Introduction of Psychological Disorders- Mental Health
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The main aim of the study will be based on the several psychological categories of an individual that happen in different forms. It is stated that every individual is different from one another and so its psychological traits are. Therefore, this study will be routed on some of the basic social deviations of mental health and classification of psychological disorders that are important to know for better information. Apart from that during severe psychological disorders what are the treatments necessary for coping up along with the diagnostic criteria everything will be clarified under this report briefly with statements. The report will also state the definition of therapeutic strategies used in the treatment of psychological orders and how an individual can overcome form it in the near future by Understanding the application and effectiveness of therapeutic strategies
used in the treatment of psychological disorders and the effectiveness of different kinds of treatments.
1. Understand definitions of abnormality
1.1. Identify and evaluate psychological definitions of abnormality, eg deviation from the statistical norm, social deviation, deviation from mental health, etc.
Abnormality is basically a deviation of an ideal mental state, which according to psychologists are not categorized under the criteria of normal people. A person having an abnormal mentality is often different in his/her actions, behavior, emotional thoughts, and level of distress that differentiate him from the other category of individuals. In other words, it can be clearly defined as the statistical infrequency in terms of achieving failure while performing any task or activities in front of society or in personal life (Moradi, et al. 2019). Based on the social-psychological deviation of abnormality it can be defined as the people who are labeled as abnormal people of society due to their different behavior patterns and are often ignored by the people. Speaking about the social derivation, society has created a set of invisible rules and regulations for the person undergoing an abnormality in terms of ignoring them from every special gathering or occasion and often ends up looking down on them which harms the mental health of the abnormal people and they tend to feel isolated.
Deviation from mental health in terms of the people who are having abnormal syndrome have a different type of mentality than normal people (Park, et al. 2019). They often tend to characterize abnormal thoughts, perceptions, and behavior which segregates their relationship with the other individual. Hence the abnormal people meltdown into serious depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychological development disorders that harm their mental peace and harmony and cause massive damage to their mental health. Focusing on the signs of changing behavioristic patterns of erosion, thought and behavior is a severe sign of mental health condition that distinguishes between the normal and abnormal. Therefore, psychologists have given the title abnormal to those people who are going under this severe syndrome of different mental health.
The statistical deviation is mainly the score obtained from a percentage variation in terms of measuring or calculating something. According to the statistical deviation of abnormality, it is stated that in the population given of 100% there is a total of 5% population who falls under the category of abnormal and that's what the deviation of statistical norm states. It is obtained by forecasting or observing the behavior of the people in the society in terms of measuring the uncommon statistics among the individual or which is not seen in the society quite often (Sue, et al. 2021). Based on the data obtained, statistics are made and people are classified under the category of abnormal.
Therefore, from all the deviation of mental health, social deviation, statistical deviation it is obtained that despite all the categories and distinction people suffering from abnormal disorder tends to violate social norms, statistical rarity, personal distress, and mal-behavioral practices which is not only harmful to the individual but also sometimes harmful for the society in case of extreme terms. Therefore, these people should be delivered proper psychological treatment so that their mental health can be improved and someday they can capture the ability to become normal people and stand in society with power and potential (Yang, et al. 2019).
2. Understand classification systems and diagnostic criteria of psychological disorders
2.1. Describe a classification system for psychological disorders.
According to several types of research and data, the most commonly used classification system in terms of mental disorders is the diagnostic classification system. This type of classification is mainly used to check on the mental and behavioral syndromes and perform the diagnosis of that particular person suffering from mental disorders. Clinical diagnoses in the form of a Diagnostic classification system are not that much valid. The reason behind it is that the clinicians do not adhere to the rules and regulations of the diagnosis, while they incorporate their own form of technique in terms of introducing DSM-IV criteria which reveals the real examination of the diagnoses (Dalgleish, et al. 2020). Though psychologists think that using this kind of classification can create problems as this will lead to various discrimination in terms of gender bias, age, and sex as it tends to underdiagnose or overdiagnose some particular form of mental disorder. Under these classification systems, the most common form of mental treatment that happens is schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorders. Apart from that people who are having bipolar disorders often take this type of classification system. Hence this is the reason why the diagnostic classification system is the most common and important form of classification available despite its moderate differentiation regarding biasness (Burton, et al. 2020).
2.2. Analyze the implications of diagnostic classification with reference to validity, reliability, practicality, and ethical issues.
Speaking about the ethical issues of the diagnostic classification system it is found that it leads to different kinds of problems such as discrimination of individuals based on their race, gender, and age while performing the treatment categorized under the underdiagnosis or overdiagnosis of mental disorders. Gender bias in terms of ethical issues is the most common form of bias that is observed under different diagnoses of histrionic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder. The validity of the diagnostic system stays for a longer period of time (Caspi and Moffitt, 2018). The reason behind it is that it helps in differentiating between a normal person and a person having a mental disorder. While speaking about reliability it mainly has two forms that include higher rate reliability and test-retest reliability. According to this reliability, it states that if a person is asked a similar type of question will come up with a similar answer but in one case if the person is answering wrong in this particular test, then he/she is having some mental disorder that's what the reliability under the classification states. Stating the Diagnostic classification system is listed down practically in the form of a diagnostic code after which the method begins.
2.3. Describe the diagnostic criteria for a psychological disorder.
This point will speak about a psychological disorder in terms of a category named bipolar disorder. This kind of disorder is mainly a syndrome that changes the mood and energy of a person within a few seconds. The reason behind it is that it is a brain disorder that occurs from some kind of hypomania act that the person has experienced in their past life. A person diagnosed with bipolar disorder must have experience in the form of at least a single hypomania or a mania. Hence, he/she must stay irate for at least one week after that individual experience's hypomania (Abdi, et al. 2019). The diagnostic criteria are also perceived by observing certain symptoms like lethargy, facing difficulty in concentrating, feelings of guilt & despair, doubting the inner self, feeling worthless, etc. Overall, the person loses confidence in himself and tends to isolate his personality from everybody else. At certain times people having bipolar disorder tend to have a neutral mood which becomes a bit difficult for clinicians to categorize them under the syndrome. If this syndrome is treated then people suffering from bipolar disorder tend to have a productive and happy life ahead (Bélair, et al. 2018).
3. Understand the demographics of psychological disorders.
3.1 Describe and analyze statistical evidence about psychological disorders that happens with age
Psychological disorders are something that happens to every human being at a particular point in time. But for humans, the disorder level has grown to an extreme that tends to classify them under several mental disorder categories like bipolar disorder, abnormality, and many others. Therefore there are certain classification systems in terms of obtaining techniques and strategies to classify different types of mental disorders and provide them with an accurate level of treatment. Speaking about the global statistical evidence of psychological disorders in terms of age it is obtained that the majority of mental disorders occur at the age of 14, 18, and 25 which is the peak for obtaining or starting the symptom of mental disorders (Keles, et al. 2020). Across 192 studies it is been found that the median age is the basic peak point of developing mental disorders that includes one proportionate with a person suffering from mental disorders right in the age of 14 is 34%, 18 is 48%, 25 is 63%. The peak age is found to be 14.5 years when an individual starts his/her puberty season. These results are all obtained from the clinicians who daily place the record of the people suffering from mental disorders and get admitted to the clinics in terms of recovering from it and achieving productivity in life. Individuals who are having mental disorders tend to decrease a total of 10-15 years of life expectancy as compared to the overall population of normal human beings.
It has been stated based on the statistical data obtained that the age range of 14.5 is the maximum range of catching mental disorders, which can get improved if the person is provided with the treatment just at the onset of capturing mental disorders (San Too, et al. 2019). Then the individual tends to have the chance of reducing 255 of the total mental disorder after diagnosing with the particular form of treatment observing the psychological disorder. Although the health of the individual can be promoted through different methods it is also stated that the age range of young people tends to receive the highest number of mental disorders which can happen again and again even after several treatments, until and unless the person is willing to get out of it from the core of their heart. Based on the preferred review items of systematic reviews in terms of calculating the total age category of the people suffering from a mental disorder, it is obtained that birth cohort, incident, mental disorder, and age at onset are the major keyword that has resulted in the birth of psychological mental health among the youths raged from age 14-25 years (De Crescenzo, et al. 2019).
Depicting the age category for mental disorders
From the statistical data given it can be obtained that the highest form of mental disorder among human beings is in the age range of 18-25 years, especially among female candidates. The second highest is under the age category of 26-49, the third-highest is in the age range of 18 or older and the least is 50 or older.
4. Understand theoretical explanations of psychological disorders
4.1. Describe and evaluate TWO explanations for a psychological disorder.
The psychological disorder that will be explained at this point is schizophrenia. The main reason for choosing this psychological disorder is because it is one of the most common forms of mental disorder that is found in human beings. The main definition that can be categorized under this bipolar disorder is that during the time period of schizophrenia a person loses the ability to think like a normal person and often tends to stay out of reality because of this he is concluded as out of the box by the society (Hunt, et al. 2018). A person facing schizophrenia often has difficulty with concentration and loses memory quite often which makes him absentminded. In total schizophrenia is a mental disorder that affects the capability of the person in terms of making his/her mental health disabilities in terms of stopping that person from thinking positively and behaving freely in society.
Another explanation of schizophrenia obtained from different findings can be stated as the condition in which a cat can be cured and will stay in a person's life for a longer period of time until and unless he ceases to exist. Though there are treatments which can help the person feel a bit relaxed. There are different kinds of treatments, medications, and therapies that include rehabilitation of the individual, psychoeducation, family therapy, behavior therapy that can provide multiple relief to the patient but will not cure them properly (Liu, et al. 2020). The reason behind it is that there are people who are born with this syndrome and there are some who develop this syndrome in the course of life due to some negative influences in life. Schizophrenia generally develops at the age of ’20s according to a study made by psychologists and can also start at the age of 18 or before. In children, the age category of schizophrenia is from 13 years which is extremely rare. Though there are some people who consider schizophrenia a split personality or multiple personalities. But in real terms, it can only be explained with the loss of mind. Rather normal human beings are much more dangerous or violent than the person having schizophrenia because this person often tends to lose his/her memory and prefers to stay alone in terms of isolating himself from the world. Focusing on the signs of changing behavioristic patterns of erosion, thought and behavior is a severe sign of mental health condition that distinguishes between schizophrenia and a normal person. Therefore, psychologists have given the title of schizophrenia to those people who are going under this severe syndrome of different mental health in terms of losing the ability to think like a normal person (Vaidyam, et al. 2019). There are mainly five types of schizophrenia which include paranoid schizophrenia, catatonic schizophrenia, residual schizophrenia, disorganized schizophrenia, and undifferentiated schizophrenia that are mainly found under the category of this disease. Hence these are the two famous derivations through which the mental health of schizophrenia can be explained.
1. Understand the application and effectiveness of therapeutic strategies
used in the treatment of psychological disorders
5.1. Describe different therapeutic strategies used in the treatment of psychological disorders
Bipolar disorder- The therapeutic strategies used under this treatment are a combination of medication and physiotherapy that helps in controlling the symptoms and make the person a bit more normal than before. Speaking about the medication there is a mood-stabilizing medicine and the other is antipsychotic for better results.
Schizophrenia- Antipsychotic medicines are commonly given to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Apart from that, second-generation antipsychotic drugs are mainly provided which consist of a list of medications like Abilify, saphris, etc.
Attention-deficit hyperactive- Methylphenidate is the commonly given medication prescribed by clinicians to patients suffering from this kind of syndrome. Stimulants are another form of medication treatment provided. Other techniques include behavior therapy, counseling, and education services that can provide relief to the patients (Freeman, et al. 2018).
5.2. Explain the theoretical basis for the different therapeutic strategies used in the
treatment of psychological disorders.
As mentioned above, there is a certain number of psychological disorders that can happen with any age group and at any point in time. Hence some of the major therapeutic strategies used by clinicians against psychological disorders include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic, dialectical behavior therapy, family therapy, group therapy, interpersonal therapy, and mentalization-based therapy. These are certain forms of techniques and strategies used. Speaking about the theoretical approach it mainly classifies the counseling process that includes the following: -
- The person-centered approach (Carl Rogers)
- The psychodynamic approach (Sigmund Freud)
- Cognitive behavior approach (Ellis and Back)
5.3. Analyze and evaluate the merits of one particular therapeutic approach.
The certain merits of including the cognitive behavior approach is the major therapy for the individual suffering from a mental disorder can give the following merits: -
- It helps in developing the communication power of the individual
- Helps the person to feel empowered and motivated
- Developing the capability to cope with certain stress levels in life and developing a newer approach to life.
5.4. Evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for a psychological disorder.
In certain research and opinions given by psychologists, it is stated that medications are perceived to the patients but apart from that, there are certain effective theories which help the person cope with that syndrome. Hence in this case psychiatrists are the only persons who can deliver an effective form of statements to mental disorder patients as they have years of experience in terms of tackling several mental disorders (Patey, et al. 2018).
From the above study, it can be obtained that the entire report is based on the mental disorder and Understanding of the application and effectiveness of therapeutic strategies
used in the treatment of psychological disorders and the effectiveness of different kinds of treatments. It is concluded that the most commonly used classification system in terms of mental disorders is the diagnostic classification system. This type of classification is mainly used to check on the mental and behavioral syndromes and perform the diagnosis of that particular person suffering from mental disorders. Apart from that, the highest form of mental disorder among human beings is in the age range of 18-25 years, especially among female candidates. The second highest is under the age category of 26-49, the third-highest is in the age range of 18 or older and the least is 50 or older. The different therapeutic strategies used in the treatment of psychological disorders is obtained for a better understanding
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