Psychology Postal Assignment Sample

Understanding Postal Depression: Causes, Symptoms, and Coping Strategies

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Introduction Of The Psychology Postal Depression Assignment Sample

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Task 1: Academic poster

"Depression may influence up to 10% of the residents", with symptoms consisting of half of the affected people. There are many mental health disorders such that anxiety, eating, disruptive behaviour, bipolar disorder and all these health disorders mild to moderate depression and there is no reliable evidence that any one-treatment method is strong enough to cure, although, the strength of the evidence backing several treatments varies.  this study aims to investigate one of the mental health disorders and regarding its problems and criticisms approaches and theories need to be selected. In this paper anxiety, the disorder is chosen in which fear and anxiety are considered as core and primary features of the disorder.

Concept of normality and challenges linked with a clear concept of normality

According to Richards et al. (2020), sleep is a vital psychological process, which influences the performance of people in various functioning such as emotional, metabolic, cognitive and immunologic. Although, understanding the neuroanatomy of sleep regulations in humans is in combination with unique electroencephalography (EEG), pharmacological and imaginative studies observed delivered some of the clues regarding this disorder. It is important to be clear about how behaviour is needed to be before one can judge that he has an anxiety issue. Statistical infrequency explanation might help to configure or address the normality link in mental health disorders. As per the statistical report of NIMH, depression may affect 27% of elderly people due to sleep issues and this would make it common but that does not involve it is not a problem (Simplypsychology.org, 2022). Taking the help of this type of explanation degree to which norms are violated culture, context and situation, age and gender are included which delivers effectiveness of the normality in specified health disorders. For example, someone who fails their job will not be able to get up and go to work with money for their family and that will certainly cause distress but does not cause irregularity.

brain regions consist of fear due to fear, anxiety expression and modulation

Figure 1: brain regions consist of fear due to fear, anxiety expression and modulation

(Source: Richards et al. 2020)

In contrast, deviation from social norms is expected of behaving in society as per the majority and whether it is implicit or explicit, "social norms always allow an individual the regulation normal social behaviour". The “deviation from Social norms” irregularity is determined because it signifies that all behaviour which breaks social norms is “strange” and it doesn’t evaluate between socially deviant behaviour and mental abnormality and the main problems always come there (psychologyhub.co.uk, 2022). For example, "someone found blameworthy of being a drink-driver may have broken a social norm, but they are not considered to have a mental abnormality".

Main systems for the classification of mental illness

Most mental and behavioural disorders are classified using ICD and DSM systems, which classify diseases once the diagnosis is established in that person in a good manner. "The ICD-10 is constructed by a global health agency that has a public health mission whereas DSM 5 is yielded by a single national professional association" (Apa.org, 2022). Having feelings of nervousness, fear and panic are some mental symptoms and physical symptoms such as rapid heartbeat and sweating are some signs and symptoms of anxiety disorder. Besides that having difficulty concentrating and feeling restless or on edge are some signs, which create a mental imbalance and proper treatment with help of this system, is necessary. The ICD is distributed as a broadly possible system tool which is available at a very little cost whereas there is a little bit of justification for utilising the DSM as a separate diagnostic system.

Summary and evaluation of two therapies for the disorder

"Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)" is one type of behavioural treatment which mainly target three therapeutic goals such as accepting emotions, choosing a direction and then taking proper action. The provider also helps patients to do all the activities, which they always try to avoid (Clevelandclinic.org, 2022). It teaches paying attention to purpose in the present and acceptance skills and therefore manifesting behaviours and recognising personal values.

"Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT)" is an example of a psychoanalytical approach, which helps people to get over anxiety disorders. Using this approach, a health expert teaches an individual to identify patterns and thoughts which leads to unsettling feeling and reactions to anxiety-producing objects (Clevelandclinic.org, 2022). It has mainly three phases which are proper education, application and relapse prevention and that inform an individual in different ways to help the person to manage reactions and reduce all responses.

Debate section Task 2

Utilisation of medical, psychoanalytical and behaviourist model for anxiety

Based on the medical model, mental illnesses like depression can be treated in the correct dosage and can have a positive impact on functioning. "A holistic model of the alternative health movement" recovers all type of mental disorders including depression and treats psychological disorders in the same way as a broken arm are treated. "Electroconvulsive therapy" is an important biological approach to mitigating the issues caused by those patients. "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy" is one of the most well researched therapies that the behavioural model posits and leads to the development of depressive symptoms. A person with analytics depression experiences intense fears struggles to maintain direct physical content and the need for gratifying object guilt and a sense of having failed the behavioural models are implemented for such issues. "The object relations theory which consists of a psychoanalytical model" has evolved a fair amount with how people understand and mentally represent their relationships among others. As per this model, depression is mainly caused by people have in developing replicas of healthy relationships.

Strength and weakness of biological, psychoanalytical and behaviourist model

Strengths and weaknesses of the Biological model

The main strength of the biological model of antidepressants is that the symptoms related to depression are relieved. Somatic symptoms are improved while these approach after treatments only half the people reporting to sleep disturbances. A major weakness of this model is that this is not always feasible in a long-term solution for serious depression issues. Due to these advantages, bilateral ECT is utilised for patients as an effective treatment.

Strengths and weaknesses of the psychoanalytical model

The psychoanalytical model is one of the most intensive forms of treatment when talking about the financial commitment. Intimating a level of discussion with patients who have depression therapist neutrality and interpretation works. Although, this model only has one weakness in this type of health problem it needs more therapy sessions for improving their mental health.

Strengths and weaknesses of the behaviourist model

One of the greatest strengths of the behavioural psychology model is that it is based on observable behaviours and does not indicate any cognitive function. It examines socially observed behaviours that people mainly need to display which arise from unrelenting that create feelings of worthlessness. In contrast, the impairment has been studied extensively and cognitive effects are not considered in memory function, which is a major weakness of this model.

Conclusion

Observing all the approaches utilised in this process for overcoming mental health, the behavioural approach or model is evaluated as most effective as it suggests behaviours, which are learnt through response and environmental stimuli.

Team member one

Biological approach

Depression is a mental disorder that deals with the function of neurotransmitters it help to regulate the mood of humans by transmitting chemical from brain cells through the synapse. The message is passed through electric charges and from one receptor to the other neurons. Depression biologically can be termed the monoamine hypothesis” monoamines are the mood regulator which includes noradrenaline, serotoninand dopamine. They are related to mental disorders as the range increases they make difference in the mental state of mind. Serotonin is indirectly linked to the lack of pressure as the level of serotonin decreases or reaches to lower limit the noradrenaline drops and this leads to dropping in attenuation as well as reward.

A decrease in the level of serotonin will decrease the level of dopamine which is related to energy and alertness which ultimately leads to anxiety. However, on the other hand, the increase in serotonin will increase noradrenaline and lead to a psychotic state and hyper-alert of mind.

I must conclude that the strength of the explanation is that it provides a clear concept of depression. This also helps in providing support to people suffering from depression. helps in understanding the key concept of depression. The disadvantage of this explanation is I cannot assist with any kind of medicine for the patient.

Team member two

Behaviorist approach

The behavioural practice mainly implies that the legends to interpretation development are perceptible behaviour and exterior catalysts in the surroundings. Behaviourism is a theory of learning, and learning theories focus on how we are conditioned to respond to events or stimuli. The major concept behind Behavioural Practice as a remedy for despair is mainly “to permit patients with depressive manifestation to comprehend to manage with their gloom” and also to supplement favourable attention through the re-maturation of emotional destinations in the formation of “temporary, medium and prolonged-term life destinations”.

The strength of the explanation is that I can take care of the patient by providing proper medication and empathy to the patient and can feel the suffering. The explanation helps in providing better knowledge of depression and what are the steps that need to be taken care of. The weakness of the explanation is that I can't understand the internal aspect of the patient and can't take any steps to stabilize the mental disorder.

Team member three

Psychoanalytic

It is an approach that deals with feeling thought and action where the trainer can assist the patient in various ways to understand the thought process of the patient and solve it by various techniques. This process helps in knowing the feeling as well as many other aspects by talking with the patients. This therapy helps in knowing the feeling through the unconscious process. This helps the therapies to perform according to their need as the patients don't speak out about their issues.

The strength of the explanation is it provides a detail of the issue which is been rivalled in the patient's mind and this can be cured by various techniques. The less use of medicine and an increase in physical activity will cure the patient. The weak point of the explanation is it cannot supply emergency treatment as it is a long terms process.

References

Journals

Ozdemiroglu, F., 2022.The effects of chronotype on sexual satisfaction and quality of life in couples. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 26(20), pp.7333-7343. Doi:https://www.europeanreview.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/7333-7343.pdf

Pauley, D., Cuijpers, P., Papola, D., Miguel, C. and Karyotaki, E., 2021. Two decades of digital interventions for anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness. Psychological Medicine, pp.1-13.

Richards, A., Kanady, J.C. and Neylan, T.C., 2020. Sleep disturbance in PTSD and other anxiety-related disorders: an updated review of clinical features, physiological characteristics, and psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. Neuropsychopharmacology, 45(1), pp.55-73. Doi: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6879567/

Websites

Apa.org, 2022. ICD vs. DSM Available at: https://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/10/icd-dsm [Accessed on: 07/11/2022]

Clevelandclinic.org, 2022.Anxirty Disorders Available at: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/9536-anxiety-disorders [Accessed on: 07/11/2022]

psychologyhub.co.uk, 2022, definitions-of-abnormality Available at: psychologyhub.co.ukhttps://www.psychologyhub.co.uk/student-resources/paper-1-psychopathology/definitions-of-abnormality/ [Accessed on: 07/11/2022]

Pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2022.Behavioral theory of depression: reinforcement as a mediating variable between avoidance and depression Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21315876/ [Accessed on: 07/11/2022]

Simplypsychology.org, 2022. Statistical Infrequency Available at: https://www.simplypsychology.org/abnormal-psychology.html [Accessed on: 07/11/2022]

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