Mental Health And Illness Assignment Sample

Infectious Diseases and Long-Term Conditions: Assignment Analysis

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Introduction Of Mental Health And Illness

Millions of people worldwide are afflicted by the prevalent and complicated mental health disorder known as depression. Numerous elements, including genetics, life experiences and cognitive processes, have an impact on its development. This PowerPoint presentation addresses the psychological factors that contribute to depression from the viewpoints of Humanistic, Physicodynamic and Cognitive psychology.

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Humanistic Perspective

  • Lack of self-actualization and separation from one's real self and purpose can both contribute to depression.
  • Depression can be aggravated by cultural and environmental variables, including trauma and a lack of social support.
  • In order to effectively treat depression, the humanistic approach emphasises the value of personal experience and self-awareness.
  • Self-discovery and personal development are the goals of treatment approaches like Gestalt therapy and person-centred therapy (Hlavek and Feldwisch, 2022).
  • Through the cultivation of present-moment awareness and self-compassion, mindfulness exercises like meditation and yoga can also be helpful in easing the symptoms of depression.

Psychodynamic Perspective

  • Conflicts that go unsolved and buried feelings from childhood might contribute to depression.
  • The psychodynamic approach places special emphasis on the contribution of unconscious processes, such as transference and defense mechanisms, to the emergence and maintenance of depression (Mar?inko et al. 2020).
  • Therapy approaches, such as psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy, aim to uncover and process unconscious conflicts and emotions related to depression through the exploration of past experiences and relationships
  • According to the object relations hypothesis, disturbances in early attachment connections can result in depression.
  • According to self-psychology, depression may be brought on by a lack of a consistent self-structure as well as sensations of disintegration and emptiness.

Cognitive Perspective

  • Negative cognitive patterns, such as pessimism and self-criticism, contribute to depression.
  • Depression can also be exacerbated by cognitive biases such as all-or-nothing thinking and overgeneralization.
  • These mental patterns and distortions might be triggered by negative life situations.
  • CBT is a type of depression treatment that focuses on modifying negative thinking patterns.
  • “Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, MBCT” is a therapeutic method that combines cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT with mindfulness practices (Apolinário-Hagen, Drüge and Fritsche, 2020).
  • “Acceptance and commitment therapy, ACT” is a type of therapy that emphasises accepting unpleasant thoughts and feelings while committing to constructive behaviours.

Comparing Perspectives

  • Humanistic: Focuses on the value of human experience, self-awareness, and accountability in treating depression.
  • Psychodynamic: Emphasises how early childhood events, particularly unconscious conflicts and unresolved emotions, might contribute to depression.
  • Cognitive: Is concerned with negative thought habits and cognitive distortions.
  • All three viewpoints agree that unpleasant life experiences have a role in the development of depression.
  • Treatment choices differ across the three views.

Limitations and Criticisms

  • Humanistic: Being too optimistic and neglecting the truths of human suffering and the societal issues that lead to sadness.
  • Psychodynamic: Too much attention is paid to the past at the expense of the present and future. May be too time-consuming and demanding for some people seeking depression treatment.
  • Cognitive: Does not take biological or environmental elements into account and oversimplifies the impact of negative thought processes.
  • All three views might be criticised for failing to take a comprehensive approach to depression.


One single factor cannot explain depression since it is a complex mental condition. Though the Humanistic, Physicodynamic and cognitive perspectives all provide useful information and therapeutic approaches, a tailored strategy combining all three may be the most efficient method to treat and manage depression



A person's health may suffer from depression, a common mental health problem. Effective therapies for depression include behavioural therapy and medical/biological techniques. In order to choose the best course of treatment for each patient, it is crucial to analyse these techniques from several psychological angles. Finding the best treatment plan requires consulting a mental health specialist because both approaches have benefits and drawbacks. This essay explores the Behavioural therapy and The medical/biological approach.

Main Body

Behavioural therapy for depression modifies learned behaviour that causes depression. According to the behavioural model, rather than being caused by biological or hereditary elements, depression is brought on by environmental variables and acquired habits (Fatjó and Bowen, 2020). As a result, the emphasis of this strategy is on modifying the patient's behaviour and surroundings in order to reduce depression symptoms. Behavioural therapy is founded on learning theory concepts, which hold that behaviour is learnt through positive and negative reinforcement (May, Aupperle and Stewart, 2020). The therapist collaborates with the patient to uncover negative behavioural patterns that lead to depression. Social isolation, a lack of physical exercise and negative self-talk are examples of these behaviours. The purpose of treatment is to assist the patient in developing new, positive behaviours that can enhance their mood and minimise depressive symptoms. Behavioural activation is an important strategy in behavioural treatment. Increasing the patient's involvement in activities that they love and find pleasant is what behavioural activation entails. The therapist collaborates with the patient to find activities that they have previously loved or would like to attempt. The patient is urged to participate in these activities on a regular basis in order to increase their total activity level and improve their mood. Relaxation training is another behavioural treatment strategy. Relaxation training is teaching the patient skills such as “deep breathing”, “gradual muscle relaxation” and “visualisation” to help them manage “physical symptoms” of depression such as muscular tension and racing thoughts (Kami?ska et al. 2020). Another strategy that may be utilised in behavioural treatment for depression is exposure therapy. Exposure therapy is progressively exposing the patient to events that they may have avoided due to worry or fear (Zhang et al. 2020). This strategy can assist the patient in overcoming their anxiety and developing new coping mechanisms. Behavioural therapy is frequently a brief treatment that can be finished in as few as 12-20 weeks (, 2023). It is a beneficial therapeutic choice for people who are dealing with this illness because it has been shown to be effective in treating mild to moderate depression. This strategy, however, may not be useful for people suffering from severe depression who require quick therapy. Overall, through the instruction of new coping mechanisms and practises, behavioural therapy is helpful for treating depression. Patients benefit from symptom relief and management education. It is crucial to highlight that this technique may not work for everyone and that for some people, a mix of treatments, including medication and counselling, may be required.

The medical/biological approach to treating depression is a therapy strategy that focuses on the biological mechanisms that contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. This method is founded on the assumption that depression is caused by a “chemical imbalance in the brain”, notably a lack of certain neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that assist control moods, such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. Individuals suffering from depression are frequently administered “antidepressants”, such as selective “serotonin reuptake inhibitors” or “SSRIs” (C hen,2023). SSRIs are hypothesised to boost mood and lessen depression symptoms by increasing the availability of serotonin in the brain. Other antidepressants, such as tricyclic antidepressants, TCAs and monoamine oxidase inhibitors also known as MAOIs, function by influencing other neurotransmitters including norepinephrine and dopamine. The medical/biological approach is reinforced by studies that demonstrate that persons who suffer from depression generally have lower amounts of particular neurotransmitters in their brains (, 2023). However, the precise aetiology of depression is unknown and it is probable that a combination of genetic, “environmental” and “psychological factors” contribute to the disorder's development. Antidepressants have several limits, yet they can be helpful in treating depression. The fact that some medications take weeks or even months to start working is one of their major downsides. For some who are suffering from severe symptoms and want fast relief, this can be difficult. Additionally, some medications have undesirable side effects that may discourage users from taking them, such as nausea, weight gain and sexual dysfunction (Horowitz and Wilcock, 2022). In order to treat depression, a mix of medicine and treatment may be required in certain circumstances. Individuals can benefit from therapy by addressing the underlying reasons for their depression, learning coping techniques and developing healthy routines and behaviours. Through assisting patients in identifying and changing the detrimental thinking and behaviour patterns that contribute to their illness, CBT is a frequently utilised approach to treat depression (Kadri et ai. 2022). While medication can be useful in addressing the biological components of depression, it's critical to understand that there is no one-size-fits-all treatment because different medications and dosages may have different effects on different people. The ideal prescription and dose may need to be discovered through some trial and error under the supervision of a healthcare professional. Furthermore, it might be detrimental to stop taking the medication suddenly, thus it's imperative to get advice from a professional. Develop positive behaviours and coping methods, as well as deal with the underlying reasons for depression, in addition to taking medication. Combining medication and therapy may be necessary for effective treatment and general well-being.


In conclusion, depression can be treated using both behavioural and medical/biological methods. The latter alters behaviour and environment to lessen symptoms while the former focuses on biochemical aspects of depression. Both strategies have benefits and drawbacks, therefore a mental health professional should decide which course of action is appropriate based on the patient's requirements. For some people, combination therapy like medication and counselling may be required. The objective is to identify the most efficient course of action that can assist people to beat depression and enhance their general well-being.


  • Apolinário-Hagen, J., Drüge, M. and Fritsche, L., 2020. Cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and acceptance commitment therapy for anxiety disorders: integrating traditional with digital treatment approaches. Anxiety Disorders: Rethinking and Understanding Recent Discoveries, pp.291-329.
  • Chen, X., 2023. The anti-depression function of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Highlights in Science, Engineering and Technology, 36, pp.1121-1126.
  • Fatjó, J. and Bowen, J., 2020. Making the case for multi-axis assessment of behavioural problems. Animals, 10(3), p.383.
  • Hlavek, E.H. and Feldwisch, R.P., 2022. Humanistic approaches to art therapy: Existentialism, person-centered, and gestalt. In Foundations of Art Therapy (pp. 235-257). Academic Press.
  • Horowitz, M. and Wilcock, M., 2022. Newer generation antidepressants and withdrawal effects: reconsidering the role of antidepressants and helping patients to stop. Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin, 60(1), pp.7-12.
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  • May, A.C., Aupperle, R.L. and Stewart, J.L., 2020. Dark times: the role of negative reinforcement in methamphetamine addiction. Frontiers in psychiatry, 11, p.114.
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