Ahs205 The Australian Healthcare System Within A Global Context Assignment Sample

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Introduction of Ahs205 The Australian Healthcare System Within A Global Context Assignment

The Australian healthcare system is a globally renowned healthcare system that is safe as well as affordable. The entire healthcare system is controlled and regulated by state and territory, federal and local government. Australia has one of the best healthcare systems in the world. The main purpose of Australia's health care system is to promote good health and provide every Australian with great health and family services. The Healthcare program was first introduced on 1st February 1984 and after this historic initiative which was taken by Robert Hawke who was the Australian prime minister at that time, now Australia has a new, simpler, and fairer health insurance system. Medicare is Australia's healthcare system that aims to provide low-cost healthcare services. Australia's health care system faces challenges such as demographic changes, technology costs, internal problems in the medical research sector and urbanization health issues, and others. Australian healthcare priorities include cardiovascular health, cancer control, injury, prevention and control, mental health and diabetes Mellitus, and others.

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Thesis statement: Cardiovascular health is major cause of increasing death rate in Australia.


Cardiovascular disease

Prevalence in Australia and another country (globally)

Around 1.2 million people have a minimum of one type of “Cardiovascular disease (CVD)” in Australia. Globally, approx 20.1 million adults have CVD which is 7.2% of the total population. CVD causes 27% of deaths in Australia (Banks et. al. 2019). Most deaths are caused by “Coronary heart disease (CHD)” which is 11% of total deaths and 42% of CVD deaths. On the other hand, strokes cause 5% of deaths and 19% of deaths due to cardiovascular disease. However, there is a decrease in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in 2018 in Australia. For males, heart disease decreased from 8.3% in 2009 to 7.2% in 2018 (Mahadyet al. 2018). Similarly, the number of heart diseases also decreased from 4.6% in 2009 to 4.1% in 2018. 4.2% of women also reported having in 2019.

CVD is characterized by the deposition of excessive fat in arteries which develop plaques that are responsible for the stroke. CVD affects the cardiovascular system, specifically the heart or blood vessels (Mahady et al. 2018). The symptoms of cardiovascular disease are - chest pain, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, chest pressure, pain in the neck, back, and jaw and chest tightness, and others (Adams, et al. 2020). The other characteristic of CVD is cold in the extremities. The major risk factors of CVD are unhealthy diet, obesity, smoking, use of alcohol, and physical inactivity. The effects of these risk factors may show up differently for different people such as increased blood glucose level, raise blood pressure, obesity, and increase blood lipids (Hu et al. 2020).

Australian process of management

The cardiovascular health issue is a major health issue in Australia. It causes an overall 11% of deaths in Australia. Though the Coronary heart disease rate has fallen by 80% since 1980, there has been an increase of 57.5% in adult overweight since 1995 which is 67% of the total Australian population (Hu et al. 2020). This is one of the main reasons for causing cardiovascular disease. To reduce the number of cardiovascular diseases in Australia there has been many precautions and awareness programs taken. There has been a cessation or ban on tobacco use and also reduction of salt in the diet, adding more vegetables to the diet, and maintaining regular physical activity has been suggested to the community health care from the higher authority (Banks et. al. 2019). They also suggested avoiding any harmful use of alcohol. All these steps have been taken in Australia to manage the issues in Australia.

The Australian government has taken the cardiovascular health mission to decrease cardiovascular disease in Australia. The government has sanctioned approx $220 million from its total fund to support the cardiovascular health mission. The Australian government also allocated over $2.2 billion to CHD. The main objective of this mission is to make dynamic improvements in cardiovascular health and stroke management for Australians. The government has drafted a roadmap on 12 November 2020 and also for implementation of this plan underwent a national panel between 14 December 2020 and 23 April 2021.

The Australian government introduced the “Medical Research Future Fund Act” in 2015. According to this act, the division of funds has been done by prioritizing the deaths that happen due to cardiovascular disease. The deaths in the Australian community due to diseases are also included in this act. The “Medical Research Future Fund Act” has been allocated to reflect the disease burden of Australia addressing the CVD research crisis.

Comparison of Managerial approach for cardiovascular health between Australia and another country

Another country is the United Kingdom where CVD prevalence is high. The mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease is 266 per 100000 populations (Statista, 2022). The average cost that has been allocated by the national government of the UK is 8470 GBP in 2016 to prevent heart disease and to strengthen the framework of a heart bypass. The GDP of the UK in 2022 is 559167 million in the third quarter (Gov, 2022). On the other hand, the current GDP of Australia is 1.98 trillion dollars. 32.3 deaths occur per 100000 population in Australia. NHS budgets are allocated to prevent cardiovascular disease. “National CVD prevention programme” has been developed in order to control and prevent the cardiovascular disease while in the case of Australia Cardiovascular health mission is there. The research fund for the cardiovascular health mission is 220 million dollars while NHS has decided to use 9% of the total national healthcare budget for cardiovascular health. “NHS Long term plan (NHSLTP)” has been identified which has been prevalent in the UK. This plan targets to prevent 150000 strokes in the next 10 years. Contrarily, there are various local programs have been taken into account for the cessation of smoking in the UK to prevent cardiovascular disease.

International agencies and their role in the prevention of stroke and heart disease

World Heart Federation (WHF)

The WHF is an international agency that tries to prevent and control the heart-related disease through campaigns and awareness programs in economically low and middle countries. This agency is aiming to create a global connection for addressing this cardiovascular health issue globally and generate and practice new ideas and also share practices (Ferreira et al. 2019). They want to address the knowledge of cardiovascular disease globally and try to find a solution on a global level.

World health organization (WHO)

WHO has provided guidelines to prevent stroke. As per WHO, cessation of the use of tobacco is suggested to reduce the chances of stroke. Additionally, salt consumption reduction, a higher intake of fruits and vegetables is suggested by the international agency WHO to reduce CVD and stroke (Who, 2022). Australia has collaborated with the WHO to reduce cardiovascular health issues. WHO contributes to regional and contributing health and implementing new techniques or solving the process of global health issues in the regional and local health issues WHO is collaborating with other partners and organizations in Australia (Who, 2022). Also, Australia is contributing to WHO by contributing technical, human resources and financial support which are recognized by the WHO. Australia is now the second largest volunteer country for WHO after the UK.

Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC)

Centers for disease control and prevention are playing a huge role in controlling heart disease and stroke prevention. According to the CDC, CVD is the leading cause of death in the world for men, women, and people in most countries (Cdc, 2022). They work with their partners across the country to prevent the CVD disease. It also works with partners, governments, public health, health care and private sectors for improving the prevention, detection, and control of heart disease and stroke. This center is focused on reducing high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

RTI International

RTI has developed a user-friendly tool that is cost-effective to reduce the chances of cardiovascular disease. Global heart initiative has been operated by RTI which is partnered with WHO (Rti, (2022). the Thai initiative focuses on the reduction of stroke and heart attacks in people.

Local initiatives present in Australia to create awareness

National heart foundation

“National Heart Foundation” for Australia aims to make a heart disease-free Australia. This organization focuses on prevention and support for the CVD treatment and helps to improve the research about health and quality of life for all Australians (Cheng et al. 2018).

HeartSmart Australia

The HeartSmart program in Australia initiates programs to provide the proper education and training about first aid treatment for CVD diseases. They promote this training and education by going to every working office, school, and public space in Australia. They teach the student, teacher as well as working professional about the initial actions to take for the SCA events and act quickly to save a life.

FREE HeartSmart® Program

Free heart smart program teaches Australians about the techniques of giving CPR and the process of using the defibrillator within just 30 minutes.

Cardiac rehabilitation

Cardiac rehabilitation in Australia is an exercise and education program that helps patients who are recovering from a heart procedure or problem (Zaman et al. 2020). Over the years, this process has been proven as one of the most important processes for recovering from heart disease and it can be helpful for patients who are in the hospital or outside the hospital.

Australian Disease Management Association (ADMA)

Australian Disease Management Association is a national resource center in Australia for healthcare professionals and for promoting all the healthcare-related programs that improve the chronic condition of health in Australia.

Australian Healthcare and Hospitals Association (AHHA)

AHHA, previously known as the Australian Healthcare Association, is a national organization that provides collaboration between the clinical, academics, administrators, politicians, and policymakers.

Cardiomyopathy Association of Australia

The CAA is a registered charitable Austrian organization that supports the patient and his families with all kinds of cardiomyopathy.

Heart kids

Heart kid is another national agency of Australia which provides necessary help and support to children and teens who have had heart disease since childhood.

Little wings

Little Wings is a non-profit national agency that provides transport services to sick children in rural areas. This agency’s main working area is the rural areas under New South Wales (NSW).

Other local programs that have been considered to promote good heart health are “10000 steps Rockhampton '', “Dorrigo Active Community Project '', “Foundation 49 – Decades of life health assessment program” and others. “10000 steps Rockhampton'' this program promotes the importance of walking and physical activity in heart health enhancement.

Nursing role in the prevention of cardiovascular health

Nursing competencies can prevent the consequences of stroke and acute care provision can help in improvement of heart health. The role of the nurse is to take care of individual patients and provide personalized care to each heart patient (Zaman et al. 2020). Nurses can play an important role in evidence-based teaching to patients and family members to reduce the consequences of stroke. Nurses can effectively communicate with each patient about the caregiving process. NMBA standards are required to be followed by the nurses to improve the quality of care (Nursingmidwiferyboard , 2022). Specialist cardiovascular nurses in Australia plan culturally safe cardiovascular health intervention plans. In various initiatives, nurses can participate actively in local programs and can communicate with people.


Australia has one of the world's best healthcare systems. However, in Australia, there is a major health issue with cardiovascular disease. Most people die because of cardiovascular diseases in Australia. 27% of Australians die because of CVD (Zaman et al. 2020). In Australia, there are also major health issues which are injury, cancer, diabetes, and also mental health. On the other hand, the government of Australia is concerned about this rising cardiovascular disease issue. They have set a budget of $222 million for improving the health issues in urban areas as well as rural areas in Australia. They have initiated many awareness programs to promote health issues and many awareness programs have been conducted by the government of Australia. There are also, various international and national agencies that are helping the government of Australia in raising awareness of cardiovascular disease.

Reference list

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Cheng, C. Y., Hsu, C. Y., Wang, T. C., Jeng, Y. C., & Yang, W. H. (2018). Evaluation of cardiac complications following hemorrhagic stroke using 5-year centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) database. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 7(12), 519.

Ferreira, J. P., Kraus, S., Mitchell, S., Perel, P., Piñeiro, D., Chioncel, O., ... &Sliwa, K. (2019). World Heart Federation Roadmap for Heart Failure. Global heart, 14(3), 197-214.

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