International Business between US and Japan Question and Answer

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International Business between US and Japan Question and Answers

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Case A

Introduction

The imbalance between the two-car markets of the United States and Japan is the main thing of this report. Japan constitutes a major significant area of the total cars sold in America while on the other hand, America does not occupy a significant portion of the Japanese car market. The reasons behind this perspective will be discussed and how the different cultural segments of the two countries impact the car markets and the purchasing process of the cards will also be discussed. The preference of the customers of both these countries needs to be prioritized for gaining an advantage in the car markets. 

Question 1. Imbalance in auto trade between the United States and Japan

Donald Trump has criticized the trade between Japan and the USA as the Japanese car companies are doing a profitable business and the Japanese car are spreading in the American market. At the same time, American cars cannot acquire the car market of Japan. The Americans prefer Japanese cars and that is why the Japanese cars capture the market of the USA whereas the American cars cannot capture the market of Japan. The main reason behind such disparity is the preference for cars in both cities. Japanese cars are small and easy to drive even in congested areas. On the other hand, Japanese cars possess a great share of the portion of American cars. The American market constitutes nearly 30 percent of the total sales coming from the Japanese car. On the contrary, the cars sold in the Japanese market are most of the Japanese brand including Toyota, Suzuki, etc. the American cars are not much preferable in the car market of Japan. Japan being a congested country, people here prefer small and narrow cars that are convenient to the convenience of Japan (Chong, and LI, 2019). This car can easily fit in tight parking areas and are also easy to maneuver on narrow roads. The Japanese are made of thinking of such convenience. But the American cars are mostly of big sizes which is the main reason of Japanese market does not flourish with the American car market. American cars are not built as per the taste and preference of Japanese consumers. American car market produces cars of big sizes including picking cars, carrying cars that are mot preferable in the Japanese market. This is the primary reason for such imbalance in the car market of Japan and America (Schoske, 2018).

Typical trade policy tools include the risk and improve the imbalance between the American and Japanese car markets. Japan has occupied a major portion of the American car market with a tremendous success rate consuming more than 30% of the total cars sold in the US. By implementing tariffs and tax rates on Japanese cars while sailing in the American car market can bring some pop profits to the US economy. Apart from that some tools also need to be implemented about manufacturing and producing a big cause for the American market can also improve the imbalance situation. The trade policies can also be implemented on the American car market. Policies can be imposed on producing tiny things caused by Americans for selling in the Japanese car market. When both the country manufactures and produces depending on the needs and preferences of the consumers of both the countries it can neutralize the imbalance situation. Moreover, both the economy of the countries can be impacted by search policies (Wolff, 2019). 

Efforts to improve the imbalance in the situation can also hurt the Americans. Strict policies are made for both the countries to manufacture cards for the preference of the customers of both the countries; it can hurt the Americans. Americans only manufacture big cars like Ford and there are no small fractured cars like Kiers by Japan.

Question 2. Differences between the culture of the United States and Japan

The cultural difference between the two car markets of Japan and America is also another factor of the trade imbalance between the two countries. The cultures of America are different from those of Japan. The American car-making companies prefer the muscle power in the cars that means the American cars are all about muscle power, speed. These cars consume high fuel and are not that environmentally friendly. American cars consume a huge amount of fuel without making barriers to environmental friendliness. Speed. Power and fuel consumption are the primary concerns for the carmakers of America. On the other hand, the Japanese carmakers try to use the technology for developing low consumption and environmentally sustainable cars that make less consumption of fuel. Japanese build cars thinking of people under the poverty line and the cars can more sustainable and convenient to the needs and requirement s of the customers. Without making much costly, these cars are built for supporting the people with reliable costs and quality of the cars. These cars are considered to be more like a brain rather than a muscle. Numerous computer technology and automated technology are used in these cars for stealing the passion and demands of the customers. Technology is provided much more importance in Japanese cars than American cars. Another big importance in the culture of Japanese cars is found in the efficiency to consume fewer fuels in the cars. Lowering the price and costs of cars is the main focus of Japanese carmakers (Ueno and Muto, 2017). The culture of the car market Japanese is greatly influenced by the low expensed, high efficient, technologically advanced care generating more efficiencies of the car market and a robust car efficient market. Therefore, the main difference between the cultures of American and Japanese cars is that the Japanese prefer speedy, technologically advanced, fuel consumption efficiency, and environment-friendly cars. And the American cars focus on power-packed and expensive cars which is extremely contrary to the cultures of Japan car market. These differences impact the car purchasing power of the people. As the Japanese people prefer cars having less fuel consumption, energy-efficient, environmentally friendly, and technologically advanced features, the people get easily attracted to the Japanese car brand. They do not prefer high consumption-based fuel cars. Apart from that, another major difference in the car market of Japan includes the small and easy to run on the facility of the narrow state that the American cars do not provide. This is why American cars face disadvantaged in the carmaker industry (Schoske, 2018)..

Question 3. Japanese car makers get success in the USA

The Japanese have achieved tremendous success in the American car market with a huge market gain from the market of America. The Japanese carmakers have used some of the techniques that have helped them in gaining such success in the marketplace. 

By developing a technology-based engine

The Japanese carmakers use advanced technology-based systems in the cars like Suzuki, Nissan, Toyota, etc. to maintain fuel consumption and marinating the reliability and sustainability in the environment. For developing the cars for the long run use the Japanese carmakers try to use a well-established product strategy that can suit the needs and requirements of the customers. For being convenient, reliable, budget-friendly, and customer-friendly features, the Japanese carmakers have captured the mid of the people of the American market (Schulz, 2020).

Customer’s preferences and tastes

The taste and preference of the customers are changing the world. As the tastes of the customers change the people prefer buying vehicles that are not much big. Japanese car brands like Suzuki, Toyota are dominating the car markets. The customers prefer small, stylish, inexpensive, and environmentally sustainable, and fuel convenient vehicles that have made it mandatory for the customers of the areas. This is why the Japanese car enters the market of the car. The Americans manufacture big vehicles and fort hat the 

American customers do not prefer to buy American cars and instead prefer Japanese cars because of their small size, easy parking features, and easy-to-buy facilities (Shimada et al., 2021). 

The Japanese cars are budget-friendly

Japanese manufacture the cars as per the needs and requirement s of the customers. They also manufacture the cars by depending on the aim of meeting the needs of the customers. This simple truth is maintained by the product of the Japanese market.

The reverse is not true because the Japanese market is totally dependent on domestically manufactured cars. The carmakers of Japan manufacture cars the issues and problems of the domestic market of Japan (Shimada et al., 2021). The manufacturers of Japan are good at producing products that are convenient for the mass market. As Japan is a small country, cars need to be relevant to the spaces and places of Japan. Therefore, the car makers focus on developing cars for the mass markets that are usually small and mini cars as per the demands of the customers. These cars have tiny engines and consume less power. That is why these cars are very reliable for the domestic mass market of Japan but not for the American market. American market does not manufacture the cars for the mass market with a low budget, small and mini shape. And for that, the people of America do not prefer small and tiny cars (Ishaq et al., 2017. This is why the Japanese market does not acquire a place in the Japanese market.

The response of the US automakers to the preference of the US consumers put the matter in a disadvantaged situation in Japan. The preference of us consumers regarding automobiles and cars includes big cars with high consuming fuels that have a powerful engine and muscle power with high speed. Consumers prefer high-speed big cars (Haboucha et al., 2017). These cars do not fit the preferences of the consumers in Japan because the cities in Japan are congested and have narrow roads that only occupy small and tiny cars to run on the narrow roads (Chong, and LI, 2019). This is how the preferences of US consumers have disadvantages while selling cars in Japan. The cars of the American market need to be small and tiny with high technology-based systems and advanced engine technology that can consume less fuel and fit for environmental friendliness. Such kinds of products are required for the Japanese car market because all the preferences of the customers of Japan are different from those of the customers of America. Apart from that the cars or they can be run in a narrow road and are in congested parking places. Due to the lack of these features, American cars are not suitable for the Japanese market of Japan. The lack of these advantages has also brought disadvantages for the American cars in Japan. 

Conclusion

Therefore it can be concluded that effective tariff rules and trade policies are required to be implemented in both the countries for operating spelling of the cars. As Japanese manufacturers curse as per the requirements of the customers of Japan, the Japanese car market can also manufacture big cars as per the requirements of the US customers. American markets should also focus on manufacturing small cars and they can be fit for any congested area. And most importantly, it is required to use less fuel consumption in the cars so that the environment does not get hampered.

Case B

Introduction

One of the largest retailing companies operating in the Australian economy is the Woolworths group. The retail industry is focusing on employing more than 200000 employees with gross revenue of 60 billion dollars. It focusing on implementing corporate social responsibility in the different subsidiaries of the company. People planet and prosperity is the main framework of the company that targets to increase employment of different and diverse employees. Implementing less carbon footprint in the organizational operations is the most significant goal of the company to bring sustainability to the organization. In this report, different challenges that the company has faced while implementing corporate social responsibility will be discussed. There is a description of bringing a sustainable strategy with the help of implementing a diversity approach. For implementing a sustainable supplier relationship the company has also focused on different approaches that will also be discussed in this section.

Question 1. Implementing corporate social responsibility strategy

For implementing corporate social responsibility, Woolworths has to face some barriers in the way of CSR. The main barriers that the organization has faced include:

Lack of Strategic vision

The strategic vision is caused due to lack of management skills. Implementing corporate social responsibility in an organization that has more than 20000 employees and diverged interests and different stakeholders proper efficient and effective strategic vision is the must. Due to a diverse workforce and employees of different backgrounds use an employed workforce, the company faced challenges in implementing an effective strategy. For implementing corporate social responsibility in the company it has to incorporate the responsibilities and commitments into the organizational goals and objectives. Due to the short-term goals and objectives of the organization, there was a lack of strategic vision in the company (Rodrigo et al, 2019). There was also another risk and challenge due to a lack of management skills in Woolworths. The managers could not organize all the employees to direct them with effective strategies for achieving corporate social implementing corporate social responsibilities. The workforce was diverse, all the employees had different strategies and goals and that was the main problem in implementing harmonious strategies to implement corporate social responsibility. For managing the stakeholders and communicating with the stakeholders, it needs to implement some strategies for developing a relationship with the stakeholders. Lack of these strategies the managers could not communicate with the stakeholders. The different needs and requirements of the stakeholders could not be maintained properly with effective strategies. The organization only addressed corporate social responsibility to be implemented in the functional activities of the organization but there was no proper vision and strategy to implement them effectively to get the most desired result (Duran et al., 2019).

Lack of proper management and leadership skills

Corporate social responsibility is an aspect that is employed in an organization for improving the sustainability of the environment by effective operations and functional activities. An efficient leader and manager are important for implementing corporate social responsibility throughout environmental and sustainable operations (Manzoor et al., 2019). The manager needs to possess knowledge and skills about maintaining sustainability in the environment while managing supply chain and organizational operations or installing different renewable sources, environmentally friendly products, and services to improve the sustainability of the organization. From that, the managers and leaders also need to possess skills and knowledge for reducing carbon footprints. The leaders need to implement effective organizational behavior while recruiting employees from different and diverse backgrounds into the workforce of the organization (subham et al., 2019). Lack of skills of leadership and management skills became the main challenge for the organization to implement corporate social responsibility (Tourky et al., 2020).

Regulations and rules

Woolworths being a retail industry has to maintain different regulations and rules. There are different regulations and rules from the government that the organization has to obey. Maintaining environmental sustainability, organizational responsibility for the betterment of the environment and society the organization has to maintain all the rules and regulations provided by the government. The Challenges related to government rules and regulations including environment protection rules, rules regarding climate change have to be maintained effectively (Nurjanah, 2019).

Question 2. Diversity and sustainability

Diversity plays a major role in organizational sustainability. Woolworths is trying to employ various people in an organization from a different ethnic and racial background and habit organization to accomplish the objectives by maintaining the sustainability goals and the corporate social responsibility. Woolworths targets to include indigenous employees for eliminating gender disparity. Woolworths tries to bring sustainability to the organization (Sinicropi and Cortese, 2021)

When an organization employs employees from different social, racial, and ethnic groups, the company can improve the organizational work environment as the employees understand that the company does not discriminate among the employees. It thus helps in bringing sustainability to organizational growth and development. The sustainability of an organization also depends on the workforce strengths and employees’ capabilities and talents. By employing different people from diverse backgrounds, Woolworths tries to form a workforce that d full of diverse employees who have different skills and knowledge that can evolve an efficient growth and development of the organizations. Thus it also impacts the sustainability of the organization. The world is changing and employees are more likely to change their jobs to get better options. In this situation, the organizations need to develop strategies for employing people from different backgrounds irrespective of their races, colors, sex, or social or economic background. It not only helps in developing a diverse work environment but also gives opportunities to all the efficient and talented employees to work for harmonious activities for the organization (Sinicropi and Cortese, 2021). Employees get valued and important in the organizations that help them stay in the company and not to switch to other companies. It thus brings a well and structured sustainability to the organization. As Woolworth is a big retail industry and there are many more rival companies of Woolworths, the importance of a mixed and diverse workforce has been recognized as a carrier of a mixed and multiple benefits of the diverse work environment. It helps in generating productivity, innovation, and new dimensions for the organizational operation. A workforce having different skills and backgrounds can flourish the knowledge and skills among one another that is the major and most important criteria for bringing a sustainable change in the organization. 

Diversity helps in developing thoughts, innovations, and ideas among the employees and helps them work for the one single goal of the organization. A workforce of different employees can help generate new ideas and thoughts which sharing different knowledge. It thereby helps in developing the skills and knowledge of the employees providing them a different range of possibilities to grow. When the employees learn new things, build a healthy relationship in the workforce, it enhances their motivation and encourages them to work for organizational success. Thus it encourages them to stay in the organization.

It also helps in building trust and belief among the employees. By employing people from different backgrounds, the organization helps in building the trust of the employees in the organization. It thereby helps decrease the chances of the employee switch by enhancing the sustainability of the company. Woolworths has also focused on employing a wide range of employees from different ethnic, racial, and social backgrounds without discriminating against them. By doing so, the company wants to increase its competitive advantage and the employee’s satisfaction and confidence which is the major driver of sustainability and corporate social responsibility. 

Question 3. Reduction of carbon emission

Woolworths is trying to reduce carbon emission by ten percent which is no doubt a good initiative taken by the company. Carbon emission is causing a serious problem to the world and the entire world is suffering from such a crucial time. In this situation by reducing carbon emission in any organization can be a good start. It is also important that the organization is also increasing the use of environmentally sustainable and environmentally friendly products for getting a long-lasting effect on organizational growth and development (Li et al., 2018). As the world is passing through a difficult stage of global warming where the global temperature is rising at a rapid speed, the reduction of carbon emission together with the use of environmentally friendly products in the organizational function and operations can help get a positive result (Wang et al., 2018). 

Reduction of ten percent carbon emission is sufficient for an organization to achieve the sustainability of the company. It is because as per the scientists, the carbon emission reduction or shifting to a green and sustainable economy can provide around 25 trillion dollars economic profit by 2030 with 65 million new lo-carbon employment. Which will be a great advantage for the world economy as well as the environment. Reducing ten percent carbon footprint can bring a good achievement in cutting down the pollution level. By targeting to reduce carbon footprint, other organizations can also be inspired and thus some other organizations will focus on lowering carbon footprint. It will thus bring a broad network of giving up the carbon emission. Thus, it can be enough for Woolworths to reduce ten percent carbon emission (Sarkar et al., 2021).

Cutting the carbon emission by ten percent can help the company cutting down on unnecessary costs and expenditures of the company. And those savings the company can utilize in product development and developing new technology to be used to manage carbon emission and carbon footprint. It will also help the company in achieving zero carbon emission goals to build a sustainable environment (Ganguly et al., 2021).

Question 4. Sustainable supply chain mangement

Sustainability in supply chain management plays a very crucial role in building resilience in the business organization. The relationship with the suppliers is the key to develop robust supply chain management. Woolworths Is focusing on developing corporate social responsibility to bring sustainability to the organization. The leaders of the organization are aware of corporate social responsibility and the responsibilities regarding social and environment. They try to maintain sustainable practices in the supply chain management also becomes a very crucial part of the organization by implementing green supply chain (Al-Refaie and Abdelrahim, 2021). 

Commitment to the suppliers and buyers from the organization is the most important part of developing sustainability and supply chain management. 

Giving the suppliers information about the delicate product supply or in the supply of some chemicals or the products that can cause chemical reaction help in maintain trust and confidence of the suppliers. It thereby helps in developing a good supplier relationship with the organizations (Koberg and Longoni, 2019). 

Green supply chain management defines the responsibility of the supply chain management towards maintaining sustainability and of the environment. Green supply chain management not only helps in reducing carbon costs, and carbon emissions but also help in increasing productivity and innovation by encouraging employment in the field of green supply chain management. It thereby helps in developing the reputation of the company in the eyes of people and society (Mardani et al., 2020). 

Depending on multiple suppliers from various countries and areas can be a major challenge for Woolworths for maintaining an efficient and sustainable supplier engagement program. The company needs to mitigate the number of suppliers the organization works with and it is important to focus on communicating with their suppliers that have direct control of pollution to that company's reduction of carbon footprint. It is also true that a limited number of suppliers are liable for bringing sustainable supply chain management to an organization for reducing carbon emissions. Therefore the company needs to target those suppliers who can help in reducing carbon footprint most effectively to bring sustainability in the supply chain management (Abdelrahim, 2021).. 

A sustainable supplier relationship can be developed in the company by maintaining a robust and healthy communication system with the suppliers. The company needs to understand the demands and requirements of the suppliers and thereby need to provide them their needs as per their demands can also create a sustainable supplier relationship. A can also be another important and effective option for the organization in bringing sustainability through the supply chain management (TIUHTII, 2018). Woolworths can identify the suppliers having strong leaves and values. Suppliers With strong beliefs can help in maintaining a long-term relationship with the organization. And thus, the company can create the best strategy to develop sustainable management with the suppliers for building a robust relationship with them. Apart from that, providing relevant information and data to the suppliers in a timely manner can also develop a robust relationship with the suppliers by bringing sustainability in the supply chain management (Caraganciu, 2018). 

The organizational leaders can also monitor the activities of the suppliers and provide the relevant information whenever they require it. It thus helps in reducing unnecessary interruptions among the supplier and buyer relationship. Monitoring the upstream effects can help the company in developing sustainable supply chain management.

Conclusion

Therefore it can be stated that effective strategies management and leadership skills are required for organizing diverse skills and diverse interests based workforce with different backgrounds people. Supplier relationship is very significant for organizational sustainability. For maintaining the supply chain relationship a commitment towards suppliers and a commitment to bring sustainability in the organizational functions are the most required things.

Reference

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