Unit 5_ Health Education And Promotion Assignment

Comparative analysis of health education and promotion strategies between Nigeria and Australia, highlighting models, campaigns, and theoretical perspectives.

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Unit 5_ Health Education And Promotion Assignment


In this report it is analyzed about the “health education and promotion” taking contrast into two countries that is one from a less developed global south country “Nigeria” and one from a more developed north country “Australia”. Health instruction may be a commerce that draws from the natural, coincidental, passionate, substantial and recuperating sciences to progress quality and prevent suffering; confinement and unexplained passing through instruction-compelled willing deportment alter works out. Wellbeing instruction is the occurrence of individual, group, flat, society and principal arrangements to assist well-being data, positions, capacities and deportment. The reason of well-being instruction looks out certainly impact the quality state of mind of things and social orders in expansion to the living and possessed situations that impact their quality.

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Task 1

Health and behaviour change model:

Behavioral physicists have steadfast critical work to the development and judgment of models and theories formulated to comprehend and/or impact vitality nature. As conviction has state-of-the-art, physicists have chosen developing accuracy within the theoretical depiction and calculation of builds whereas fitting more concerned in activity alter over understanding reason things attempt specific wellness nature (Jenningset al. 2019). Also, gifted has existed raised intrigued in impact in expansion to the physical and fabric suggestion to wellness conduct and quality conduct alter. To illustrate the advancement of surviving models/hypotheses and the current unused, we contend the quality supposition demonstrate, the Social Cognitive Hypothesis, the backslide halt show, freedom theory, inquire about on impact and a natural show of want, in expansion to the sociology-environmental show.

“Health belief model (HBM)”:

The “HBM” to begin with emerged within the “1950s” as a direct to investigate on contamination hide. It extricated thoughts from a settled swarm of cognitive and concerned with way of carrying on investigate and set the amusement industry for the accepts that caught on and is used virally in “Australia”. “HBM” is an anticipation-worth demonstrates (Ritchie et al. 2021). As an occurrence, swarm take remedy to control their cholesterol because they benefit anticipating heart disappointment. Centre builds include seen caution of a likely sickness state, that's the delivery of seen susceptible to the suffering and seen suffering roughness.

Health belief model

Figure 1: Health belief model

(Source: Ritchie et al. 2021)

“Social cognitive theory (SCT)”:

As a moment approach to models/believes of vitality execution, we commit exertion to something called “SCT”. As going with “HBM”, “SCT” gestates things as reasonable entertainers and is used much in “Nigeria”. Whereas talented is continued significance on the thought of anticipation-advantage, a chief advance of “SCT” is charm give exertion to something private instrumentally and the centrality of system as a cause of quality mien. Besides, whereas “SCT” has happened important in understanding reason family act a specific well-being execution, it has still had a critical impact on intrusions for nature alter (Thojampaet al. 2019). Self-efficiency, or one's seen ability to cause victory a specific strategy within the circumstances, is the significance gather in “SCT”. Viability presumptions are crucial, moving and being blended by different coming after builds emphasize in “SCT”.

Social cognitive theory

Figure 2: Social cognitive theory

(Source: Thojampa et al. 2019)

“The Trans-theoretical Model”:

The “Trans-theoretical model” developed by “Prochaska and DiClemente” within the late “1970s”, advanced through ponders attempting the events of smokers the one takeoff on them possess going with those requiring assist circumstance to comprehend reason few societies were fit take off on their claim. It was determined that open desert hot in the event that they were prepared commotion so. Hence, the “Trans-theoretical Show (TTM)” centres on the regulatory of the individual and may be a model of think alters (Pennington, 2021). The “TTM” oversee given that family don't alter mien quick and certainly. Or maybe, change in execution, uncommonly set up activity, happens consistently through an intermittent prepare. The “TTM” isn't a conviction but demonstrate; different perceptible speculations and gathers perhaps utilized to contrasting stages of the demonstrate put they can be most beneficial.

Designing and Implementation of health promotion campaign:

Advancing community wellbeing and stopping the spread of perilous vitality dangers is fundamental thoughts work in modern organization. The main objective of the “Health promotion campaign” is to affect the thoughts of the people regarding Health issues and threats. Wellbeing reputation is the method of lenient family to extend control over, and to overhaul, their well-being. It moves encourage a give exertion to something person conduct towards an off-course extend of friendly and alluding to hones or arrangements that don't adversely influence the environment interferences. As a significance work of community wellbeing, wellness exposure bolsters governments, societies and things to bargain with and address wellness challenges. Usually, it has capable by development athletic open strategies, fashioning assistant environments, and re-establishing society operation and person capacities.

The support of the “2030 Motivation for Economical Improvement”, accompanying allure 17 relate and insoluble points, marks a primary shift toward intersect oral operation that can unravel more unbiased and acceptable business-related, alluding to hones or arrangements that don't contrarily influence the environment, and inviting development. Without a doubt, it underpins an original around the world arrange for ranges to concur. Given their duty in shaping the situations at which point family are natural, advance, live, work, and age, all of the “SDGs” have primary influence people vitality.

“Nigerian Heart Foundation campaign”:

“Cardiovascular Infection (CVD)” flotsam and jetsam the predominant cause of life following death all over and territorially, in expansion to hypertension, smoking utilize, and unmistakable inaction. Corpulence is advance a prevalent hazard determinant for “CVD” that can make changes to substance development and work. “NHF” has focused on analysing everything to combat corpulence, to development the halt of coronary thrombosis and Stroke, and to empower “Nigerians” to live dynamic lives (Ubochiet al. 2019). This program points to cause victory alter by parcel of nourishment Nigerians reestablish passage determinations utilizing “FOPL (Front-of-package foodleveling)”. “FOPL” quick cautions buyers around the relative wellbeing of brand and orders against harmful production. The “NHF” Heart Check Nourishment Naming Program certifies bolster brand anticipated energizing for utilize and courage-intimate by utilizing pleasant tests for sugars, add up to fat, saturated, trans oil and, salts that are fault-finding vitamins direct “CVDs” and included diet-connected “Non-Communicable Infections (NCDs)”.

Campaign in “Australia”:

Australia contains a long chronicles of vitality reputation. Vital campaigns within the way that “Slip Slop Slap”, “Life. Be in It” and “Every smoke is accomplishment you damage” are models of public-point in a heading vitality reputation. The official tiring of seatbelts in motor jeeps, chance breath test and “50 km/h” residences path limits have existed constituent a more comprehensive path security arrangement, that employments two together vitality exposure and wellbeing administration measures. Street casualty have diminished from 30 per “100,000” community in “1970 to 4.3 per 100,000 in 2020” (Parkeret al. 2020). “Australia’s” reply to “Human Immunodeficiency Infection (HIV)” is assist a show of dynamic wellness exposure. Since the “1980s”, well-being reputation and halt law have happened fundamental to 8 National “HIV” Techniques to a degree unions 'tween administration and non-management associations, clinicians, examiners and legislative bodies and 'alive association from harmed societies'. This approach has helped “Australia” to illuminate a nearly discouraged “HIV” prevalence by around the world banners. In 2020, the gathered prevalence of “HIV” in “Australia” was “0.14%”.

Task 2

Theoretical perspective to “Health promotion”:

Compelling community wellbeing, vitality publicity, and ceaseless affliction organization programs help open claim and development well-being, decrease torment dangers, and survive incessant disease. They can redress the prosperity and freedom of things, classifications, institutions, and social orders. Usually, specific achievements request hone altersat many levels, (for occasion, person, administrative, and society).Not all quality programs and pushesare evenly favorable, all things considered (D'Silvaet al. 2022).Those most inclined realize asked impacts are established a clear understanding of address energy nature, and the incidental framework at which point they happen. Practitioners use calculated planning models to expand and finish these programs, and steadily development administering course through significant judgment. Wellbeing demeanor hypothesis can play a diminishing work amid the entire of the program planning handle.

Utilizing theory as a Health organisation for program arrangement and happening is standard going with the current significance on utilizing prove based intrusions truly strength, observable remedy, and remedy. Hypothesis bolsters a handbook for looking at questions, evolving fitting assaults, adjudging their booms. It can inform the planner's considering all along all of these stages, contribution understandings that alter into more commanding programs (Balogunet al. 2020). Hypothesis can moreover offer assistance to demonstrate the development of well-being hones, containing forms for changeling administering course, and the impacts of common individuals’ powers that impact well-being conducts, containing open and fabric airs. Hypothesis can more offer assistance organizers recognize extreme fitting check hearings, plans for supporting change, and impacts for judgment.

  • Explanatory theory: Informative conviction translates the reasoning address perseveres (Lenzen et al. 2022). It guides the search for determinants that upgrade an address for instance, obliviousness, self-productiveness, friendly support, or belonging and possibly traded.
  • Change theory: It guides the development of quality assaults. It spells out thoughts that possibly deciphered into program thoughts and plans, and offers a base for program judgment (Schumacher et al. 2021). Alter conviction makes a difference program organizer anticipated particular almost their assumption for reason a program will work.

Evaluation of “health campaigns” and measuring its outcomes:

A few sorts of “Health campaigns” and establishments perhaps utilized to assess vitality exposure and affliction halt programs. Each plan and establishment employments different approaches for sum, file amassing, and calculation (FitzPatrick et al. 2019). The sorts of establishments that have existed used for nation vitality reputation and sickness halt program assessments include:

  • Formative evaluation: Developmental judgment happens all along program occurrence and work out. It decides news on carrying out program points or reproducing your program.
  • Process evaluation: Prepare judgment could be a sort of compelling judgment that decides the sort, share, and condition of program works out or obligations.
  • Outcome evaluation: Result judgment can give exertion to something brief- and unending program objectives. Fitting measures outline changes in vitality situations, status of history, and hones.
  • Impact evaluation:Affect judgment assesses a program's impact on parties. Fitting measures include changes in information, data, positions, nearness, and/or capacities.


The acknowledgment of quality information campaigns performs to arrange their impact in supper combat profound quality issues. Starting previously mentioned campaigns perhaps comparatively normal and bolster a genuine, available propensity to spread news around conditions. This ancient age, gifted will be in expansion to “300” wellness information campaigns general. Despite their ubiquity, the productiveness of well-being information events flotsam and jetsam darken. Whereas different campaigns have happened demonstrated to extend associated to the web debate and data almost a suffering, exceptionally few are clearly partnered to useful well-being impacts for those bothered. In expansion, inquire about plans that indeed beneficial campaigns for less broad torments allow consent distort open understanding of their significance (Kyawet al. 2019). In light of the continued advance in information campaigns, the creators of the primary deliberate audit of all definable scholarly investigate arranged on sides to date give exertion to something fetched and evidence-located impact of particular wellness information activities. Existing prove suggests that date going with progress care planning increments the kind of end-of-history care and diminishes history encountering healings that are sporadic going with things' wishes and choices or that are pointless.67 Early date way that people perhaps superior expected making resolutions when they are sick, in expansion to ensuring that their wishes are well known by adhere and fathers the one capacity ought to shape resolutions on their side.


It is to be concluded that the above report shows the health education and promotion valuation of both the countries “Nigeria” and “Australia”. “Nigeria” being one of the under-developed countries of north, the people of that country are less aware of the “Health issues” and “promotional campaigns” whereas “Australia being the developed country of south, it is much more aware of its “health issues” and “promotional campaigns”. Wellbeing Advancement doesn't as it were offering assistance the grown-up culture but it as well makes a difference youngsters boom. In case a youth is athletic hence it'll develop anticipated an athletic grown-up, a dynamic kid goes to school happening each day and acts superior all at once point they will be learned on wellness and fittingness and hopefully allow it on through to their offspring moreover.


Balogun, J.A., 2020. Healthcare education in Nigeria: Evolutions and emerging paradigms. Routledge.

D'Silva, A.M., Kariyawasam, D.S., Best, S., Wiley, V., Farrar, M.A., NSW SMA NBS Study Group, Ravine, A., Mowat, D., Sampaio, H., Alexander, I.E. and Russell, J., 2022. Integrating newborn screening for spinal muscular atrophy into health care systems: an Australian pilot programme. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 64(5), pp.625-632.

FitzPatrick, B., 2019. Validity in qualitative health education research. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 11(2), pp.211-217.

Jennings, V. and Bamkole, O., 2019. The relationship between social cohesion and urban green space: An avenue for health promotion. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(3), p.452.

Kyaw, B.M., Saxena, N., Posadzki, P., Vseteckova, J., Nikolaou, C.K., George, P.P., Divakar, U., Masiello, I., Kononowicz, A.A., Zary, N. and Car, L.T., 2019. Virtual reality for health professions education: systematic review and meta-analysis by the digital health education collaboration. Journal of medical Internet research, 21(1), p.e12959.

Lenzen, M., Malik, A., Li, M., Fry, J., Weisz, H., Pichler, P.P., Chaves, L.S.M., Capon, A. and Pencheon, D., 2020. The environmental footprint of health care: a global assessment. The Lancet Planetary Health, 4(7), pp.e271-e279.

Parker, E. and Fleming, M.L., 2020. Health promotion: Principles and practice in the Australian context. Routledge.

Pennington, C.G., 2021. Applying the transtheoretical model of behavioral change to establish physical activity habits. Journal of Education and Recreation Patterns, 2(1).

Ritchie, D., Van den Broucke, S. and Van Hal, G., 2021. The health belief model and theory of planned behavior applied to mammography screening: A systematic review and meta?analysis. Public Health Nursing, 38(3), pp.482-492.

Schumacher, S., Salmanton-García, J., Cornely, O.A. and Mellinghoff, S.C., 2021. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage in healthcare workers: a review on campaign strategies and their effect. Infection, 49, pp.387-399.

Statista.com, 2022 Available at https://www.statista.com/statistics/971045/life-expectancy-at-birth-in-nigeria-by-gender/ [Accessed on 9th may, 2023]

Thojampa, S. and Sarnkhaowkhom, C., 2019. The social cognitive theory with diabetes: Discussion. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 12(2), p.1251.

Ubochi, N.E., Ehwarieme, T.A., Anarado, A.N. and Oyibocha, E.O., 2019. Building a strong and sustainable health care system in Nigeria: The role of the nurse. International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 11(7), pp.61-67.

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