Infectious Disease And Long-Term Conditions Assignment Sample

Exploring the Intersection of Infectious Diseases and Long-Term Conditions: Assignment Analysis

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Introduction Of Infectious Disease And Long-Term Conditions

Infectious diseases are physical disorders developed by various organisms such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi (Mayo Clinic, 2022a). Various organisms live on and in human bodies and they are generally harmless and even helpful. However, under certain circumstances and conditions, different organisms. Various infectious diseases could be transformed from one individual to another while some are transmitted through various insects or other animals. An individual may also get the infectious disease through the consumption of different contaminated water or food or being exposed to various organisms in their surroundings (Cleveland Clinic, 2023a).

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Different infectious diseases also have long-term conditions and developed as concerning issues in various countries. In this report, a brief description of pneumonia and its long-term condition such as Asthma has been given with a description of the cause and prevalence of these conditions in India. A critical examination considering why these diseases developed public health problems in terms of psychological, socio-economic, and physical impacts. Lastly, how India has addressed these conditions through policy measures and public health institutions or organisations and various challenges that still remain to be addressed by India also be discussed here.


1. “Brief description of the infectious disease and long-term condition, and in both cases summarise the prevalence and causes of this condition/issue in your chosen country context.”

1.1 Brief description of pneumonia and its long-term condition - Asthma

The infectious disease - pneumonia

Pneumonia is one of the prevalent infectious diseases that mainly affect human lunges and cause inflammation in the air sacs of one or both lungs. The air sacs of the lungs could fill with pus (purulent material) or fluid, producing cough with pus or phlegm, chills, difficulty breathing, and fever (Mayo Clinic, 2020). A set of organisms, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi, could develop pneumonia. Pneumonia could range in seriousness from slight to life-threatening for humans. This is the most threatening disease for young children and infants, adults beyond the age of 65, and individuals with weakened immune systems or health problems.

Symptoms and signs of pneumonia

The symptoms and signs of pneumonia differ from minor to severe, on the basis of various factors including the nature of the germ developing the infection, and age of infected persons and their overall health (Cleveland Clinic, 2023b). Mild symptoms and signs often are related to these the flu or cold, however, they last longer. The symptoms and signs of pneumonia may include:

  • Chest pain when people cough or breathe
  • Changes in psychological awareness or confusion for adults of age 65 years and older
  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Cough, which could develop phlegm
  • Fever, shaking chills, and sweating
  • Body temperature is lower than normal in adults older than age 65 and individuals with weak immune systems
  • Nausea, diarrhoea, and vomiting (Mayo Clinic, 2020).

Asthma, the long-term condition of pneumonia

Asthma is a long-term circumstance of pneumonia that affects both adults and children. It concerns non-communicable diseases and the most prevalent chronic disease for children. The air passageways within the lungs converted to narrow because of the tightening and inflammation of the muscles in the tiny airways. The causes of symptoms of asthma such as wheeze, shortness of breath, cough, as well as chest tightness (WHO, 2023a). Such symptoms are alternating and are frequently inferior during exercise or at night. Other different common causes could make asthma indications inferior. Causes differ from one individual to another individual, however, could include dust, smoke, viral infections (colds), fumes, variations in the weather, tree pollen and grass, animal feathers and fur, strong perfume and soaps.

Asthma is habitually under-treated and under-diagnosed, predominantly in middle and low-income nations including India. Individuals with under-diagnosed and under-treated asthma could undergo tiredness throughout the day, poor concentration, and sleep disturbance (Mayo Clinic, 2022b). People who suffer from Asthma and their family members may miss work and school, with economic bearing on the household and broader community. If indications are severe, individuals with asthma could be required to receive alternative health care as well as they could be admitted to healthcare institutions for monitoring and treatment. In the utmost severe circumstances, asthma could lead to death.

1.2 The prevalence and cause of conditions in India

Asthma and pneumonia are prevalent diseases that are widespread among the communities of India. Both the diseases are a result of the respiratory disorders and the prevalence rate is quite among the major population of India. Asthma is caused due to the inflammation of the air channels causing a major issue for breathing and symptoms that includes sneezing and nausea (El-Razek et al. 2021).

As per the reports of the Lancet Respiratory Medicine, asthmatic symptoms were prevalent among the majority of the population which stands at a rate of 2.4% in the year 2016. The variation of the occurrence of asthma holds a significant rate for the urban areas in comparison to the rural regions of India. The study conducted for the analysis of the prevalence rate has been major among Kolkata that reflects a rate of 5.95% (, 2023). A similar study conducted in Maharashtra reflects that the rate of prevalence is quite low for the rural regions with a rate of 1.63%. Based on the analysis of reports, the valuation of cases is prominent among the older population in India which stands at a rate of 10.7 million of the population in the year 2020. It has been forecasted to grow by a figure of 25.4 million cases in the year 2050 (, 2023).

The exact reason for the effective cause of asthma has not been discovered, it is considered to be associated with several factors such as environmental pollution as well as infection of respiratory channels. Based on the survey of IJCDA in the year 2013, the cause for asthma was found to be effective with exposure to pollutants in the indoor environment due to the cooking process which requires the ignition of biomasses. The studies of the American Lung Association reflect that asthma is caused due to increase in sensitivity to allergens, habits of smoking, and also due to genetic adaptation as observed from the family history (, 2023). Moreover, asthmatic symptoms and their prevalence among the population of India is quite significant based on the infection rate in the community.

Long-term pneumonia is a significant reason for the increase in mortality rate among children in India belonging to the age group of 5 years. Based on the reports for the survey for National Health Profile, the increase in the number of cases has been significant in its rate with an increase of 9.2 lakh cases in the year 2018 (Dhochak & Kabra, 2021). This is an effective cause for the increase of death for people suffering from pneumonia which stands at an average rate of 11 death cases on a daily basis. Delhi has been affected by the increase in death figures which reflects a valuation of 35%. The causes of long-term pneumonia are specific and last for a longer period of time. This is a chronic disease that affects the respiratory channels and transmits to the other person causing its widespread impact on the community. Critical causes of pneumonia include the weakening of the defense system of the body to deal with infections (Dasgupta et al. 2019). Exposure to air pollutants and residing in damp locations are effective causes for pneumonia. Moreover, the infection rate reflects that pneumonia has been a critical disease that has affected a majority of the population of India. The increase of death cases accounts for 35% of the major diseases such as pneumonia among the population of India.

2. “Critically examine why these conditions present a public health problem; considering the physical, psychological, and socio/economic impacts.”

2.1 Physical impacts

Pneumonia and asthma are critical respiratory diseases that have an impact on the physical conditions of an individual. The diseases are an effective cause for the public health problem in India as seen from its impact on the community. The cause of pneumonia has been a major issue due to the inflammation of the air channels due to infection on either of the lungs. The consequences can be critical if the diagnosis is not perceived for the treatment of the disease. Pneumonia is also a concerning issue that can cause death due to failure of the respiratory channels.

According to the reports of WHO, 15% of the death cases of children in India have been a result of chronic pneumonia being prevalent among the age groups below 5 years (Wani et al. 2021). The cause of the death cases are due to the poor standards of living, lack of nutrition as well as overcrowding of the population which increases the rate of transmission of pneumonia in the community.

Asthma is also observed as a public health issue for the majority of the population in India. Asthma is also caused due to shortening of the air chamber which causes breathing difficulty issues. The symptoms are also prominent that are noticed through sneezing, tightness of the chest and severe coughing. The physical impacts are also severe in the case of asthma if not treated properly based on medication support. Asthma enhances the chance for the failure of respiratory organs due to insufficient access to healthcare facilities in the community. This can be observed based on the rate of increase of infection estimates to a value of 15 to 20 million among the total population of India suffering from the disease (Kakkad et al. 2022). Both of these diseases need to be reduced in the community by implementing a comprehensive approach for enhancing the reach of healthcare facilities and also increasing awareness in the community.

2.2 Psychological impacts

Asthma and pneumonia have critically impacted the majority of the population in India based on its implication on the public health system. This has resulted in an increase of psychological impacts on an individual suffering from the diseases. Being affected from the disease, an individual usually suffers depression due to seclusion from the activities in the community. As asthma and pneumonia are associated with life threats, it can result in the distress of individuals being anxious from the fear of death.

The psychological impact is also effective for the families of the individual suffering from the disease. The distressed conditions of the family members being suffering from the disease can result in an emotional breakdown. This results in a critical impact that reduces the scope of revival for the patients. Being in a state of active mental health, the chances of recovery from the impact of disease increase. Asthma and pneumonia due to their critical impact on the respiratory channels of an individual might result in serious health issues (Bangalore Thimmadasiah & Joshi, 2020). This affects the mental state of the individuals suffering from the disease to lose for survival.

Exclusion from society can also result in distress of the mind reducing the physical activity of the individuals. An increase of stress as a measure of the fear for the implication of disease can be critical for individuals suffering from asthma and pneumonia. The psychological impact can reduce the exposure of individuals in society and also results in depression (Rajak & Chattopadhyay, 2020). Moreover, the psychological impact of the disease is a critical public health issue in India as the prevalence rate is quite higher in most of the states. These issues need to be addressed by implementing a standard for public healthcare facilities to support the mental state of the individuals.

2.3 Socio/economic impacts

The impact of socioeconomic factors are quite effective when it comes to the critical concern of asthma and pneumonia as a public health issue. The socioeconomic status of the individuals are an effective cause for accessing healthcare facilities. The cost for the treatment is often a matter of concern for the vulnerable communities to facilitate the provision of healthcare facilities. This can be due to a lack of awareness and the reach of the healthcare programs for individuals.

The socioeconomic factors have been significant for the crisis observed in the population which is major among the rural regions (Rashmi et al. 2021). This results in the increased occurrence of asthma and pneumonia to be prevalent in the regions where individuals suffer financial crises in accessing healthcare facilities.

The prevalence of diseases which varies in its range from 60% belonging to the backward classes in the society, reflects that socioeconomic factor is a critical concern for the communities. The cost of treatment has been a major aspect for receiving proper medical support for the patients. Avoidance of symptoms is also an effective socioeconomic factor due to the lack of knowledge for the diseases and the treatment facilities. The lack of support from society is also a major concern for the increase of cases for asthma and pneumonia in India (Seth et al. 2022). The increase of poverty level reduces the scope for receiving treatment facilities. Poor standards of residing in communities increase the scope for getting affected by diseases. Moreover, socioeconomic factors have a potential impact on the increase of asthma and pneumonia among vulnerable communities and the access of treatment facilities.

3. “Critically assess how these conditions are being addressed by public health organisations/institutions and policies in your chosen country. What are the challenges which remain to be addressed?”

3.1 Measures are given by the Indian government to address the condition of pneumonia and asthma

The Government of India has taken various measures in order to address the issues and to reduce the prevalence of both pneumonia and its long-term conditions asthma. The government has focused on mass immunisation in childhood for which the government provides free of cost vaccination for pneumonia for children. According to "World Health Organisation (WHO)" immunisation is the most effective manner in order to eradicate pneumonia for this purpose it is required to immunise children against pneumococcus, measles, whooping cough, and Hib (WHO, 2023b). The Indian government has developed policies to expand its "Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP)" and include the "pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)" program in order to give protection against pneumococcal diseases (MOHFW, 2021). The government of India provides two types of vaccines including the "pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23)" and the "pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13)" in order to provide protection to children against "pneumococcal infections" that are developed by bacteria (Immunize India, 2023). The PCV13 provide protection for thirteen types of "pneumococcal bacteria" while PPSV23 provides protection for 23 types. These vaccines prevent infections among children and also help to stop the spreading of infection.

Apart from the mass immunisation of children to prevent and stop pneumonia, the Indian government also developed social awareness programme to increase awareness against the disease. The government launched “Social Awareness and Actions to Neutralize Pneumonia Successfully (SAANS)” initiatives in November 2019 to boost activities in order to decrease the deaths because of Childhood Pneumonia (NHM, 2023). The SAANS campaign is disentangled across all the Union Territories and states of the country every year in order to accelerate activities against Childhood Pneumonia through the development of public awareness to prevent, protect, and treat diseases. The SAANS program also aims to increase the early identification of Pneumonia and provides care to seek behaviours among caregivers and parents.

In order to deal with asthma the Indian Government has focused on to developed awareness by providing insights about the disease and developing an awareness campaign. While there are several sets of guidelines for managing the symptoms of asthma broadly, significant discrepancies exist among nations in terms of insights, perceptions, and attitudes about asthma as well as its treatment, country-specific educational and cultural requirements, and indicating unmet. The "National College of Chest Physicians (NCCP)" and the "Indian Chest Society (ICS)" jointly provide the current guidelines on asthma in India and pulls all local relevant guidelines for pulmonary and general physicians in the country (Koul and Patel, 2015). Although the guidelines attempt to offer clinicians an evidence-based approach for identifying and treating cases of asthma overall, following the suggestions does not guarantee favourable results for every patient. The relevant healthcare practitioner responsible for medical choices concerning a specific clinical treatment or therapy must make the final decision after discussing the alternatives with the individual being treated, including the treatment and diagnostic options available. The Indian government is recommended to use oral medication such as inhalation instead of "systemic formulations (oral/IV)" as th inhalation is more effective as compared to "systemic formulations (oral/IV)" (IMA-India. (2020).

3.2 Challenges that need to be addressed

The issues unique to the Indian region have been well addressed, including the need for radiographs, the gathering of sputum, the calibre of the sputum, and society, as well as the late admission of hospitalised individuals to hospitals and poor treatment adherence. Urinary detection assays, the lack of treatment for atypical and viral agents, and the issue of MDR HIVTB in the country all need to be addressed. In most of the local settings, the application of scoring systems for admittance as a for-patient or requirement for a unit of intensive care is likewise insufficiently utilised. The government of India needs to be addressed all these issues in order to prevent these diseases.


In earlier times, pneumonia has been described as the commander of the “men of death”. Even while things are not as dire as they could be right now, pneumonia could still have a big negative impact on mortality and morbidity. Individuals of all ages are susceptible to asthma, a prevalent “chronic inflammatory disease” of the lungs that places a heavy cost on sufferers, their households, and society. Asthma is a huge burden, affecting millions of people globally, with roughly ten per cent of those affected residing in India. Asthma affects the functioning of the lungs, reduces the standard of life, costs money, limits routine tasks, and has a negative socioeconomic impact. There are very few indigenous recommendations for pneumonia throughout India overall and in particular.


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