021) argued that tuberculosis is a preventable and curable disease. Yadav, John & Menon (2019) stated 25% of the global population has been infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis in their lifetime. However, only five to 10% of people develop the disease and the symptoms of the whole population (Lohiyaet al. 2020). Willgert et al. (2023) opined that to prevent TB some countries like India gave Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine to babies or small children. Mazumdar Satyanarayana & Pai (2019) supported this as this vaccine can prevent from outside but if the disease infects our lungs then the vaccine is not effective.

Numerous factors, such as poverty, malnutrition, unfavourable living conditions, and a high prevalence of other infectious diseases like HIV, contribute to India's high TB burden (Daryabor et al. 2020). Inadequate infrastructure for TB testing, limited access to healthcare in some areas, and poor adherence to treatment regimens are further difficulties with TB diagnosis and treatment (Dhamnetiyaet al. 2021). Khan et al. (2020) mentioned the rise of drug-resistant TB strains, which are more challenging and expensive to treat, further exacerbates these difficulties.

Why Tuberculosis present a public health problem considering the physical, psychological and socio/economic impacts

TB presents a significant public health problem in India due to its physical, psychological, and socio-economic impacts (Salhotra et al. 2021). In case TB is not treated, it can lead to significant lung damage and have an impact on the kidneys, brain, and other organs. According to Arinaminpathy et al. (2020), due to the disease's link to deprivation and marginalisation, TB also has a substantial psychological impact since sufferers may experience stigmatisation. The socio-economic effects of TB are particularly important; patients frequently experience loss of income and productivity in addition to expensive treatment-related medical expenses (, 2022).

Aruldhas et al. (2019) stated that high incidence of TB and the difficulties in treating it make it a serious public health issue in India. Poverty, malnutrition, and crowded living circumstances all contribute to India's high TB burden by making the illness easier to spread (Udwadia & Pinto, 2018). Furthermore, TB is frequently linked to stigma and discrimination, which can deter people from seeking treatment and aid in the spread of the illness (Basu et al., 2017).

Public health organisations and policies have concentrated on a number of initiatives to address the TB issue in India, including bettering access to diagnosis and treatment, enhancing TB monitoring, and encouraging community-based care (Udwadia & Pinto, 2018). Launched in 1997 to offer patients in India free TB diagnosis and treatment, the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) has now been expanded to include all-inclusive TB care services (Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2017). The National Strategic Plan for TB Elimination and the National TB Programme Management Guidelines are two further government initiatives that have been put into place to enhance TB prevention and care (World Health Organization, 2022).

Despite these initiatives, India still faces a number of obstacles in the fight against TB, including limited access to high-quality care, frail health systems, and insufficient funding for TB control initiatives (Basu et al., 2017). A growing issue in India is drug-resistant TB, which need specialised care and management (Udwadia & Pinto, 2018). As argued by Vesga et al. (2019), to meet these difficulties, public health organisations and policies will need to work together continuously, with an emphasis on tackling the underlying socio-economic determinants of TB.

How Tuberculosis is being addressed by public health organisations and policies in India

Several findings regarding mycobacterium tuberculosis that consist of the early identification of different individuals with three alarms give signals of tuberculosis in the primary stage of contact with the medication by the prompt action of diagnosis using a highly sensitive determination test (Sachdeva, 2020).

The perceived case finding refers to the person that is initiated to the diagnosis of tuberculosis (Huddartet al. 2020). It involves systematic screening of people with symptoms and facilitates the people for planning and identification of individuals at risk (Padayatchi et al., 2019). Active case finding means a systematic screening for people who are already diagnosed with TB and at-risk populations it implements the outside health facilities search his community and neighborhood safety (Maveet al. 2021).According to TBC India, in 2022, the pre-assumptive Debbie examination rates for India increased up to 1202 people per 1,00,000 popular syndrome 676 which was therefore in the population of 2020 (Jain et al. 2020). It also increased 68% the population of infected persons in 2021 stop this is the number after being diagnosed with rapid molecular diagnostic tests (Jainet al. 2020).

In 2022, India song the highest number of TV cases about 224.2 lakh leading according to the notification rate from 153 in 2021 to 172 in Part 1 lakhspopulation ( 2023). As stated by Prathiksha et al. (2019), most of the union territories and states reported a huge increase in the number of TB Saints in 2022 compared to previous years. In the private sector, the report find out for 2022 52 cases per one lakh population which is the highest ever achieved under the tuberculosis program ( 2023).

Singh & Kumar (2019) suggests that to combat TB, India has established several policies and programmes. The biggest TB control programme in the world, the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP), was established in 1997 ( 2023). The programme seeks to eliminate barriers to detection and treatment of TB while also lowering disease-related mortality and morbidity.

The Indian government has put in place a number of initiatives under the RNTCP, including free diagnosis and treatment, enhanced surveillance and monitoring, and raised public awareness (Garget al. 2020). In order to make sure that patients follow their drug regimens, the programme has also adopted the use of directly observed therapy, short-course (DOTS).

India has put in place a number of measures in addition to the RNTCP to address the societal causes of TB (Bhargavaet al. 2019). The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, one of the government's several initiatives to reduce poverty, offers rural households living below the poverty line a minimum of 100 days of employment. The government has also launched a number of initiatives to combat malnutrition, which increases the chance of developing TB.

Thakur, Thakur & Thakur (2021) argues that the fight against TB in India still faces a number of obstacles in spite of these initiatives. The rise of drug-resistant TB strains, which are more challenging to cure and need lengthier treatment regimens, is one of the major concerns. According to Bardhan et al. (2021), significant gaps exist in the diagnosis and treatment of TB as well, particularly among vulnerable groups including those with HIV and those living in slum regions.

The National Strategic Plan for Tuberculosis Elimination, one of the major efforts the Indian government has launched to address these issues, intends to eradicate tuberculosis by 2025 (Gupta, Ish, & Malhotra, 2022). The strategy calls for a number of actions, such as improving the use of molecular diagnostics, developing new treatments for drug-resistant TB, and boosting access to care for the disease in high-risk communities.


In this report, we discussed long-term health conditions which are type 2 diabetes mellitus and a severe disease that is tuberculosis. In this report, we discuss the symptoms way of prevention and treatment and the causes of those two diseases. In this report, we also discuss the data regarding these two conditions in India. India is a disease-born country which is fighting against these two diseases. This report analyzes detailed information on the data of these two severe diseases.


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