Introduction of The Police Agencies And The Communities Assignment
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The police agencies and the communities which have strong relationships of mutual trust are important to maintain effective policing and public safety. Police officials need to rely on the community members for the cooperation of them for providing them with the information about the day to day crime that are going around the neighbourhoods. Police need community members to plan solutions about the disorders and crime problems. Similarly the willingness of the community members to trust the police agencies depends on whether they have confidence in the principles of permissible legitimacy, justice and reflection of community values of the actions of the police. It mainly consists of three key components: social control, community engagement and crime prevention. Many questions have been raised regarding the legitimacy of the police in many communities for the involvement of force and other issues. The police agencies need to improve their relationships which is important as the local communities should be the top priority of the police(Marier, and Moule. 2019). Regarding the immoderate use of force and unlawfulness there have riots over misperceptions in between the police and the community. The police agencies were offered guidance by the community leaders about how to build trust among the community members as to understanding the issues.
How to build relationships between the police and the community
Discussion regarding the problems among the communities and the challenges that the police department are facing.
Dissension regarding the use of force and other issues can destroy the connection between the police and the community. For example, a single officer can destroy the relationships between the police and community by a horrific act of wrongdoing locally, which can gain worldwide attention and can cause the reduction of trust among the community members. They should acknowledge the issues of the history of the racial minorities and the lower class people who have acknowledged injustice from the police agencies (Jackson, et al. 2020). They should always consider each and every negative experience of the local community members. Mainly African-Americans has the history regarding the issues of facing racial discrimination and getting mistreated by the police, which accompanied by the issues of trust and indignation among the police and community which affected many people’s feelings and thoughts about the police. A plenty number of police enforcements are biased of laws which encouraged racial discrimination. Each and every police officers should be aware of the history about the racial discrimination that are hapenning in the nation and abide it as their own problems as it effects other people’s feelings about the police department. Each and every police officer should understand that the main reason behind the mistrust of police consists in issues such as racial difference from laws that require great penalties for violations of drug addiction. Police should abide by a rule regarding that if a police officer causes wrongdoing to one of the citizens regarding any kind of issues, they should create a duty to intervene policy that another officer shall step ahead and stop the other officer. These will catch the glimpse of the community leaders (Moule et al., 2019). Some community members believe that people sometimes may not trust the police authorities but they will trust the eyes of themselves or the social media such as facebook, instagram or else a Youtube video if the other officers still not step ahead and stop an abusive officer from wrongdoing to a civilian. Recently a lot of tactics and strategies regarding the minority communities have created distrust among the police authorities such as temporarily detaining, questing and sometimes searching either for example drugs or weapons among the civilians. It has caused a racial biassed scene among the police force which has created controversies.
Be explicit and explicable.
It is important for a police officer to be positive and translucent for the relationship between the police authorities and the community. If a critical accident or incident among the nation occurs, the police agencies should be transparent about the incident and should let out information as much as possible about the incident, as for the community shall not think that the particular information about the incident has been retained from them. It is also important that the first information can change about the critical incident and it can be preparatory. The police officers should let the public and media houses know that the previous or the first information of the critical information can be incorrect and should give the official news or information quickly and in a corrective way (Martin, 2018). Each and every police department should let the civilians know through the website of the police authorities about the complaints of the members, the use of the police force and each and every issue. Information about daily updates regarding nations issues should be provided to the citizens and should be easily accessible to the netizens. In this 21st century, it is time to provide crystal clear information and embrace the clarity about the crimes. Agencies should regularly post about arrets, crimes that are recently reported, data regarding the new or the enforced law, stops, warrants and demography. Agencies can also seek empowerment from the Accreditation for Enforcement of Law Agencies as Commision or some same kind of agencies to prove their commitment to brilliance in the enforcement of law (Laufs and Waseem, 2020). They can enforce mechanisms for monitoring the police behaviour by reviewing through the institutions that are not related to the police as a concern for proving translucent and explicability about the agency for example such as the independent patrons or review boards that are outsiders from the review boards regarding the investigations about the internal affairs. The civil rights department of justice has investigated and provided the local police stations an enormous amount of information about the vast and bestest practices to abide by legitimate policing. A vast amount of documents regarding policing are available from these investigations on the website of the civil rights department of justice. The summaries of the cases, letter findings and the lawsuits and other different types of documents that gives details about the training, reformation policies, the areas which have the practises of using police force, systems to detect the main problems regarding the police officers behaviour in the early intervention, supervising and administrating the officers, biassed policing, interaction with a civilian who have mental illness by the police, and the areas that needs the involvement of the justice department or the involvement of the DOJ investigations (Braga et al., 2019).
Reducing the bias and cultural proficiency step by step.
It is recommended mainly by many police administratives and the civil rights leaders that each and every police officer at different kinds training receive training on diversity, indirect prejudice, and cultural proficiency. Different kinds of towns and cities have different varieties of civilians with backgrounds consisting of different race and ethnicity and cultural background. It is very important for police officials to be able to have conversation and communication effectively with them and to understand the norms about their culture about these different groups (Peyton et al., 2019. ).
Focusing on collaborating is as important as the visibility in the community.
The police need to maintain visibility in the communities as it is important to know their residential address. A lot of people avoid interactions with the police regarding their personal issues outside the context of enforcement for which they can develop negative alliances- such as a one time interaction regarding the traffic ticket or being a victim to a crime and calling the police. Police need to find opportunities to break stereotypes and find opportunities to break personal barriers for the reduction of biassed communities.
The ductile part of human discernment is psychological heuristics, in a world consisting of full complex stimulants, which helps us to operate efficiently. For a criminal investigation, these types of mental shortcuts help to undermine the truth. The evidence that lays people and the professionals of the law enforcement provides with the studies that are vulnerable to the biassed confirmation, and the others individually, environmentally and the specific case factors that may worsen this risk. Social and cognitive psychology taught us that there are limitations to the abilities of decision making and attention in humans. All the stimulants can’t always be processed by us on a daily routine that surrounds us. So instead we modified the mental shortcuts or thumb rules by efficiently attuning the patterns to help us for the navigation in this complex world. This relying tendency on biases and heuristics serves us well through allowing us to make quick and informative decisions with a little appercipient effort (Richardson et al., 2019). It also has the possibility of accidentally subverting and has the potential of achieving justice through fair administration. The information which is processed or interpreted around the world by the people that is counted as an error in the system which affects the judgements they make including the decisions is known as cognitive bias. There are certain limitations in the human brain even if it is powerful. Cognitive bias can affect a police officer’s decision or judgement while having an interrogation or suspicion on a civilian as the main reason for this is the fourth amendment act of a policing principle or ideology or doctrine that fails to attend. There are plenty of predictable ways that reveal and can help in efficient cognitive processes and in a non-conscious way in bias decision making. Correspondence bias or fundamental attribution can cause people to ignore a situation by an individual determining the situation of an arguable behaviour to associate these types of actions to the kinds of an individual's temperament. The main target of this type of scrutiny is mainly the non-whites or the American-African people, which occurs more frequently as the effects of the biassed racial issues of the non-conscious. Its is mainly the results of the psychological issues or biases of the attributes of the police officers regarding the debatable or arguable behavior of against the non-white people and in favour of the white people as the identical favourism or behaviour to the factors that are external. The fourth amendment law can be affected and the awkward results can be odd if the cognitive biases influence is ignored on police decision making. The cognitive bias doctrine can unintentionally encourage policing that can create incentives of arbitrary arrest and detention from which the individuals must be protected from (Egbert and Leese., 2021). The philosophy or ignoring the science of law as the jurisprudential cognitive biases can cost a lot in terms of policing. Regarding the arbitrary intrusion into the liberty of an individual, the supreme court has published a doctrine of policing by an effective enforcement of law promotion. It somehow fails sometimes adequately or fails to achieve its goal as some police officers behave on the conception inaccurately while making criminal judgements. These subparts explain why the dogma or belief fails to the reduction of the less effective and whimsical policing.
Ignorance of legal philosophy
The court mainly permitted the officers to stop and search the civilians who are suspected by the police officials, even if they have probable cause or probability of being suspected, as long as the suspicion of the police officer regarding the crime is completely reasonable. When the court understood that this decision can lead to whimsical intrusion or arbitrary encroachments and injustice upon liberty, two types of safety measurement or safeguards were imposed: individuality and articulation. These types of safeguards require the police officers the specific or the types particular facts in the terms of articulation that usually led them to stop and search. Then it is determined by the court if it's really a reasonable fact for the suspicion of the officer. This is required and is equally important as this judicial review permits to overview the credibility of a police officer equally as the stop and search. It also allows the court to derive a stand of norm on whether these types of cases or criterias should be detained or suspected as a reasonable suspicion (Javdani, 2019). But these kinds of safeguards are still not effective in some police authorities as it does not help in the psychological biases on the account of the judgements of the police. For example if a police officer gets involved and observes a heated discussion of two civilians who are black and the other two are white, which lead to physical violence against each other. The police should be responsible to detain both of the sets of individuals and assume that they both are responsible for the criminal activity and are considered criminals in the scenario. Cognitive bias can cause an officer to explicate an ambivalent situation which he specifies as an act of aggression and violence. As the cause of interpretation, he needs to approach an interrogation among the individuals for which he has to conduct a search for his own safety. As the result of the search, evidence will be found by an officer which will cause him to arrest that individual on the basis of the criminal activity. Mainly the officers consider the whites as a horseplay of the non criminal issues (Miles, 2019). Which initially leads them not to stop those individuals and consider issuing a search warrant. Which is why the issues of the psychological process of the judgement of an officer results in favour of the whites more than the non-whites of their counterparts even if they get engaged in the same identity collisions.
Aggravating psychological biases.
The conviction not only fails to the prevention of whimsical policing, but encourages biases by giving strength to the relationship of the criminal activity and the nonwhites. One of the ways to clarify is whether racial distinction is a reason or relevant to question the reason of the criminality. The truth is the same regarding the substitute of the race such as a hoosier in the highly attempted crime neighbourhoods. A neighbourhood which can be labelled as a most attempted crime neighbourhood is: most of the time stopping an individual legitimately by the police determinantly (Devi and Fryer, 2020). Indeed, having an analytically reasonable suspicion to provide with, courts rarely or literally never require any factual proof for the justification of the officer’s analysis regarding the concern about the neighbourhood's nature. In fact, the court completely relies on the officer’s testimony describing the neighbourhoods entirely as high crime rate areas. However, there are observed and verifiable methods which exist to determine whether the neighbourhood can be or cannot be classified as the high crime rate areas. These types of methods are generally applied to demonstrate that the high crime related areas are biassed and limited to some certain blocks and streets surrounding a larger neighbourhood.
In summary, focusing on the officer’s temperament and nature is important while hiring as it is required to motivate the other handful of officers for the reduction of the cognitive biases effects on the basis of their behaviour as the peers only can help to change each other's behaviour towards racial attributes (Brayne., 2020). These types of officers can also help to bring a change in the culture of the police authorities but in fact there will be changes in the police institutes also including their effectiveness.
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