1. Characteristics of Special education needs learner group:
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Poor reading skills- These characteristics of this type of group where the children have the problem with the reading habit of theirs at the learning stage as they are not able to read properly as they face problems. Like poor decoding of the words, they read very slowly and they also get confused with the words which seem similar. Some children with such learning disabilities problems they find out many types of difficulties to build up their learning habits while doing education. Issues with the reading are one of the things which they face while learning.
While reading the books they also face problems like they can't control the movements of their eyes properly while reading across the whole page (Palla, 2019). Poor understanding of the grammar and words and also face the problems in the images and idea building while reading anything, They also don't remember what they have read and also face problems in the spelling of the words properly while reading the books or something else's. They face problems in learning things, as they are special children with such learning disabilities.
Written Expressions- Some children with learning problems also have problems in fluency in writing something which they want to write. They are also aren't able to make the sentences and face the issues in organizing the written information. They have poor handwriting and they also face the problem while noting down in the copy the things which they have seen on the board or in the book. They also make the spelling writing while they are writing something such children need special education so that they can face their problem of learning disabilities.
Spelling- The children also have problems with the spellings which they write or read they are not able to write the correct spelling or not able to read or learn the spellings properly (Miller & Santos, 2020). They made frequently many spelling writing mistakes also as they also aren't able to understand properly the spelling rules and this all creates a problem in their learning path due to their disabilities in learning.
It is important in the learning of the reading and writing skills to spell the spelling and write the spelling right but due to their learning problems, they face difficulties.
Oral language- They aren't able to understand the sound differences also sometimes. They facing problems with the proper word pronouncing it. Due to this they are also aren't able to blend the sounds of the words. This also creates problems for them in learning the new things as they are not able to properly respond to the things which they have to listen to at the same time due to which they are unable to deal with the learning. As when the children are communicating with someone else then they respond to the things are improper which they have listened at the same time this makes their learning more hard and difficult (Voniati, 2017). The things which they want to speak before that also they are not able to organize their details and facts properly which create the problems for the children to learn the things easily and perfectly due to their learning problems.
Mathematical- The children also have problems while doing the mathematical solution and learning how to solve the math problem. They have poor fluency in mathematical which creates the issues to have a command in their math. They aren't able to calculate their basic mathematical calculation also due to their learning problems.
They face difficulties in remembering and memorizing the tables of multiplications. They also can't solve the problems by using the simple mathematical concepts transfer of it in their learning knowledge of the mathematical. They are also aren't able to sort out the information which is irrelevant due to which they are not able to understand the differences between the relevant and irrelevant information in the mathematical (Oertle et al, 2018).
The children with such learning disabilities face very problems in properly understanding and knowledge of the things mathematical due to which they are also don't able to solve the calculations of more complex by using the basic facts in their work.
Memory- The children also face problems related to memory, as they are not able to memories things properly in their daily learning. As the things which they learn and try to learn they face difficulties to memories it and keep it in their brain for the long term.
They forget what they have written and read as they have a very weak ability for retrieving and storing the information which they learn effectively they face in problems due to their learning disabilities of the children.
As they are not able to hold their information which they just learn and write or read due to which they are not able to use it immediately also due to which they also face problem in the solving the problems of their mathematical (Cakir & Korkmaz, 2019). As they are not able to memorize the things it makes it hard and difficult for them to learn the new skills and knowledge perfectly as when they will memorize them they will be able to learn the things for their education.
Reasoning- The children who have learning problems are unable to solve the problems of reasoning as they have the lack proper reasoning and thinking the things in their learning. As when the procedure and the information of the reasoning which were unfamiliar to them so they face the problems in the solving of the reasoning based problems and the things.
They also face the problems in the proper transforming, recognizing, and properly using of the specific information due to which they are not able to come out on any conclusion from it which creates the issues for them (Miller & Santos, 2020).
2. Motivational opportunities for the Special education need learner group:
- Self- Regulation- Self-regulation means when the children themselves want to learn new skills and knowledge even having learning disabilities or problems. Their inner urge motivates them to do for themselves better to become capable of doing new things in their life as compared to the children of their same age group who don't have such disabilities or problems. In this, the children themselves control their behavior towards learning new things in their life.
- Self Determination- Self-determination motivates them to give their full potential in their learning to build up new learning and they determine that how much effort they have to put in their learning so that they can achieve their goals of the learning. Like learning to read and write what they have to do which make them understand the things perfectly (Kocaj et al, 2018).
- Expectancy Value model- Through this motivates the learners to learn the education things like by this they ask themselves that if they will be able to learn or not and what they need to do to learn and by this their inner urge motivates them to learn the new things which everyone is learning.
- Social-ecological factor- As by this, the learners interrelate with many factors of the external environment and who motivates them to start learning new things in their life and forget about their learning disabilities and problems which they may face and in this way they also get motivated to learn new skills and knowledge and build a good moral in themselves that they are perfect and they don't need to worry about their learning problems which they have (Rhew, 2017).
- Peer influence- The influence of their peer also motivates them to learn new things and forget about their disabilities. As when they see their peers that they are doing good and learning new things then they will be able to do their best in that work. The good peer group will also motivate them by saying that they can do it and they should give their best in education learning without worrying about their disabilities and problems they have.
Challenges for the special education need learner group:
- Self-handicapping- This means that when the children make excuses that they will not be able to learn the things because they may get fail in it and they don't have inner confidence in themselves that they can do better. In this, they don't try to learn new things and they blame different things in their life that because of that they aren't able to learn. This is also a big challenge for some of the children of this type of learner group.
- Repeated teaching- When the teachers are teaching them the new things and they continuous repeat that thing to them then they are not able to understand and memorize them properly due to which they are also not able to solve the problems of the mathematical and read and write the spelling and words properly as their brain isn't able to understand the things properly (Wang & Lam, 2017). They are not able to catch the things in their mind if the same things are repeated teach by the teachers.
- Medical issues- As medical issues are also the big challenges for such a group of learners as they aren't able to concentrate on their learning due to some additional medical issues they have with their learning disabilities. Like some of the children have the problems and issues like diabetes, asthma, health threats which come in front of them as a big challenge to concentrate and learn their education things properly.
- Behaviors of the students- The behavior of every child is different than how they behave with the people, with the things are different from one another. This creates problems for the children with learning disabilities to control their emotions and emotional mood swings which come as a barrier in front of them (Collins et al, 2017).
The motivation for teachers of Special education needs learner group:
- Social Cognitive- This motivation means when the individual teacher gets influence from their good experience in their teaching and from the external environment like from their peer's group, from their friends they get motivated to teach the special students. Through this, they can build their self-control over their teaching behavior that they will be able to teach them in the perfect way which can help them to learn a better way (Lindqvist et al, 2020).
- The pre-service motivation for teachers- When the teachers who like to teach the students from their past and they like their job of teaching to the others then they are always motivated to teach the others. This is the mode of motivation for them to teach children with learning disabilities or problems.
- Job security- Sometimes their security of the job where they are teaching motivates them to carry on their profession of teaching to teach the students (Kholis & Kustiyono,2020).
Challenges faced by the teacher while teaching the Special education needs learner group:
- Challenge working environment- If the classroom and the education area working environment will not be good and don't create a good teaching environment then they will not be able to teach the other students and they will not be motivated for their job which they are doing. The working environment is an important factor while doing any job especially a teaching job when the teacher has to teach special education need learner group.
- Insufficient self-efficiency- Sometimes the teachers themselves get demotivated that they are not enough sufficient to teach such a learner group. As they start thinking that they are not capable to teach the learning problems or disabilities group properly which is a challenge for the teachers by themselves. It is a big challenge as this brings down their potential also at their work place, so to face this challenge is a big task for the teachers (Shepherd et al, 2016).
- Support low salary- When the teachers are giving their full potential in doing their job in teaching the special education needs learner they also want a good salary in return as they are doing more in their teaching profession, so they need more money. But when they don't get enough money then it becomes a challenge for them to work properly in their work and as they don't get good support in terms of the salary.
- Dealing with many disabilities- In the special education needs learner group children have many different types of disabilities which are different from one another and this is the biggest challenge for the teachers to coordinate all that and teach them according to that so nothing will miss and every person of the learner group learn the education properly (Johnson et al, 2016).
3. Three Theories that can help to tackle the motivational challenges of the group of learners and their teachers:
- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation theory- This theory is related to the internal and external motivation which both the learners groups and teachers get to face their challenges while studying even with learning disabilities and teach them even they have to face some issues and problems.
For the learner, the intrinsic motivation works as they get motivated to learn new things for themselves so that they can build up new skills for themselves and this helps them to face all the challenges which they are facing while having a learning disability (Bear et al, 2017).
The learner group is internally motivated because they want to see themselves in a better position by removing their disabilities as a barrier to their education and they try their hard to learn.
As in the same way the extrinsic motivation theory also helps in motivating them to learn new skills and knowledge as in this they are motivated by the external environment factors which are the other students who are doing well and learning new things of their same age that motivates them to become more competitive in comparison to them so they work hard.
Through intrinsic motivation, the teachers get motivated by themselves as no other external factor forces them to teach the students. They teach the learner groups. They like to teach them as they get satisfaction from it because from the experience they know that teaching is a good profession for them so their challenges like low salary, the bad working environment doesn't matter for them.
As in the same way the extrinsic motivation is those factors which are come from the external environment like the rewards in the form of the salary they will get then all their challenges go away and they are motivated enough to do their best in teaching (Vilnai-Yavetz & Levina, 2018). When the teachers are motivated enough then they can face their all challenges like working environment, salary support, dealing with different disabilities of the learner group and they will be able to increase their efficiency at their work.
- Expectancy Value theory- This theory tells that it is divided into two parts which are expectancy and value which means what an individual thinks that what they can achieve and how much value their outcome will get.
Through this theory, the learner groups will be able to overcome their learning problems as when they expect that by learning the new skills and knowledge they will be able to read and write properly and can solve the mathematical problems and easily control their behavior towards studies then they will try their best and engage themselves in the learning and they don't think they can't do this (Jiang et al, 2018).
And the value which they get from their learning like their outcome will help them to compete with the other students of their age and their medical issues are not coming in the form of barrier to them.
For the teachers, the expectancy theory works like they expect that if they give their best in the teaching of the learner group they will be able to get job satisfaction and the learner group will be able to learn the things easily and the when in the form of outcome value they get the good result in the form of reward and their students can now solve the mathematical problems and reading and writing in a better way (Savolainen, 2018).
This will always motivate them to give their best when they will find out they are best at their job as they expected and they getting the best value from their task which they undertake and this will help them to deal with the different challenges they face.
- Self Regulation Theory- The self-regulation theory can help both the learners and their teachers.
As with the help of this, the leaner group engage themselves in the learning of the new skills and knowledge for themselves. As they will have an inner urge to control, monitor, and regulate their motivation to learn new things and overcome their learning disabilities and problems. In this, they don't get any force from the external environment instead that they do things by having the self-motivation to achieve something new in their life.
In this, the learner modifies their behavior according to their needs and wants which make them come over their challenges in the education and build up their self-regulation motivation to face the problems in their learning, reading, and writing of the words and spelling and can handle the problems of the mathematical also (Oyserman et al, 2017).
In this the learner group member they observe themselves and monitor their challenges and problems which they are facing and building up their moral their own to come up from their disabilities and learn the new things. They regulate, react, and regulate their efficiency and work according to that.
With the help of this theory, the teachers will also able to face their challenges while teaching the learner groups perfectly. As they motivate themselves that they can do their best and teach the special education needs students perfectly by understanding their needs and their disabilities perfectly and evaluating themselves that in how the best way they can teach them and handle the different disabilities of the learner group.
No external forces of the environment motivate them according to this theory they realize their efficiency that they are perfect enough to teach them (Oyserman, 2019).
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