Non Infectious Disease Assignment Sample

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Introduction of Non-Infectious Disease Assignment

Non-infectious or Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are developed due to physiological, environmental, behavioural and genetic factors. This disease is also known as a chronic disease. Non-communicable diseases cause 71% of total deaths throughout the world; however, it does not transmit from one person to another (Who.int, 2021). This assessment is associated with two parts. In part one, this study is going to focus on a range of non-infectious diseases and their possible causes. Further, for assessment two, this study is going to focus on diabetes and discuss its epidemiology, cause and campaign to reduce the disease.

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Assessment task part 1

Range of non-infectious disease

In the 20th century, noon-infectious diseases created a significant burden on the epidemiological landscape (Jakovljevic et al. 2019). According to the World Health Organization, non-communicable or non-infectious diseases create around 85% of total premature deaths throughout the world (Who.int, 2021). Now this section is going to figure out some non-communicable diseases.

  • Autoimmune disease: Graves’ disease
  • Inherited disease: Sickle cell anaemia
  • Congenital disorder: Down syndrome
  • Lifestyle factors influenced disorder: obesity

Causes of non-infectious disease and Impact on health of an individual

This section is going to identify the causes of the above-mentioned non-communicable disease.

Non-communicable disease

Causes

Impact

? Graves’ disease

Hyperthyroidism and hypothyrotoxic are common causes behind the development of graves’ disease (Subekti and Pramono, 2018). In contrast, Mangaraj et al. (2020) argued that deficiency of Vitamin D is one of the leading causes behind Graves' disease.

Graves' disease is associated with multiple disorders. It has been identified that grave diseases affect heart structure and function (Gawa?ko et al. 2020). Further ability of the heart to pump blood is also affected due to this autoimmune disorder.

? Sickle cell anaemia

Sickle cell anaemia is one of common genetic disorders, which developed due to changes in erythrocytes. It has been identified that production of abnormal types of haemoglobinis one of leading causes behind the development of sickle cell anaemia (Cheng, 2019).

Stroke is one of the common health effects identified among an individual with the issue of sickle cell anaemia. It has been identified that sickle cells affect the blood flow to the brain, which is one of the leading causes of stroke (Jordan et al. 2020). Therefore, it can be stated that stroke is a common effect. Further, Pulmonary hypertension, acute chest syndrome issues are also identified among an individual with the issue of sickle cell anaemia.

? Down syndrome

Random errors in cell division are one of the common causes that lead to development of down syndrome (Dumortier and Bricout, 2020).

According to Gomez et al. (2020) down syndrome is one of leading causes that may develop the issue of Alzheimer's. It has been identified that down syndrome is one of the common causes of Alzheimer's disease.

? obesity

An unhealthy diet, excess consumption of fast food, unhygienic food and lack of exercise are common causes of the development of the issue of obesity (Omer, 2020).

According to Csige et al. (2018), obesity is not one of the common disorders, which may develop the issue of cardiovascular disorder. It has been identified that an obese individual is required a high level of blood, oxygen in the body. In this aspect, to maintain body oxygen supply, it develops the pressure of blood. In this aspect, obesity is the leading cause of developing cardiovascular disorders. In addition, atherosclerosis issues are also identified due to the risk factor of obesity (Csige et al. 2018). 

Table 1: Cause and effect of non-infectious disease

Assessment task part 2

Epidemiology of diabetes

This section is going to focus on Diabetes as one of common non-communicable diseases. According to Diabetes UK, around 4.7 million people live in UK with the issue of diabetes (Diabetes.org.uk, 2018).

 Prevalences of diabetes in UK

(Source: Statista.com, 2019)

Above figure indicates that from 2015 to 2016, around 2.97 million people in the UK have faced the issue of diabetes. The above graph indicates that by the end of 2017 to 2018 around 3.2 million people in UK have experienced the issue of diabetes (Statista.com, 2019). Therefore, by keeping an eye on the above discussion, it can be stated that the prevalence of diabetes in UK is gradually increased from 2016 to 2018.

 Diabetes in UK by the end of 2018

(Source: Diabetes.org.uk, 2018)

According to Diabetes UK, 4.7 million people in the UK faced the issue of diabetes, which has been increased from 1.3 million in 1998 (Diabetes.org.uk, 2018). Further, the above data indicate that around 12.3 million people in the UK have at risk or are prone to face the issue of type-2-diabetes (Diabetes.org.uk, 2018). Therefore, by focusing on the above discussion, it can be stated that diabetes is one of the common health burdens identified in the UK.

Contributing factor and relationship of disease diabetes

According to Zhou et al. (2019), obesity or being overweight is one of leading causes that may develop the burden of diabetes. It has been identified that an inactive lifestyle or lack of physical activity may develop the issue of diabetes. Here, it can be stated that this poor lifestyle is one of influential and contributing factors for developing diabetes disorder.

 Obesity-induced diabetes

(Source: Chadt et al. 2018)

Presence of macronutrients in the adipose tissue helps to release multiple inflammatory mediated tumour necrosis factors and interleukin-6. Besides these, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 is also secreted from the macrophages. Further, the above figure indicates that these cytokines help in lipogenesis differentiation by secreting Toll-like Receptor 4, which develops endocrine dysfunction. In addition, these factors increase insulin resistance (Chadt et al. 2018). Here, it can be stated that obesity played one of the leading and significant roles in developing diabetes in an individual.

In addition, high blood pressure is one of the common causes identified in an individual, which may develop the issue of diabetes. High blood pressure is one of common influential factors that may develop the issue of diabetes. According to Mancia and Grassi, (2018), high blood pressure or hypertension is one of common influential factors that develop the issue of resistance to insulin or reduce the production of insulin. Consequently, it develops the burden of diabetes.

Further, diabetes is recognised as a genetic or hereditary disorder. It has been identified that family history is one of the common influencing factors behind the issue of diabetes. It has been identified that family history may develop the issue of diabetes. Type -2 diabetes is directly connected with the risk of family history compared to type-1 diabetes. Therefore, by keeping an eye on the above discussion, it can be stated that obesity, overweight, lack of physical captivity, family history and high blood pressure may develop the burden of diabetes.

Health promotion campaign and its effectiveness

The National Health Service (NHS) and Diabetes UK have been working together to develop a campaign among people in the UK to reduce the burden of Diabetes. These two organizations have developed a programme named “NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme (NDPP)" to reduce the burden of diabetes among people in Uk and improve their health and wellbeing (Diabetes.org.uk, 2020).

Aim of “NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme (NDPP)" is to reduce the 50% of diabetes, especially type-2-diabetes among people in the UK and improve their health and wellbeing (Diabetes.org.uk, 2020).

Effectiveness of "NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme (NDPP)"

Now this section is going to discuss the effectiveness of the campaign, which aims to reduce the burden of diabetes among people in the UK. The NDPP aim was to promote awareness among people regarding the risk factor of diabetes (Diabetes.org.uk, 2020). In addition, this program will promote awareness among people regarding a healthy lifestyle and environment to reduce the burden of diabetes. In context of the effectiveness of the program, it is focused on raising awareness regarding the use of the disease. In this aspect, the two organizations promote significant knowledge among people regarding the risk of diabetes further. Taking action, this program is promoting the importance of regular physical activity, a healthy diet and a proper environment (Diabetes.org.uk, 2020). Kumar et al. (2019) stated that healthy and regular physical activity is a crucial factor that helps to reduce the burden of diabetes. Further, this literature claims that regular physical activity will help to reduce the release of cytokines and reduces the burden of diabetes. Therefore, by keeping an eye on the above discussion it can be stated that NDPP is an effective health campaign whose aim is to reduce the burden of diabetes and improve the well-being of people.

Conclusion

This study can be concluded that regular physical activity and a healthy diet played a significant role in reducing the burden of non-communicable disease diabetes Purpose of this study was to identify the range of non-communicable diseases. In context of part one, this study has identified different types of non-communicable diseases, their possible causes and their impact on the health of an individual. In context of part two of the assignment, this study has identified that diabetes is one of chronic health burdens in the UK. This study has been discussing health campaigns for diabetes in the UK.

Reference list

Chadt, A., Scherneck, S., Joost, H.G. and Al-Hasani, H., 2018. Molecular links between obesity and diabetes:“diabesity”. Endotext [Internet].

Cheng, K., 2019. Prevention of strokes caused by sickle cell anemia, ischemiaor hemorrhage. ARC Journal of Hematology4, pp.26-30.

Csige, I., Ujvárosy, D., Szabó, Z., L?rincz, I., Paragh, G., Harangi, M. and Somodi, S., 2018. The impact of obesity on the cardiovascular system. Journal of diabetes research2018.

Diabetes.org.uk, 2018. diabetes-prevalence-statistics. Available from: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/about_us/news/diabetes-prevalence-statistics[Accessed 25/03/2022]

Diabetes.org.uk, 2020. our prevention work. Available from: https://www.diabetes.org.uk/preventing-type-2-diabetes/prevention[Accessed 25/03/2022]

Dumortier, L. and Bricout, V.A., 2020. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in adults with down syndrome: Causes and consequences. Is it a" chicken and egg" question?. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews108, pp.124-138.

Gawa?ko, M., Balsam, P., Lodzi?ski, P., Grabowski, M., Krzowski, B., Opolski, G. and Kosiuk, J., 2020. Cardiac arrhythmias in autoimmune diseases. Circulation Journal84(5), pp.685-694.

Gomez, W., Morales, R., Maracaja-Coutinho, V., Parra, V. and Nassif, M., 2020. Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease: common molecular traits beyond the amyloid precursor protein. Aging (Albany NY)12(1), p.1011.

Jakovljevic, M., Jakab, M., Gerdtham, U., McDaid, D., Ogura, S., Varavikova, E., Merrick, J., Adany, R., Okunade, A. and Getzen, T.E., 2019. Comparative financing analysis and political economy of noncommunicable diseases. Journal of medical economics22(8), pp.722-727.

Jordan, L.C., Kassim, A.A., Wilkerson, K.L., Lee, C.A., Waddle, S.L. and Donahue, M.J., 2020. Using novel magnetic resonance imaging methods to predict stroke risk in individuals with sickle cell anemia. Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy13(2), pp.76-84.

Kumar, A.S., Maiya, A.G., Shastry, B.A., Vaishali, K., Ravishankar, N., Hazari, A., Gundmi, S. and Jadhav, R., 2019. Exercise and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of physical and rehabilitation medicine62(2), pp.98-103.

Mancia, G. and Grassi, G., 2018. Blood pressure targets in type 2 diabetes. Evidence against or in favour of an aggressive approach. Diabetologia61(3), pp.517-525.

Mangaraj, S., Choudhury, A.K., Swain, B.M., Sarangi, P.K., Mohanty, B.K. and Baliarsinha, A.K., 2019. Evaluation of vitamin D status and its impact on thyroid related parameters in new onset Graves' disease-A cross-sectional observational study. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism23(1), p.35.

Omer, T., 2020. The causes of obesity: an in-depth review. Adv Obes Weight Manag Control10(4), pp.90-94.

Statista.com, 2019. Number of patients on diabetes register in England from 2008/09 to 2017/18. Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/386885/diabetes-prevalence-in-england-uk/ [Accessed 25/03/2022]

Subekti, I. and Pramono, L.A., 2018. Current diagnosis and management of Graves' disease. Acta Med Indones50(2), pp.177-182.

Who.int, 2021. Noncommunicable diseases. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/noncommunicable-diseases [Accessed 25/03/2022]

Zhou, Y., Chi, J., Lv, W. and Wang, Y., 2021. Obesity and diabetes as high?risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid?19). Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews37(2), p.e3377.

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