Public Health Priorities And Their Role In Health Assignment Sample

Navigating Public Health Priorities: Their Role in Health Assignments

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Introduction Of Strategic Public Health Priorities And Their Role In Health Education Towards Improving The Health Of Individuals

The following historical factors shaped the development of the current public health service system:

The United Kingdom's public health system has undergone significant change throughout time as a result of alterations in societal norms, governmental regulations, and medical advancements in the treatment of illnesses and injuries. For the United Kingdom, many deep historical origins have shaped the current public health care system. Every aspect of British history is permeated by the idea of public health, which also acts as the cornerstone of modern society and the healthcare system.

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The development of public health services in the United Kingdom has been shaped by several historical antecedents that include poor laws, the industrial revolution, the sanitary movement and the establishment of the National Health Service along with the AIDS epidemic. The introduction of poor laws in the 16th and 17th centuries provided a basic level of care for the sick and poor people. The law was the foundation for the provision of public health services in the UK.

The industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries led to overcrowding, poor sanitation and the spread of disease in urban areas. The government introduced different health measures like the Public Health Act of 1848, that established system of public health officers to monitor and control the disease spreading. The sanitary movement was social and political in the 19th century that addressed the need to improve public health through the provision of clean water, proper sanitation and better housing. The movement was laid by public health pioneers like Edwin Chadwick and John Snow. The AIDS epidemic in the 1980s and 1990s led to a renewed focus on public health particularly in sexually transmitted diseases.

Relating today's public health problems in the UK to their historical roots:

There are several public health problems presently plaguing the United Kingdom that have historical roots. The United Kingdom has one of the highest obesity rates, with two-thirds of adults and one-third of children being overweight or obese (Commonslibrary.parliament.uk, 2023). This is partly because of the changes in diet and lifestyle reflecting the legacy of food scarcity during and after World War II. Mental health is a growing issue in the United Kingdom and it is estimated that 25% of adults experience a mental health problem each year (Statista.com, 2022). The historical stigma behind mental illness prevents people from seeking help leading to the increase of the disease. Health inequality and the spread of infectious diseases can be related to the historical factor of overcrowding and poor sanitation.

After the Second World War, the National Health Service, or NHS, was created to provide free treatment to all UK citizens. This initiative had a tremendous impact on the delivery of public health services. The NHS is continuously evolving and expanded throughout the years with the introduction of new services and treatments to improve current public health services.

The change in understanding of what public health is over time:

As social, political, economic, and environmental circumstances changed over time, so did our understanding of public health.

Public health in the medieval period i.e. 1000s-1500s:

Public health was limited and disease outbreaks were common because of poor sanitation, overcrowding and lack of understanding of hygiene. Public health mainly focused on religious practices including prayer and quarantine.

Public health in the early modern period i.e. 1500s-1800s:

Public health began to improve with the introduction of better sanitation and hygiene practices like clean water and the building of sewage systems. The great plague of London in 1665 led to the introduction of public health measures like quarantine and the removal of dead bodies.

Public health in the modern period i.e. 1800s-present day:

In the modern era through the implementation of a public health system, immunization campaigns, the creation of vaccines and antibiotics, and other factors, public health has significantly improved. A crucial turning point in the UK's public health service delivery was the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948. Public health programs today concentrate on several challenges, such as the control of pandemics and outbreaks as well as the prevention of disease.

Activity 2: Report

Introduction:

Public health is a significant aspect which are needed to be promoted and protect tense to maintain the health and well-being of the individual and community. Eat incorporate a range of activities including disease prevention health promotion along with protection. Over time the understanding of public health has evolved and different policies have been introduced by research to implement.

Impact of public health research and policy on the current practice in public health:

Population health has improved as a result of contemporary health policies made based on prior studies:

There is compelling evidence to back up the claim that contemporary health policies, which were based on prior research and strategy, have enhanced population health in the United Kingdom. Examples include a decline in smoking, a drop in measles cases as a result of vaccination, a rise in obesity, and the implementation of mental health legislation.

Smoking is a major risk for the UK population that comes with health problems like lung cancer, heart disease and stroke. The implementation of policies aim to reduce the smoking rate include higher taxes on tobacco products, a ban on advertisements and smoking services that reduce the smoking rate from 28% in 1998 to 14.7% in 2018 (Ons.gov.uk, 2023). Within the country, United Kingdom 15.9% of men and 12.5% of women are current smokers though the prevalence rate of smoking has fallen since 2011 from 20.2% to 14.1% (Ons.gov.uk, 2023). Vaccination also seemed to be effective in preventing a range of infectious diseases like MMR and HPV vaccines which reduce the number of cases of measles in the UK in 1988 (Mulchandani et al. 2021). Obesity reduction policies aim to reduce the obesity rate by increasing taxes on sugar, restring the advertising of unhealthy food and introducing calorie labelling on menus. The government also implemented a range of policies aimed at improving mental health care including funding for mental health services and the introduction of mental health support schools.

Overall, they are compelling pieces of evidence showing modern health policies, which were designed based on earlier research and strategy, have improved the health of the UK population.

The contribution of public health research to the national priority in public health of eliminating health inequalities:

Public Health research has played a significant role in informing policy development related to national public health priority for reducing health inequality in the UK. The PHE or Public Health England strategy has different key priorities including the reduction of health inequality having important one. Public health research contributes to reducing the causes of ill health and aims to improve the health of people and their well-being. The health of the population is negatively impacted by the initial help inequalities that exist across various socioeconomic categories, according to several studies and research. The Marmot review, which was released in 2010, emphasized the importance of addressing health inequalities in the UK and the socioeconomic determinants of health (Gov.uk, 2010). The report provided an analysis of the cause and consequences of health inequality with a series of recommendations for policy action implementation across a range of sectors including education, employment and housing (Marmot, 2020). Apart from this, other's research studies have shown that income equality is strongly associated with health outcomes, greater income inequality is linked with a higher rate of morbidity and mortality (Allison et al. 2023). Overall, public health research plays a crucial role in informing policy development to reduce health equality in the United Kingdom and evidence helps to shape government strategy and initiative.

Research contributing to the development of national policy:

Public health research plays a significant role in developing national policies in the UK. research on the health effects of air pollution has contributed to the development of policies aiming to reduce exposure to air pollutants and improve air quality. The clean air strategy was launched by the UK Government in the year 2019 with a range of policies to reduce emissions from transport, industry and agriculture also promoting cleaner forms of energy and reducing indoor air pollution (Gov.uk, 2019). A substantial amount of research on the detrimental effects of air pollution on health has demonstrated the increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular disorders associated with exposure to pollutants including particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.

Implementation of current public health strategy into the local community:

Critically reviewing the local public health strategies aiming to integrate approaches:

It is crucial to look at the regulatory bodies and priorities being targeted when analyzing local public health policies that incorporate methods of health improvement. The two regulatory bodies in the UK that provide recommendations and guidance for evidence-based public health treatments are PHE and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, or NICE (Capolongo et al. 2020). Local public health strategies aim to integrate approaches to improve health by addressing priorities identified by the regulatory bodies. In response to these priorities, local public health strategies may include different interventions while addressing social determinants of health like access to education, housing and employment opportunities. Strategies may focus on specific health issues like reducing smoking prevalence and improving nutrition and physical activity by reducing alcohol consumption.

Integrating methods for improving health is difficult, and it's important to make sure that initiatives are supported by data and tailored to the unique needs of the local population. Local public health strategies can be effective in integrating approaches to health improvement, but there are challenges to overcome such as cross-sector collaboration, evidence-based interventions tailored to local needs, and effective monitoring and evaluation.

Strategies for working in partnerships to support improvements in people's health:

Partnership working is a key aspect of public health improvement and can take different phones. Among different approaches to partnership working supporting improvement in individual health multi-disciplinary teamworking, community engagement, interagency collaboration, public-private partnership and academic practice partnership are important ones.

Multi-disciplinary team working involve bringing together professionals from different discipline to work collaboratively to improve individual health. Community engagement involves the active participation of individuals and the community in decisions about their health and well-being. Interagency cooperation entails cooperation between several organizations, such as health and social care services, local governments, and the nonprofit sector (Hood et al. 2020). This collaboration can improve the coordination and delivery of Health Services to ensure that individuals receive the required support. Partnerships between public, private and academic practice also help to create strong partnerships while exchanging knowledge to increase individual health. Overall partnership working is essential for improving individual health and there are different approaches to partnership working which are effective in their way (Schot, Tummers and Noordegraaf, 2020). Partnership working can make sure that people get the assistance they need to attain good health outcomes in the future by bringing various organizations and people together.

Individual role supporting them to take part in local health initiatives:

Individual responsibilities are crucial in assisting people in being aware of their abilities and assisting them in taking part in activities about neighbourhood health care. Some of the people having different roles who can support local health initiatives are

Professionals in Healthcare:

Healthcare workers can play a significant role in helping people become aware of local health initiatives and take part in them. This includes informing people about health initiatives, disseminating information about pertinent services and practices, and enticing them to participate in activities that promote good health.

Community workers:

Community workers directly work with individuals and the community to raise awareness of local health initiatives and encourage individual participation in the initiative. This involves building relationships with local communities, demographic groups and organising events and activities to provide information and support to people in need.

Educators:

Educators can assist people in becoming aware of and taking part in health programs by including health promotion activities in the curriculum. This can include providing information on healthy lifestyles, promoting physical activity and encouraging participation in local health initiatives.

Public Health Professionals:

Public health professionals can work with local authorities and community organisations to develop and promote local health initiatives along with community workers. These activities can involve developing health campaigns, organising Health Promotion events and working to improve inquality while accessing healthcare services.

Individuals can play an important part in supporting initiatives and participating in local health services. Providing information and support along with working to collaborate easily with other organisations and individuals, and individual can help to promote good health outcomes for the community.

The regulatory agency for public health's function in establishing public health standards:

Regulatory entities play a crucial role when establishing public health standards. These regulatory agencies are in charge of monitoring and controlling them yy ensuring that public health practices adhere to necessary standards. Public health regulatory organizations develop standards in several ways.

Standard-setting, rule-making, and enforcement functions are performed by public health regulatory authorities. Food safety, water purity, the prevention of infectious diseases, and environmental health are just a few of the many topics covered by these standards. Conducting inspections public health regulatory bodies publish audits to ensure that public health practices are meeting the required standards (Taylor and Wilson, 2019). The inspection can be carried out regularly or in response to specific incidents or concerns. The regulatory bodies collect and analyse data on health practices and outcomes that are used to identify areas of concern, track progress and inform policy and practice. These regulatory bodies have the power to enforce penalties when a certain organisation or individual fails to meet the required standard. This can include fines, legal action or revocation of licences or permits.

In general, the function of public health regulatory agencies is to establish standards for the public health industry, which is essential for safeguarding the population's safety and well-being. These bodies develop and enforce regulations, conduct inspections and audits, provide guidance and advice, monitor and analyse data and enforce penalties to promote good public health practices and outcomes.

The functions and accountability of several organizations working to enhance public health:

There are various Agencies involved in public health improvement in the United Kingdom and one has them has its own role and responsibilities. These agencies are

UK Health Security Agency or UKHSA: This was previously named as National Institute for health protection which invest in the expertise, infrastructure and capability to prepare for a wide range of potential future threat (Scally, 2021). The responsibilities of the agency include providing advice and guidance on public health issues, monitoring health threats and outbreaks of pandemics or epidemics and coordinating responses to emergencies.

National Health Services or NHS: The NHS is a publicly funded healthcare system in the United Kingdom that contributes significantly to the development of public health by offering healthcare services and fostering health and well-being through early detection and prevention.

Public Health England or PHE: PHE was created as an even executive agency for the UK Department of Health and Social Care, in charge of safeguarding and enhancing the health and well-being of the country.

Local authority: Local authorities are responsible for public health improvement in their areas.

Department of Health and social care or DHSC: Government financing and policy for public health are handled by the DHSC.

Conclusion:

The promotion and protection of people's health and well-being as well as that of their communities depend on public health. Public health knowledge has grown, and the current strategies and policies are based on research and evidence-based practice. Evaluation of local public health strategies and partnership working are essential for health improvement.

Recommendation:

There is a need for an increase in funding for Research and implementation of evidence base practices. A comprehensive and integrated approach to public health is essential for improving health outcomes.

References:

Activity 1:

  • Commonslibrary.parliament.uk, (2023). “Obesity statistics” Available at: https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/sn03336/ [Accessed on: 27.04.2023]
  • Statista.com, (2022). “Mental health in the United Kingdom (UK) - statistics & facts” Available at: https://www.statista.com/topics/8164/mental-health-in-the-uk/#topicOverview [Accessed on: 27.04.2023]
  • Statista.com, (2023). “Which of the following do you think are the most important issues facing the country now?” Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/886366/issues-facing-britain/ [Accessed on: 27.04.2023]

Activity 2:

  • Allison, R., Roberts, D.J., Briggs, A., Arora, S. and Anderson, S., 2023. The role of health protection teams in reducing health inequities: findings from a qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 23(1), p.231.
  • Capolongo, S., Rebecchi, A., Buffoli, M., Appolloni, L., Signorelli, C., Fara, G.M. and D’Alessandro, D., 2020. COVID-19 and cities: From urban health strategies to the pandemic challenge. A decalogue of public health opportunities. Acta Bio Medica: Atenei Parmensis, 91(2), p.13.
  • Gov.uk, (2010). “Fair society, healthy lives : the Marmot Review : strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010.” Available at: https://www.gov.uk/research-for-development-outputs/fair-society-healthy-lives-the-marmot-review-strategic-review-of-health-inequalities-in-england-post-2010#:~:text=In%20February%202010%2C%20the%20Marmot,Secretary%20of%20State%20for%20Health. [Accessed on: 27.04.2023]
  • Gov.uk, (2019). “Clean Air Strategy 2019” Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/clean-air-strategy-2019#:~:text=This%20strategy%20sets%20out%20our,nature%20and%20boosting%20the%20economy. [Accessed on: 27.04.2023]
  • Gov.uk, (2023). “About us” Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/public-health-england/about#:~:text=protecting%20the%20nation%20from%20public,for%20future%20public%20health%20challenges [Accessed on: 27.04.2023]
  • Hood, R., Gorin, S., Goldacre, A., Muleya, W. and Bywaters, P., 2020. Exploring drivers of demand for child protection services in an English local authority. Child & Family Social Work, 25(3), pp.657-664.
  • Ihv.org.uk, (2021). “Public Health England priorities in 2021” Available at: https://ihv.org.uk/news-and-views/news/public-health-england-priorities-in-2021/ [Accessed on: 27.04.2023]
  • Marmot, M., 2020. Health equity in England: the Marmot review 10 years on. Bmj, 368.
  • Mulchandani, R., Sibal, B., Phillips, A., Suleman, S., Banerjee, A., Teagle, R., Foulkes, S., Spence, K. and Edeghere, O., 2021. A large outbreak of measles in the West Midlands, England, 2017–2018: descriptive epidemiology, control measures and lessons learnt. Epidemiology & Infection, 149.
  • Ons.gov.uk, (2023) “Adult smoking habits in the UK: 2019” Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/healthandlifeexpectagencies/bulletins/adultsmokinghabitsingreatbritain/2019 [Accessed on: 27.04.2023]
  • Scally, G., 2021. A new public health body for the UK. bmj, 373.
  • Schot, E., Tummers, L. and Noordegraaf, M., 2020. Working on working together. A systematic review on how healthcare professionals contribute to interprofessional collaboration. Journal of interprofessional care, 34(3), pp.332-342.
  • Taylor, M.J. and Wilson, J., 2019. Reasonable expectations of privacy and disclosure of health data. Medical Law Review, 27(3), pp.432-460.
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