Infectious Diseases Transmission Analysis Assignment Sample

Infectious Diseases: Causes, Transmission & Prevention Strategies in the UK

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Introduction of Infectious Diseases Transmission Analysis Assignment

Infectious diseases have been considered a specific type of disorders that are mainly caused by certain causative agents including bacteria, fungi, and viruses along with parasites. Some infectious diseases such as measles, covid-19, mumps, and tuberculosis are known as communicable diseases, which can be passed from one to another person through direct or indirect contact. In this present assignment sheds light on the transmission of various infectious diseases by finding out the underlying cause of the disease. Additionally, this assignment has highlighted such fundamental disease prevention plans as well as beneficial strategies to overcome infectious disease-related problems and minimize the disease prevalence in the community of the United Kingdom.

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As per the report of the U.K. Government, it has stated that the most common bacterial infectious disease in the United Kingdom is Salmonella as well as Campylobacter. Both two bacteria have been associated due to severe food poisoning. Apart from that, the most prevalently occurring viral infection in the U.K (, 2023) is Norovirus and it has basically transmitted from person to person. As stated by Holland et al. (2020), it has been reflected that 180 deaths have occurred in the U.K. per year due to food-borne diseases based on eleven harmful pathogens. It has been illustrated that 2.4 million food-borne-related cases are estimated in the U.K. per year (Holland et al. (2020). Besides that, depending upon some preferred pathogen models have critically evaluated that every year Salmonella causes 33 deaths, Norovirus causes 56 deaths, Listeria monocytogenes causes 26 deaths, as well as Campylobacter, causes 21 deaths (Holland et al. 2020).

Figure 1: Overview of mortality rate due to various infective pathogens in the U.K.

(Source: Holland et al. 2020)

Cause of infectious diseases

Figure 2: Various causes of infectious disease

(Source: Self-created)


It is a living organism or pathogen with single cells that are mainly responsible in occurring different kinds of infectious diseases. These include tuberculosis and urinary tract infections as well as strep throat, etc (Houlihan and Whitworth, 2019). There are some deadly bacterial infections such as pneumonia, tetanus, botulism, and cholera along with leptospirosis and pseudomonas infections.


Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that are responsible for the prevalence of various skin-related diseases including ring warm as well as athlete’s foot. Apart from that, Fungi drop an adverse impact on the nervous system along with severely affects the lungs (Jenks et al. 2020). Fungal infections are not life-threatening problems that only cause minor effects like skin and nail infections as well as vaginal yeast infections that can be a more serious issue for females if it is overlooked.


Viruses have acted as infectious microbes that contain nucleic acid either RNA or DNA with a protein coat. It can cause several infectious diseases such as the common cold and AIDS which are ranging from mild to severe effectively (Pan et al. 2019). There are such common infectious diseases caused by several harmful viruses including Covid-19, the common cold, and stomach flu (Norovirus) as well as herpes.


Parasites are living things that cause serious infectious diseases malaria, is a life-threatening disease and cannot be treated quickly. It is responsible for occurring parasitic infections that lead to occur sepsis (Wait et al. 2020). The most common parasitic infection across the world is Giardia. In the United States, the prevalently occurring parasitic infection is Pin-warm.

Transmission pathway of Infectious disease

Figure 3: Transmission pathway of infectious disease

(Source: Kim et al. 2019)

Direct transmission

It has been shown that in the direct transmission method, several kinds of infection-causing agents have been transmitted from the reservoir to the susceptible host through direct contact as well as spreading droplets.

Direct contact

Direct contact including skin-to-skin contact and sexual intercourse or kissing is mostly responsible for transmitting various infectious diseases from one susceptible host to another one. Besides that, direct contact has also included contact with water, and soil along with other infectious pathogens based on vegetarian harboring (Collier et al. 2021). Hookworm is an infectious disease that has transmitted by contamination of soil through direct transmission methods.

Droplets spread

Droplet spread is one of the most effective pathways for spreading several infectious diseases rapidly via coughing, sneezing as well as talking within relatively large or short range. It has been considered a direct pathogen transmission method because droplets spray on a few feet before falling into the ground and occur rapid contamination of various life-threatening communicable diseases (Leavitt, 2020). Covid-19 was a life-threatening epidemic disease in 2020 that has been transmitted from one person to another person within a fraction of a second through the direct transmission method.

Indirect transmission

In the case of the indirect transmission method, the causative infectious diseases have been transmitted through air particles, vectors as well as other inanimate objects from the reservoir to the susceptible host.

Airborne disease

Based on the airborne transmission method the infection-causing pathogens are spread out via dust as well as droplet nuclei which are suspended in the air. Measles is an airborne infectious disease that generally occurred among children due to the suspension of the measles virus in the air (Berry et al. 2022).

Vehicle borne disease

Vehicles-borne disease has acted as a specific infectious disease caused by several harmful pathogens via indirect transmission methods. In addition, several causative agents have adopted several paths for disease transmission such as water, fomites, foods as well as various biological products like blood. The hepatitis-A virus has been carried by food along with water (Martello et al. 2022). On the other hand, the presence of Clostridium botulinum within canned food is responsible for producing the botulinum toxin that causes serious health issues.

Vector Borne disease

Vectors-borne diseases include mosquitoes, flies, and ticks that carry different kinds of infectious agents via indirect transmission methods. For example, Shigella has been carried by flies through the mechanical transmission method along with Yersinia Pestis has been carried by fleas, and is a causative pathogen of plagues (Swei et al. 2020).

Disease prevention strategies

Disease prevention and control strategies have been considered the most effective pathway that covers a wider spectrum of social as well as environmental strategies for disease intervention. Along with that, as a volunteer of a renowned charity have to design a constructive infectious disease control strategy to improve people's health as well as foster a quality of life. Additionally, a responsible volunteer of a charity has to address the people's disease condition from where they have suffered (Thompson et al. 2019). Along with that, preventing entire infectious disease-causing routes to overcome ill health by providing special treatment as well as cure. The infectious prevention strategies have included several prevention methods such as “primordial prevention, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention methods (McArthur, 2019). These strategies play a remarkable role not only in preventing the onset of the disease at the initial stage based on the risk reduction process but also in minimizing the susceptible complication of various manifested diseases. Bacteria may last on inert surfaces for a number of weeks or even months. Imagine these disease-causing bacteria existing on light switches, elevator buttons, computer keyboards, and other electrical components. Unexpectedly, most individuals don't know how to wash their hands properly.

The aseptic technique plays a remarkable role in providing control against serious infectious diseases. Additionally, sterilization, as well as a disinfection control strategy, helps to improve patients care. Along with that, it has been recommended by WHO that personal hygiene practices can promote the safety and security of individual health standards.

Several kinds of most important vaccination programs to mitigate the underlying challenges of causative infectious diseases are listed below:

Sl No. Name of the Vaccination Programme Control strategy and vaccine doses quantity Covering age group
1. “Bacillus Calmitte Guerin (BCG) Vaccination Programme” This particular vaccine is not part of routine scheduled vaccination. BCG vaccine has been given to children to reduce the chance of getting tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a serious life-threatening disease that affects various parts of the body including the lungs, brain, muscle joints, and bones along with kidneys (Faust et al. 2019). This vaccine has been given based in dual doses to children aged 0-4 months and 5-9 years respectively.
2. “Covid-19 Vaccination Programme” This vaccination program has been scheduled in almost every part of the world for preventing the further spreading of Corona virus and its effectiveness. The major objective of this specific vaccination program is to protect the health of the entire population from getting higher health-related risks as well as severe health illness or extreme death conditions. This vaccination program has been first launched in 2021 by the government of every country for fighting against Covid-19 during the pandemic situation (Garvey et al. 2021). Covid-19 vaccination has covered almost all age groups of people throughout the world to reduce health-related risks along with minimizing death rates.
3. “Hepatitis B Vaccination Programme” Severe infection of Hepatitis B can be prevented by taking this particular vaccine. Incorporation of the Hepatitis B vaccine to the people is completely safe as well as effective. This vaccination can control recent exposure to people's health by improving individual liver conditions (Leeuwen et al. 2021). Children as well as people who are recently affected by severe Hepatitis B condition.
4. “Rota Virus Vaccination Programme” There is two most effective rotavirus vaccinations that includes "Rota Teq (RV5) and Rotarix (RV1) for infants to overcome this particular virus-generated health problem. The rotavirus vaccination program based on Rota Teq has scheduled 3 individual doses for infants in the age group of 2 months and 4 months along with 6 months respectively. On the other hand, Rotarix has given based on dual doses. The first dose of Rotarix has provided at the age of 2 months and the next dose has given at the age of 4 months. This virus rapidly spreads among infants as well as young children and causes severe diarrhea, fever, excessive vomiting, and abdominal pain (Rafferty et al. 2019). This specific vaccination program has focused on infants as well as young children by covering the age group of 2 months to 6 months.
5. “Polio Vaccination Programme” The Polio Vaccination Programme is a small part of the "NHS routine childhood immunization program" to avoid polio disease among infants as well as children. Children up to 5 years have included under this specific vaccination program. It has been provided in five separate doses including at the age group of 8, 12, and 16 weeks infants. Along with that, the age group of 6 months to 1 year. Besides that, the last part of this present vaccination program has covered the age group 3 years as well as 4-5 years of the preschool booster. Polio is a deadly viral disease that is responsible for leading to paralysis condition among children across the world (Penfold, 2022). UNICEF has provided the Polio vaccine to more than 400 children throughout the world for eliminating this deadly viral disease permanently. Children in the age group of 0-5 years are taken under this program.
6. “Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccination Programme” MMR vaccine has been considered a routinely scheduled vaccine for improving the immune system of children. Additionally, sometimes it has been seen that older children, as well as adults, also get vaccinated by MMR if they are not fully vaccinated at the previous time. Two effective doses of MMR vaccination been having given to children that include first dose of MMR vaccine at the age of 12 to 15 months. On the other hand, a second dose of MMR vaccine has been given to children in the age group of 4 to 6 years. This vaccine has been given to children to boost their immune systems against mumps, measles as well as rubella which are concluded as communicable diseases, spread by direct contact (Torracinta et al. 2021). The target age group of the MMR vaccine is 12 months to 6 years of children.
7. “ Pertussis (Whooping Cough vaccination Programme” This vaccination program mainly covers pregnant women from first trimester to last trimester for enhancing their immune systems. The main aim of this present vaccination program is to make the stronger antibodies that have transferred from mother's body to the infant's body and provide immense protection until their first vaccination is done. This vaccination program has been administered 4 separate booster doses at the age of 6 weeks, 4-8 weeks, and 10-14 weeks along with 14-18 weeks respectively (Sandmann, 2020). The mostly target age group under this vaccination program includes children at the age group of 6 weeks to 18 weeks. Pregnant mothers with different trimesters have also been taken under the coverage area of this particular vaccination program.
8. “Human Papilloma Virus Universal Vaccination Programme” HPV vaccination program plays an important role to overcome the risk of cervical, anal as well as vaginal cancer. HPV vaccine has been considered an early-stage cancer prevention vaccine (Athanasiou et al. 2020). The target audience for HPV vaccination program is young adolescent girls in the age group of 9 to 14 years.
9. “Annual flu Vaccination Programme” The main motto of this particular vaccination program is to offer the best defense against different kinds of serious flues as well as prevent the further outbreak of any flu consequences. The main purpose of this vaccination program is to minimize the severity of individual illness (Davis et al. 2022). According to the WHO guidelines, the target audience of this vaccination program is pregnant women, elderly people, and children in the age group of 6 months to 5 years along with health care personnel.
10. “Diphtheria Vaccination Programme” Based on several age groups, four separate vaccines include “D Tap, DT, Tdap, and Td to mitigate the problems of diphtheria as well as tetanus (Gower et al. 2020). The target audiences under this present vaccination program are children under 5 years and older adults more than 60 years.

Table 1: Different kinds of Vaccination Programmes organized by the charity

(Source: Self-Created)

Importance of national or international organisation in controlling the spread of the infection

The many different “bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses” that may cause infections also result in a large array of infection pathways. Because of this, no one preventative measure can totally stop the spread of infectious illnesses. As an example, WHO has manage different policies to protect individuals from illness and exposure to pathogens, however, there are a few straightforward techniques that may be implemented into daily life.

  • Immunise against infectious disease: One method of preventing infectious illnesses is vaccination. Babies, kids, and adults can receive vaccinations to protect them from deadly and avoidable diseases. The flu is a dangerous condition that can make some individuals very unwell. more than a cold. Both contact and airborne transmission contribute to the fast spread of influenza from one person to another. The greatest way to prevent influenza is through vaccination (Hanson et al., 2020). The seasonal flu vaccination is particularly created to protect against the types most likely to be prevalent next winter since influenza viruses evolve from year to year. It's crucial to be immunised.
  • Provide “wash your hand frequently” slogan: The "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)" advises thoroughly washing your hands for at least 20 seconds while scrubbing them aggressively with soap and water (Zhou et al., 2020). After washing, dry your hands with a paper towel. An alcohol-based hand gel or towel will work if flowing water is not available, but nothing beats just regular soap and water.
  • Aware people to not share personal items: Share no private goods. Towels, razors, tissues, toothbrushes, and nail clippers are all possible sources of infectious pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and fungi). We learned to keep our hands to ourselves when sharing toys in kindergarten. Remember to keep your private belongings to yourself as well (Ghany et al., 2020). Children should be routinely reminded of the kinds of things that should not be shared.
  • Teach people “Cover coughs and sneezes” technique: When you sneeze or cough, cover your mouth. Similarly, to this, maintaining proper personal hygiene entails not only keeping yourself clean but also adhering to the traditional custom of covering your mouth when you cough or sneeze. In the majority of infections, the disease-causing bacteria have already started to divide and reproduce long before symptoms show up. These bacteria can be transmitted via the air through tiny droplets by sneezing and coughing (Lantos et al., 2021). The current guideline is to use your elbow, sleeve, or bent arm to cover your mouth rather than your hands.
  • Use safe cooking practices: Diet and preparation are common contributors to foodborne diseases. Almost all meals include microorganisms, however, foods at room temperature are considerably more conducive to their growth. Most microbial development is slowed or stopped by refrigeration. Within two hours of cooking, refrigerate the dish. Maintain a clean countertop, wash produce thoroughly before eating, and use separate cutting boards for raw meats and vegetables. Pathogens can come from outside sources, such as Raw meat, poultry, fish, and eggs, in addition to the meal itself (Zhao et al., 2020). Also, you should keep raw and cooked foods separate and prepare food properly per the directions if you want to protect yourself and others from food-borne diseases.
  • Keep household surfaces clean: By contacting surfaces or things that have been contaminated by an infected person, some illnesses can be transferred. The spread of illness can be slowed down by routinely cleaning commonly touched home surfaces. Tables, worktops, doorknobs, light switches, toys, and faucets are a few examples of frequently used surfaces. You may use standard home detergent or hot, soapy water to clean the surface. For optimal product use, always abide by the manufacturer's directions (Oliver et al., 2020). If at all feasible, clean the surface with paper towels or disposable towels. After usage, reusable wipes should be cleaned and dried since even slightly moist wipes can harbour germs and viruses.
  • Be a smart traveller: Travelling, especially to impoverished nations, makes it easy to spread contagious illnesses. If there are problems with the water at your location, use bottled water or another safe source to consume and wash your teeth. Consume prepared meals instead of fresh produce and veggies (Carrouel et al., 2020). Last but not least, make sure to get any new shots that are advised or necessary for your location.
  • Exercise caution with animals: Zoonosis, which is the term for infectious illnesses that are spread from animals to people, is more widespread than most people know. If you have pets, make sure they have the most recent immunisations and get them tested on a regular basis. Regularly clean your litter box (unless you're pregnant, in which case, keep away) and also keep young children away from pet waste (Oliver et al., 2021). Rabies, avian flu, plague, and Lyme disease are all carried by different animal species. As a result of fleas and ticks, it could spread infections. Get rid of places where rats and other mammals may congregate or nest, utilise food waste containers that are rodent-proof, and provide simple and appealing access for animals. Plug the holes to make the environment surrounding your home uninviting to animals and rats. Also, instil in young members of your family the importance of exercising caution around wild animals (Ren et al., 2021). Last but not least, always wash your hands after visiting a petting zoo, and make sure your kids do likewise.
  • Do not pick your nose, mouth or eyes: It spreads a number of infectious illnesses in addition to being a social taboo. See how many individuals are holding their hands close to their faces by taking a look around. The warm, wet environment within the nose as well as mucus-covered surfaces like the eyes and mouth are preferred by many microorganisms (Johnson et al., 2021). Avoiding touching these locations will help you avoid illness.


It has been concluded from the above discussion that different disorders are mainly caused by certain infectious agents including bacteria, fungi, and viruses along with parasites. There are some infectious diseases are parts of communicable diseases, which can be passed from one to another person through direct or indirect contact. It has been highlighted in the background of the topic that the mortality rate in the United Kingdom is due to various infectious diseases along with such harmful causative agents. Additionally, this present assignment also highlights such effective transmission pathways which are responsible for occurring both direct and indirect transmission methods.

It has been reflected in the direct transmission method, several kinds of infection-causing agents have been transmitted from the reservoir to the susceptible host through direct contact as well as spreading droplets. On the other hand, the indirect transmission method has focussed on such causative infectious diseases that have been transmitted through air particles, vectors as well as other inanimate objects from the reservoir to the susceptible host. Apart from that, this assignment has provided various disease prevention strategies to overcome life-threatening diseases. Successful implementation of the above-mentioned vaccination program can help to improve the health status of the population worldwide. It has also been recommended that effective following of World Health Organization’s guidelines can aware the entire population about further disease transmission as well as prevention.


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