Common Resources Are Best Managed Through Cooperation Between States
Environmental issues are increasing in nations with the rapid speed. People are influenced by changing climate conditions, high consumption of natural resources to great extent (Tietenberg and Lewis, 2016). Now it has become essential to preserve natural resources in order to protect environment. These resources are such as water, ocean, seas etc. Current study will evaluate the view that common resources are best managed through corporation between states.
Environmental conditions have been changed to great extent. In the recent time hazardous activities are increasing with the rapid speed. Changes in climate situation, shortage of waters, pollutions problems are most common issues. In the mid of 17th century John Evelyn has given their views on increasing air pollution problems (Deresky, 2017). Thus, developing nations are facing problems of disease, overpopulations, political conflicts etc. If these natural resources are not being managed properly then it may create more difficulty for society and population. These environmental issues have driven growth of environment engagement among states within international organizations (Welford, 2016).
With the explosive growth of cities, consumption of natural resources have enhanced to great extent. This has lead to shortage of natural resources. Increasing industrialisation has enhanced noise and dust. Morris has given view of utoption society. His book explains aesthetics, idea of nature and socialism. Individual has focused on prominent thinking in which he has argued on preservation of old buildings. Individual has explained the practical example where combined contribution of National trust of UK and Royal society has supported in developing the ideas of protection of birds (Epstein and Buhovac, 2014). This management and corporation of two units have supported in setting up birds protection areas.
History of Western world's relationship with its environment reflects that degradation of environment is occurring with the rapid speed. It is essential that two states work together and manage resources well. This can support in preservation natural resources significantly. In the 20th century increasing population rate, consumption rates have created situation to manage resources well (Loucks and Van Beek, 2017). In the absence of this management, environmental pollution was increasing thus, authorities have paid their attention on making changes in environment for keeping save to resources.
Environmental resource management now has become the major concern for government of nation. International political boundaries have given their corporations to other countries in order to protect common resources. Sea, Oceans are most common resources. These resources help in making connection between two international borders. Changing political conditions are creating big problems in this corporation of two states. Mediterranean sea is the great example in this respect (Flower, 2015.). The state is surrounded by Mediterranean sea. In this, conflicts can arise over maritime access. This is the most common dispute between UK and Spain. In order to resolve this conflict situation foreign office of UK has take action of Summoning. Now Spanish government gives immediate respond to British ambassador. But when UK ceded territory of Gibraltar then it was not considered as relevant. Later on it was decided by both countries that sea needs to be regulated. Collaboration of two sates can create conflict situations thus, common resources can not be managed with this collaboration (Naranjo, Ellsworth and Frisvold, 2015). It can just create disputes.
It is identified that common resources are in danger. If these crises are not be resolved soon then it may create big complications for entire world. After that state ad international communities of state start working together. For example when pollution was increasing then government has decided that this issue will be dealt by government of such state under this jurisdiction it is falling. Government of particular state can make effective laws and regulations to control over pollutions so that oil, gas etc (Kevin Carson, 2013). natural resources can be preserved and saved for longer durations. These authorities can impose taxes over use of these common resources. In the condition when common resources do not fall under anyone jurisdiction at that time government of nation can act as state and can take action on behalf of entire country.
Law of Sea by United Nations Convention is the great example of management of common resources by corporation of two states. In this respect UNCLOS has released an international legal framework in which state territorial waters have been defined. UNCLOS has differentiated zones where sea can be common with no sovereignty rights. Common resources many times creates security and political issues. Restriction to sea and airspace had become the political concern for two states and regions (Tietenberg and Lewis, 20160. For example African state has banned Apartheid South Africa in 1960 until 1990. It was the biggest example of corporation of two states in managing common resources. It was the complicated situation because it was creates economy and security threats for the South Africa. In order to minimize issues and manage common resources government of South Africa has made contact with US allies and have negotiated to adapt Boeing 747 aircraft (Epstein and Buhovac, 2014). This was because flying to long distance over the Atlantic. After that negotiation South African airways get permission from Portugal to developed a runway on colony of Portuguese in Atlantic. This corporation between two states have worked well and supported in minimizing conflicts situation and developing economy position of both these states.
Horn of Africa is another example of corporation. It is surrounded by ocean and there are many commercial shipping routes that serves to middle East, Asia, Europe. In the year of 1991 one Somalian civil war occurred where criminals have attacked and hijacked shipping off the Somalian Coast. This incident has created huge pressure on government of the nation that to minimize this threat and protect shipping (Kevin Carson, 2013). In order to response on this case Coalition 150 force were created by coalition of 25 nations. After that European Union navel vessels is being deployed. Thus, it shows that management of common resources can be done by negotiation held between two states sand framing governance regimes. By framing new rules and regulations threats on these common resources can be minimized to great extent and management can be done effectively. UNCLOS is the great example of it. If two states do not get agreed on common ideas then it may create exploitation of common resources (Flower, 2015).
Another example of collaboration of two states in management of common resources are of Central Asia. Central Asia was growing for its cotton industry. Water was essential for this states and for Uzbekistan as well. But at the time 1991 Aral Sea had shrunk to half this has created may troubles for both nation's borders. Due to this health issues were increasing in the area. Toxic chemicals were harming population of this area. But these resources have become point of negotiation for both these countries (Tietenberg and Lewis, 2016). This has developed relationship between two of them. Earlier Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan were considered as poorest areas but now enough water is and by both these countries and due to this agriculture and cotton industries have grown well. By this way hydro power has been developed. Thus, it can be said that common resources are best managed through corporation between states (Deresky, 2017).
From the above study it can be articulated that common resources are used by many nations, areas. These resources are shared by several local, national and international borders. Corporation of sharing state can help in minimizing threats and preserving these resources for longer duration.
Books and Journals
Deresky, H., 2017. International management: Managing across borders and cultures. Pearson Education India.
Epstein, M. J. and Buhovac, A. R., 2014. Making sustainability work: Best practices in managing and measuring corporate social, environmental, and economic impacts. Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
Flower, J., 2015. The international integrated reporting council: a story of failure. Critical Perspectives on Accounting. 27. pp.1-17.
Loucks, D. P. and Van Beek, E., 2017. Water resource systems planning and management: An introduction to methods, models, and applications. Springer.
Naranjo, S. E., Ellsworth, P. C. and Frisvold, G. B., 2015. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems. Annual review of entomology. 60.
Tietenberg, T. H. and Lewis, L., 2016. Environmental and natural resource economics. Routledge.
Welford, R., 2016. Corporate Environmental Management 2: Culture and Organization. Routledge.
Kevin Carson, 2013. Governing the commons by elinor ostrom: review. [Online]. Available through <http://www.resilience.org/stories/2013-11-01/governing-the-commons-by-elinor-ostrom-review/>
Office for National Statistics (ONS) (2015) ‘Census 1801–1901’, ONS [Online]. Available at www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/census/2011/how-our-census-works/about-censuses/census-history/200-years-of-the-census/census-1801-1901/index.html (Accessed 9 November 2015).\n
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (1966) The Outer Space Treaty [Online], Vienna, United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. Available at www.oosa.unvienna.org/oosa/SpaceLaw/outerspt.html (Accessed 2 November 2015)
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (1979) Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies [Online], Vienna, United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. Available at www.oosa.unvienna.org/oosa/SpaceLaw/moon.html (Accessed 17 October 2015.