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M.Sc. Design Project Assignment 


Question A

(i).Food Additives: Product molecule that is used for the process design of food additives is hydroxypropane. This hydroxypropane is used in two or three molecules in various food acids such as malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, and lactic acid. This molecule named hydroxypropane is not very potent, and it may work with different molecules such as tricarboxylic acid butanediol acid with an amount of two or three. This molecule is found mainly in citrus fruits, milk, yogurt, fruit juice, and also it is used to add to food to make it more balanced. In citric acid, the structure is a maximum of 1, 2, 3-tricarboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxypropane. These acids are used as acidity regulators (Ray et al. 2020). Diiodohydroxypropane is used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. Fumaric acid has been used as a food acidulant since the year 1946, which is usually one of the excellent alternatives for citric acid and tartaric acid, when it is replaced in place of citric acid by0.91 grams of the fumaric acid.

IUPAC Name: Propan-1-ol

Molecular Formula: O

Chemical Structure:

 Chemical Formula of Hydroxypropane

Figure 1: Chemical Formula of Hydroxypropane

(Source: )

As the Hydroxypropane can be referred as Propane – 1 – ol so here the Propane represents three carbons related with single bonds. The ‘prop’ means three and ‘an’ means single bond. The first carbon is added with a ‘ol’ group, that represents alcohol (Roy et al. 2022 ). Here the bonds were made between three carbons that were connected with a single bond. As here the hrocarbon bonds have been created so each carbon are connected with two hydrogen with single bond. One or the first carbon was connected with an alcohol group. So the formula also can be represented as CH2OHCH2CH3.

(ii) Petrochemicals: Product molecules that are used for the process design of petrochemicals are amphipathic; these molecules are seldom called surfactants. Molecules of amphipathic are chemicals with both nonpolar and polar regions, which give both characteristics of hydrophilic water-loving where lipophilic, that is, fat-loving properties. These molecules of amphipathic are certainly known as molecules of amphiphilic or the amphiphiles for both of the properties (Chinn et al. 2020). Word amphiphiles, mainly derived from the Greek word "emphasis" are the "both" and the word "philia" has the exact meaning of "love", that is this, molecules follow both the properties that is why it bears this name. Amphipathic molecules are a very important property in the case of both biology and chemistry. As an example, these molecules are included in phospholipids, detergents, and cholesterol.


IUPAC Name: Sodium Stearate

Molecular Formula: NaO3S

Chemical Stucture:

Chemical Structure of Amphipathic

Figure 2: Chemical Structure of Amphipathic

(Source: )

Every Amphipathic molecule contains at least one lipophilic portion and one hydrophilic section. The amphiphile mostly contains several numbers of hydrophilic and lipophilic sections in it (Roy et al. 2022 ). The hydrophilic section mainly have hydrocarbon moiety, which can be reoffered as a single bond between hydrogen and carbon atoms. The lipophilic sections are non polar that means these lipophilic parts of an amphipathic molecule does not have any positive or negative poles.

Question B

Identification ofhydroxypropane: Hydroxypropane is the synonym of "propanol" in organic chemistry. Propanol is a colourless clear liquid that is used as an antiseptic and solvent, which is also known as the propyl alcohol. It bears the formula of chemistry as C3H8O. In organic chemistry, there are two "isomeric aliphatic alcohols", C3H7-OH. Those two alcohols are "n-propanol" or "CH3CH2CH2OH" and "isopropanol or isopropyl alcohol" or "(CH3)2CH-OH". In the medical industry, these molecules are sometimes used as a drug for blood pressure reduction and reducing tremors in the hands (Gam et al., 2020). Propanol is a "type of primary alcohol". It is a colourless product that the Gustave C.B. first discovered in 1853. Propanol is the vital constituent of fusel oil. Primary uses of the hydroxypropane are solvent, medical uses, food additives, and cosmetics. The most common type of use of Hydroxypropane is the solvent to produce dye solutions, window cleaner, types of antifreeze, soaps, and more.

Description of possible process route: Citric acid is reproduced from the pineapple juice, lemon, and all the citrus fruits. In citric acid, the structure is 1, 2, 3-tricarboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxypropane. This citric acid is used as a food additive to balance the nutrients in food, and it improves the safety, texture, appearance, and freshness of the food. It also helps to preserve the food for a long time, increase the shelf life, improve the eating characteristics and also decrease the rate of containing harmful bacteria.

Block flow diagram:

flow diagrams for one possible process route

Figure1.1: flow diagrams for one possible process route

(Source: Self Developed)

Citric acid is used as an improvement agent of food, which is then in the process of fermentation of the carbohydrate solutions. When it is heated under 175ºC it changes to decarboxylation, which is the Reduction of carbon dioxide. In comparison with the carboxylic acid the acid power of the Citric acid is much powerful and greater. In much industry the acid power of citric acid has been used to carbonate the beverages and also to preserve some foods, in order to flavoring and added a bit of different taste to it (Roy et al. 2022 ). It’s soluble properties makes it more efficient in case of the flavoring agents. It has some properties that is able to kill the fungus so it is used as a preservative in food (Paul et al. 2019). "Citric acid" is used as the salt of citrate, also used as a thirst quencher in non-carbonated beverages juices. This hydroxyproline in citric acid is also used in beverages of dry powder and also beverages artificially sweetened. Citric acid adds to the mouthfeel, and bulk typically contributes to sucrose. Lactic acid, mainly obtained from milk, is also known as milk acid. It has its main molecule hydroxypropane in the form of "2-hydroxypropanoic acid". It is an important compound in the biochemical process. In lactic acid, the chemical formula of hydroxy carboxylic acid is "C3H6O3". It is present in two enantiomorph forms, "D(-) lactic acid and L(-) lactic acid" the last one is the enantiomer which is involved in the human metabolism and the former one is present in the "infant milk" which may found to cause "infant acidosis", it was found in early 1960 (Ellmers et al. 2020). In the pickles, baked foods, salads and dressings and also in vegetables are the main things that have a great amount of use of lactic acid. Citric acid is the main ingredient that causes the sour taste in the foods but the lactic acids is the one that provides a rich tartness (Manchanda et al. 2020 ). In the apples the presence of malic acid has been founded that provides a tartness and sourness in the apples. Tartaric acid has been founded in the grapes and fruit wines that mostly taste as tart. The solubility of monohydrates in water and methanol at temperatures ranging from "278.15 to 303.15" kelvin is determined by a static method.

Identification of molecules of amphipathic: "Amphipathic molecules" or "molecules of amphiphilic "that have parts of both nonpolar and polar, which represent both the lipolithic and hydrophilic properties. Different amphipathic molecules include phospholipids, bile acids, and surfactants. A " molecule of amphipathic" has at least one of hydrophilic portions and one of the lipolithic sections, but it has many several lipolithic and hydrophilic parts (Safin et al. 2021). A lipophilic section may have a "hydrocarbon moiety" consisting of hydrogen atoms and carbon. This lipolithic portion is nonpolar and hydrophobic. Hydrophilic groups may be uncharged or charged. Charged groups can be cationic like the ammonium group (RNH3+), other groups regarding anionic can be phosphates(RPO42+), and many more.

Molecules are the tiniest unit of any chemical compound that a bunch has made of atoms that can take part in any chemical reaction. They are electrically neutral and can be distinguished by ions for their deficiency of electrical charge. Here for the topic of petrochemicals, the molecule Amphipathic has been chosen. This molecule processes both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic elements. The presence of this amphipathic can be noticed in detergents, soaps and other phospholipids in a huge amount. These products have been used in daily human lives. This molecule is also known as an amphiphilic molecule. These amphiphilic or amphipathic molecules are the nonpolar or polar elements that make them both hydrophilic and lipophilic elements. Bile acids, surfactants and phospholipids can be counted in the list of examples that includes the molecule of amphipathic. This molecule can compose the cell membrane of every cell. This also produces cholesterol, which is important to increase the formation of hormones (Ray and Sneesby, 2020). It also helps in increasing fluidity in cell membranes. Due to their ability to decrease the surface tension in the water's surface, detergents are also called surfactants. They are mostly noticed at the end of the long lipophilic hydrocarbon groups.

Block flow diagram :

 Process Route for production

Figure B.1: Process Route for production

(Source: Self-Developed)

The production route of the amphipathic route is discussed briefly and prominently. These molecules can be prepared by some chemical reactions, which include elements like ethane propane, Butane and other optional gas feeds. Not only these, but there should be a chemical reaction between these three elements and petrochemical's optional liquid gas feeds. Petrochemical gas at first, has been processed by a specific process method. Methane, Ethane, Propane, and Butane have been produced during this processing. On the other side, crude oil has been refined by process of Petroleum Refinery Process. This process has been done by a specific procedure of refining the crude oil. By this process, some other elements have been produced and they are Naphtha, gas oil and Benzene, toluene (Chinn and Pelletier, 2020). By these two processes, natural processing and crude oil refining, which gas feeds and liquid feeds has been produced, they have been compiled in a steam cracker. In this steam cracking process, five components have been reproduced. These five components are Ethylene, Propylene, Benzene, Butadiene and Byproducts. Every product of these five elements can produce the amphipathic molecule and its chemical formula is “CnH2n+2”. This molecule is possible to make by these kinds of processes of chemical reactions.

Question C

The before chemical reaction shows the process route of the Amphipathic Molecule. That has been produced by the chemical reaction between some gas feeds, natural gas and some liquid feed, petrochemicals. This natural gas includes ethane, propane and some other gas feeds. The petrochemicals include Naphtha, gas oil and some other liquid feeds. At the end of the long chemical reaction, this amphipathic molecule has been produced. Generally, every molecule has been produced by a group of atoms and the atoms were able to add themselves or create a bond with the other atoms of different molecules (Ray and Sneesby, 2020). A specific bond has formed these atoms of each molecule. In the case of this amphipathic molecule, the atoms of carbon and hydrogen have been added based on the oxidation and reduction power of carbon and hydrogen. Oxidation occurs when the atoms gain oxygen and Reduction occurs when the atoms lose the oxygen.

These amphiphilic molecules were generally formed by hydrocarbon bonds. These lipophilic sections are also hydrophobic in this molecule. In this type of amphipathic molecule the hydrophilic molecules can be both charged and uncharged (Manchanda et al. 2020 ). Charged groups were mainly positively charged or cationic but other charged groups are anionic. A ketone bond happens when a single carbon atom creates a double bond with oxygen and when the carbon can create a bond with four elements that are called catenation property (Chinn and Pelletier, 2020). As in this particular reaction when the amphipathic molecule has been made by the double bond between oxygen and carbon so here in this reaction the atoms have been connected through a ketone bond. This hydrocarbon bond is not only made by a ketone bong but is also added with a C-O bond, which is a subgroup of an acid.

Block flow diagram

 PFD for Petrochemical

Figure C.1: PFD for Petrochemical

(Souce: Self-Developed)

Here from the previous structure or process route of amphiphilic molecules, the Benzene has been chosen to describe the process route. Process route is the formation technique of any molecule or any atom. Here Benzene has been chosen to discuss it’s process route so it is important to discuss methane as that was the first bond that has been formed by these atoms. Benzene is mostly colorless or sometimes noticed with a little bit of yellow tint. It has a sweet odor and is highly inflammable. This can float on the water surface. Methane has been formed by a catenation property, as there is a single bond between one carbon and four hydrogens, the chemical reaction is "CH4". Methane is the main source of Benzene, and by that chemical formation, Benzene has been formed. Then with time, the reaction has been turned out as two carbon and six hydrogens with a single bond. Then these two carbons create a double bond with four hydrogens (Chinn and Pelletier, 2020). Finally, at the end of the reaction, these carbons and hydrogens create a hexagonal bond with six carbons and six hydrogens and there are three double bonds and three single bonds. This hexagonal bond is chemically represented as "C6H6", which is the chemical reaction of Benzene. This is the whole formation process of Benzene.

This question has been asked about the process route of any molecule that has been presented in the above reactions that have been done to create an amphipathic molecule. In order to answer this question, the component Benzene has been taken, which was present and produced during the previous chemical reaction. The process route has been discussed briefly in this answer.



Ray, M.S. and Sneesby, M.G., 2020. Chemical Engineering Design Project: A Case Study Approach (Production of Phthalic Anhydride). CRC Press.


Chinn, D. and Pelletier, C., 2020. Deconstructing the co-production ideal: Dilemmas of knowledge and representation in a co-design project with people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability45(4), pp.326-336.Available at https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10110116/1/Pelletier_Co-production%20July%20Pre-Publication%20Draft.pdf

Manchanda, P., Achazi, K., Verma, D., Böttcher, C., Haag, R. and Sharma, S.K., 2020. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of D-Glucitol-Based Non-Ionic Amphiphilic Architectures as Nanocarriers. Polymers, 12(6), p.1421.

Gam, H.J. and Banning, J., 2020. Teaching sustainability in fashion design courses through a zero-waste design project. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal38(3), pp.151-165. Available at https://news.cvad.unt.edu/sites/default/files/2020_ctrj-teaching_stustainability_in_fashion_design_courses_through_a_zero_waste_design_project.pdf

Paul, R. and Behjat, L., 2019. Using principles of SCRUM project management in an integrated design project. In Proceedings of the 15th International CDIO Conference (Vol. 1, pp. 716-729). Available at http://mail.cdio.org/files/document/file/206.pdf

Roy, A., Fajardie, P., Lepoittevin, B., Baudoux, J., Lapinte, V., Caillol, S. and Briou, B., 2022. CNSL, a Promising Building Blocks for Sustainable Molecular Design of Surfactants: A Critical Review. Molecules, 27(4), p.1443.

Ellmers, G. and Foley, M., 2020. Developing expertise: Benefits of generalising learning from the graphic design project. International Journal of Art & Design Education39(2), pp.461-475. Available at https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5108&context=lhapapers

Safin, S., Detienne, F., Burkhardt, J.M., Hebert, A.M. and Leclercq, P., 2021. The interplay between quality of collaboration, design project evolution and outcome in an architectural design studio. CoDesign17(4), pp.392-409. Available at https://hal.telecom-paris.fr/hal-02410103/document

Stam, D. and Boon, B., 2018, August. What you gain and what it takes: a student's reflection on a participatory design project. In Proceedings of the 15th Participatory Design Conference: Short Papers, Situated Actions, Workshops and Tutorial-Volume 2 (pp. 1-5). Available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Boudewijn-Boon/publication/327122879_What_you_gain_and_what_it_takes_a_student%27s_reflection_on_a_participatory_design_project/links/5b85434b92851c1e12371482/What-you-gain-and-what-it-takes-a-students-reflection-on-a-participatory-design-project.pdf

Hertzog, P.E., 2019. Effective use of video lectures for design project students. Available at http://ir.cut.ac.za/bitstream/handle/11462/2179/J144%20%20%202019%20Article-Hertzog-P%20WIETE.pdf?sequence=1

Del Nevo, A., Arena, P., Caruso, G., Chiovaro, P., Di Maio, P.A., Eboli, M., Edemetti, F., Forgione, N., Forte, R., Froio, A. and Giannetti, F., 2019. Recent progress in developing a feasible and integrated conceptual design of the WCLL BB in EUROfusion project. Fusion Engineering and Design146, pp.1805-1809. Available at https://arpi.unipi.it/bitstream/11568/1022378/2/DelNevo_Recent-progress_postprint_2019.pdf

Bernhard, J., Carstensen, A.K., Davidsen, J. and Ryberg, T., 2019. Practical epistemic cognition in a design project—engineering students developing epistemic fluency. IEEE Transactions on Education62(3), pp.216-225. Available at https://vbn.aau.dk/ws/files/302644114/Bernhard_2019_Practical_Epistemic_Cognition.pdf

White, J.R., 2019. Leveraging students to help generate senior plant design project topics. Chemical Engineering Education53(3), pp.186-186. Available at https://journals.flvc.org/cee/article/download/114410/109787


bath.ac.uk, 2022 Modern Building Design MSc - University of Bath Available at https://www.bath.ac.uk on 9th March, 2022

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