COPD Who Developed Sepsis Assignment Sample

Managing COPD Patients with Sepsis: Comprehensive Assignment Guide

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Introduction Of Reflection On Formative Assessment On Patients With COPD Who Developed Sepsis

The following assessment is intended to address the nursing associate's role in managing the care process for patients with “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)” who have developed sepsis in a hospital setting. In this assessment, nursing assistance regarding the episodes of COPD with sepsis patient care process will be focused which will consider teamwork, leadership and person-centred care. Further, in this assessment, I am aiming to discuss the importance of escalations and delegation in the nursing field by using the Driscoll model of reflection.

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Comparing Driscoll and Gibbs model

While the Driscoll model is effective in addressing the engagement and explorations of the experience that helps in leading new appreciation and understanding, the Gibbs model brings broader considerations into deflection of experience by addressing internal and external factors (Cypel et al. 2022). However, the former model is effective for direct monitoring and support for the enhancement of the learning process and this made me choose this model to continue the overall context.


COPD is considered a common lung disease that impacts the patient by restricting their airflow and causing breathing problems. For the following scenario, the patient is from a rehab ward who is 68 years old and suffering from COPD. I was assigned in this world by my assessor to perform vital signs on Patient A. I am not disclosing her identity as the protocol followed in NMC (Gmc-uk, 2023) and received consent from patients to check vital signs of her as per the regulation of "Mental Capacity Act 2005" (, 2023). Patients with COPD have higher risk of developing lung infection in the form of pneumonia and this puts them at higher risk for developing sepsis (Stone et al. 2022). The development of sepsis among COPD patients has a higher risk of severe exacerbation along with increasing risk of pneumonia and increasing the risk of mortality among patients in comparison with patients suffering from COPD without sepsis. While addressing the NHS digital data sheet on the year of 2020-2021, it can be stated that approximately 1.17 million people in the UK have been diagnosed with COPD and this reflects the 1.9% of the infected population out of the total population (, 2023a). It also addressed the average age of 35 in the UK while being infected with COPD and experiencing serious conditions over the age of 50 (, 2023). Approximately 59% of the overall infected population face death by developing sepsis in the UK and is considered a potential cause of death among 3.2 million population in the year 2019 (Copdnewstoday, 2023). I have implied 5 moments for hand hygiene in the form of washing hands before touching patients, before performing the procedure of checking vital signs, after the procedure, after touching the patient and her surroundings (, 2023). I have gathered knowledge which refers to the developing sepsis among COPD patients is considered declining lung function alongside having an adverse impact on the quality of life. However, it also elevates the rate of hospitalisations and mortality among the infected population (Patel et al. 2022). These are capable of inducing acute exacerbation among the patients with COPD due to increasing rates of air pollution, poor compliance and most importantly increasing rates of lung infection (Siraj et al. 2022). Approximately 383652 people which is considered 82.2% of the infected population admit to the hospital due to facing complications for the disease in the UK (, 2023). However, the rate of hospitalised population with acute exacerbation of the disease conditions which elevates the chance of sepsis in the UK refers to 115000 admission per year (, 2023b). This is followed by death of approximately 30000 people every year in the UK due to developing sepsis among the COPD patients (, 2023). In addition, I feel due to the life-threatening conditions caused by sepsis alongside increasing chance of organ dysfunction; the disease is capable of elevating the regulation of host response to the infection and considered a significant public health issue in the UK. For the following patient A, she wasn't feeling well and her oxygen level was dropped alongside heart blood pressure and therefore she was transferred to an acute setting.

So what?

1. Critically assess and respond to the health needs of people ,their families and carers across the lifespan continuum.

Accountability and Autonomy

The concept of autonomy provides healthcare employees the freedom to do their own work while accounting for them to be responsible for the health care outcome and counting their actions that produce positive responses (Tierney et al. 2022). With clear and meaningful employee accountability in the healthcare setting, I feel it identifies nursing practices as a part of the structured component on the basis of the responsibility to identify the needs of patients. On the other hand, the accountability in nursing practice refers to the integral action to the professional practice level that is concerned with the interest of patients around the presence of diverse health issues while using professional judgement as well as knowledge and skills to imply evidence-based practices (EBP) (Rajamäki and Helin, 2022). For the following patient, I have asked consent from here in terms of associating her with making decisions for the care approach to promote positive health outcomes.

Working within research and EBP

I have gathered knowledge on EBP that is implied by the nursing staff with the aim of improving the overall delivery of care process to patients. This has helped me to identify the health needs of patients and communicate with her families in terms of continuing the care approaches. As she was developing sepsis, she was requiring a care plan that involves elimination of infection alongside maintenance of adequate tissue perfusion as well as circulatory volume prevention of further complication and providence of information on the disease process while identifying prognosis and treatment needs (Kolltveit et al. 2022). As per NICE guideline, while exercising professional judgement, the practitioners are expected to identify individual needs alongside their preference values of the patient while using the treatment services (, 2023). This made me consult with the patient alongside her families and carer and guardian while identifying the proper needs of care.

Besides, the nursing associate practice while dealing with the COPD patients who have developed sepsis refers to focusing on the delivery strategies to improve the titration of oxygen therapy while treating them (Heinze, 2023). The providence of oxygen therapy to the patients with COPD and sepsis helps to draw evidence by understanding the role of oxygen to reduce the issues of breathing among these patients (Gould, 2022). As per the guidelines of the British Medical Research Council trial in the UK, the patients who are severely affected with "COPD alongside hypoxemia as well as hypercapnia and congestive cardiac failure" due to excessive infection in lungs and blood receiving oxygen therapy in the form of "nasal prongs at 2 L/minutes for the time span of 15 hours per day" can helps with production of more red-cell along with improving prognosis (, 2023c). In my opinion, the evidence from the Council trial is applicable for patient A while ensuring her maximum benefits and reducing complications in the form of "pulmonary hypertension, polycythaemia as well as peripheral oedema". Besides, the implementation of ambulatory oxygen therapy is also research proven for the patient to improve their performance in COPD and provide them survival benefits and lifespan continuum (Douglas, 2022).

On the other hand, EBP nursing is considered an approach that associates nursing staff to make quality decisions and provides a proper care approach on the basis of personal clinical expertise to improve the overall health outcome (Harris, 2022). In the case of dealing with COPD patients who have already developed sepsis, the use of supplementary oxygen is part of one of few EBP nursing interventions that have a positive impact in terms of treating mortality rate among patients (Kirkpatrick, 2022). Although I have also gathered information that indicates the presence of hypoxemia can worsen the situation of patients during exacerbation and increasing risk while using oxygen therapy.

Professional Behaviour

Professionalism in nursing refers to the provision of quality care approach to patients while upholding the value of accountability, respect and integrity (, 2023). Besides, in my opinion, nursing also promotes protection along with optimising health and abilities to treat patients while advocating their care aspects in regards to individuality, families, communities and population. On the other hand, professionalism in nursing helps with demonstrating unwavering commitment to the vocation and provision of better care alongside elevating accountability for a positive clinical environment (Irshad et al. 2022).

In the case of treating COPD patients with sepsis, it can be stated that professional relationships along with the availability of nursing staff during care aspects is considered to bring a positive change while subsequently influencing patient's ability to maintain self-manage for their well-being at hospital setting (Landis et al. 2022). While the professional behaviour in hospital settings includes patients, nurses and physician; the needs revolve around the patient's care approach which is highly appreciated by the COPD patients and providing them with the opportunities of self-management (Landis et al. 2022). Here, the implementation of professional behavioural structure for nursing staff refers to "CAPTAIN which stands for comprehensive and prospective treatment and individual nursing" on the basis of altering existing nursing responsibilities and improving tasks between nursing staff and physicians (, 2023d). In my opinion, this structure in nursing professionalism helps with their responsibilities for establishing and maintaining professional relationships with patients and providing customised care to improve the overall care outcome.

Ethical and legal considerations

The primary principles of nursing ethics refer to autonomy, beneficence as well as justice and nonmaleficence (Vaismoradi et al. 2022). While each patient has their right to make their own decision, nurses are accountable in terms of managing their fidelity and veracity. In my opinion, the ethical context while providing care aspects for the patients with COPD and sepsis refers to the signing of informed consent by the patients while receiving care. However, it also includes the maintenance of 3 basic principles of ethical contest from "Helsinki declaration concept" which sheds light on the maintenance of respect for individuals, the right to make informed decisions along with recognising of vulnerable situations" (Rehnsfeldt et al. 2022).

The legal considerations in the nursing profession refers to recrimination of revoking nursing licence along with following Nurse Practice Act (, 2023e). I have also gathered information on legal responsibility of nurses that reflects their accountability for negligence along with malpractice as well as breach of patient confidentiality in terms of continuing care aspects. While negligence and malpractice denote lack in care approaches alongside carelessness and lowering the standard of care aspects by the caregivers or nursing staff (Nasiri and Adib?Hajbaghery, 2022). In terms of providing negligence and malpractice against any nursing staff under the legal context, the elements such as duty owed the patients along with breaching of duties owed the patients, foreseeability as well as causation, injury and damages under the court of law. For the patients with COPD and sepsis, under the clinical management of "severe acute respiratory infection (SARI)", the nurses are accountable to manage the written consent from patients before starting exacerbation along with oxygen therapy (Pelletier et al. 2022). In my opinion, this is followed by keeping confidential information on the patient's health and including them while making decisions on care aspects. The nursing association towards the staffing with mortality risk for the identified patient is also important as it includes patient's consent while inducing "nurse driven sepsis treatment tool" for the improvement of the overall health outcomes.

Besides, maintaining a patient's confidentiality is considered a major legal concept for nursing staff. In my opinion, while maintaining confidentiality of patients' information is considered the right of patients, it also makes nursing staff accountable to manage the right while providing care. The confidentiality right of any patients is protected under the federal regulations which is known as "health insurance portability and accountability act (HIPAA)" (Sethi et al. 2023). This act consists of two legal entities in the form of privacy rule and security rules. Where privacy rules help professionals to refrain from disclosing patients' medical information and health contexts of induced intervention and tools, the other rule refers to the management of patient's confidentiality and integrity while inducing exacerbation and oxygen therapy (Soler et al. 2022).

2. Critically discuss the principles of effective leadership ,management and group dynamics and their relationship to care organisation.

Leadership and Team working

Managing and prioritising care

The implementation of ABC concept to each patient situation helps with glorifying the overall management and prioritisation of care to determine the immediate traits of life for the patients as part of the initial assessment (Murray, 2022). It also associates with clinical leadership that helps in exploding and developing the primary principle of leadership and management in patient care (Wright, 2023). I have gathered knowledge on this which dictates the role of leadership which helps with focusing on the principles in the form of pneumonic context in the case of caring patient A to understand the airways as priority and associate her to breathe and circulate oxygen in the body. For dealing with patient A who is suffering from COPD with sepsis, the organisational management of customisation of the care process refers to the maintaining airway patency while assisting the patient to measure the facilitation of gas exchange as the part of care aspects (Partlak et al. 2022). In my opinion, it also includes enhancement of the overall nutritional intake for the patients alongside the prevention of complications by the nursing team as well as maintaining the slow progressions of disease conditions. Besides, the priority of managing nursing care in this situation refers to the prevention of risk of chronic bronchitis alongside impairment of gas exchange for patient A that is commonly known as emphysema to help the patient with effective breathing patterns and managing care dynamics.

Risk Management

Risk management in healthcare refers to the complex setup of clinical and administrative systems while maintaining procedure and reporting structure to detect, monitor, assess, mitigate and prevent the risk for patients (Aranburu-Imatz et al. 2022). With the information in hand, nursing staff are accountable to work with the aim of developing a system in order to prevent the initial error from occurring while taking care of patients. The risk management process in nursing also helps to set up procedures into effect with the aim of associating staff to reduce the error in care approach and minimising the overall workplace risk. The primary risks for care approach towards COPD patients with sepsis refer to increasing risk of respiratory tract infection alongside impairment of the innate immune system as well as risk of infection from new strain of bacteria that is capable of causing acute exacerbation.

Now what?

3. Apply the principles of teamwork, decision making, delegation and conflict resolution as a part of a wider inter-professional team in managing person-centred care.

Assessment, implementation and monitoring care

Promoting Person-centred and Family centred care

This factor includes a nursing approach to the planning delivery and evaluating overall healthcare that is grounded in mutually beneficial partnership among the patients, their families as well as health care professionals (Barenfeld et al. 2022). On the other hand, in my opinion, it also redefines the relationship between patient and healthcare professional by emphasising on the collaboration between all ages to maintain the level of care and improving the overall healthcare outcome. In the following context, the primary core concept of patient-centred and family-centred care process also improves care interaction and changes in medical education for patient A that contributes towards the development of improved workforce and skill management by the professionals in a respectful and effective manner. This is also implied under the regulation of the "affordable care act" (, 2023). The inter professional collaboration in healthcare while dealing with COPD and sepsis associates to prevent the medical care alongside improving the overall patient's experience to deliver better health outcomes. This also includes identifying performance activities of patients such as diaphragmatic breathing exercise which helps to reduce respiratory rate alongside increasing alveolar ventilation and associating patients to expel as much air as possible during expression along with pursed lip breathing to increase the surviving rate for the patient (Barenfeld et al. 2022). While I was transferred by my assessor to continue with routine check-up and low risk duties for patient A, I was not responsible for delegation duties. However, it helped me with teamwork and making low-risk decisions while managing guidelines for a proper care approach.

Policies and Procedures

The primary nursing therapeutic procedure in terms of treating patients with COPD and sepsis refers to the training of inspiratory muscle with the aim of improving breathing pattern (Nyberg et al. 2022). As per the guidelines of British Thoracic society, oxygen is used for treating hypoxemia and assessing patients with high concentration of oxygen while administering their overall health record (Bmjopenrespres.bmj, 2023). The patients are required to be treated under target oxygen prescriptions as well as oxygen administrations and monitoring maintenance of target saturations while weaning and continuation of oxygen therapy until recovering from the issue (Bmjopenrespres.bmj, 2023).

4. Demonstrate how working in partnership with other professionals might enhance the impact of care across a range of a diverse setting.

Communication and relationship management

Effective communication strategies

I have gathered knowledge on professional behaviour of nurses which reflects the advocating of patients along with maintaining effective communication as well as team performance while keeping a positive attitude and working in a team setting. While caring for patient A with COPD and sepsis, I have experienced limited effective communication with doctors, physicians and other healthcare professionals as I was a student here. However, the use of informal communication is effective while communicating with my assessor and dealing with patient's conditions and communicating with their families in these situations to share information from the hospital clinic and report paucity of information in regards to the progress of the disease (Disler et al. 2022). This also includes effective communication with other professionals to enhance the impact of care while dealing with COPD with sepsis. In my opinion, this also helps straighten patient's A's involvement in communication as well as developing relationships between care provider and receiver while dealing with this chronic disease.

Provide information to patients and carers

The primary role of nursing approach in this stage while providing information to the COPD patients and career refers to the self-management education along with smoking cessation in an informative nature to maintain patient communication and improving the structure of care approach while treating patients (Matarese et al. 2022).


In terms of concluding the overall context it can be stated that this assessment successfully discussed the Driscoll model of reflection while addressing nursing intervention in order to treat the patient with COPD and sepsis. Besides, it also addresses the prevalence of the identified disease conditions and its mortality rate in the UK alongside the identification of specific nursing intervention processes with the aim of dealing with the disease condition. In addition, this assessment is successful while addressing working within Research and evidence-based practices by nursing staff while maintaining their professional behaviour along with ethical and legal consideration to continue the care approach.


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