Destination management is necessary to consider accurately by the tourism authorities so that development in terms of economic and social values can be promoted accurately (Fesenmaier and Xiang, 2016). In present study, Nepal tourism authority has been selected that focuses on the training program for its employees. Study cover details regarding characteristics and other necessary elements associated with the destination.
There are different types of destinations that need to be evaluated properly Nepal tourism authority in order to learn regarding different features and characteristics associated with destinations. Selected key destinations are classified as Nepal, Italy and Tanzania.
Nepal: Nepal is considered as a tourist destination that has been preferred by different tourists because it is located at the highest mountain range in the world. It is also referred as a place that is famous of different adventure activities such as mountain climbing, paragliding, etc. Also, Nepal has proper combination of cultural heritages as well that also attract many travellers. Fair weather and strong cultural presence at sites make Nepal as strong destination in the world.
Italy: Italy is well known as European nation that have long Mediterranean coastline. Also, destination is well known for its culture and cuisine that attract majority of travellers (Reinhold, Laesser and Beritelli, 2019). It is noticed that Italy is presenting its major cities as masterpieces that can meet need of travellers. Italy is also known as fashion capital so people that are associated with fashion sector also get attracted towards destination.
Tanzania: Tanzania is also referred as common tourist destination in the world and it is located in East Africa. Nation is famous for accurate management and combination of different natural resources. Also, many animal reserves are being arranged by tourist authority. Serengeti National Park is referred as key attraction at the destination and people are visiting destination for safari activities. Marine Park is also a key attraction that help tourist to have experience of sharks and coral reefs.
Common features and characteristics of destinations
Each destination has specific features that help in attracting travellers. All the destinations like Nepal, Italy and Tanzania are having proper arrangement regarding price, values, accessibility, infrastructure, amenities, and market image and service quality. Nepal is having low prices aspects that help travellers to have low cost purchase of tourist activities. Nature and cultural values are being promoted at the Nepal that also enhances the experience of travellers. Easy accessibility using flight and road transportation the travellers can easily visit to the destination. Infrastructure is also impressive in context to transportation and accommodation. However, issues in respect to service quality are needed to be addressed by authorities so that experience of travellers can be boosted. In context to Italy, the pricing factor is high that means traveller needs to expense more on travelling and accommodation services (Rašovská, Kubickova and Ryglová, 2020). Costs of tourist activities in nation are high that some time influences the perception of travellers. Coastal and western cultural values are being considered to attract the tourist and ensure regarding destination development. In Italy the accessibility aspects are also well maintained. Easy connectivity with the world through airports is one of positive factor associated with destination. Service quality and market image factors are also good that improves the overall development.
Other than this, Tanzania is well known for natural resources and nature so destination also promotes natural values in order to offer better experience. Infrastructure developments are needed to be improved by authorities at some context because limited accommodation facilities are available at destination. Low pricing also attract the travellers towards different safari activities and help them attaining better experience. Accessibility factor also need to be improved by having a support of infrastructure development. Airports connectivity is limited because airports are only located at major cities. However, internal transportation facilities are good that improves destination management. Also, it support in terms of travelling from one place to another within nation. Market image also need to be improved by different marketing campaigns use because many people percept that Tanzania is African nations and facilities within nation are not accurate (Scuttari and Pechlaner, 2017). Also, due to high criminal rate in African nations the people prefer less to visit Tanzania so market image need improvement.
Different core resources are associated with the range of global destinations so such aspects are also need to be evaluated in accurate manner. Key core resources are being classified as natural attractions, climate, cultural heritage, festivals, manmade attractions, facilities for leisure activities and special interest. Nepal is having a proper combination of different factors and resources that help attracting tourist.
It has been noticed that core resources indicate that Nepal is well known for natural attractions, climate, cultural heritage and special interest (MCLEOD and SCOTT, 2018). Many adventure and sport activities are being arranged for travellers to meet their needs. Also, different destinations like Pashupatinath temple, Lemonade cafe, etc are being presenting cultural heritage. Other than this, mountain range covers the natural attractions and climate. In context to Italy the festivals, leisure activities, cultural heritage and manmade attractions are key aspects. Many old church and other attractions are considered by travellers to have better growth. Also, Use of diverse aspects is being referred by authorities (Beritelli and et. al 2019). Many carnival and music festivals are arranged within nation that also helps in attracting travellers. It facilitates to ensure regarding destination development accurately.
In Tanzania the natural resources and climate are key aspects that are being considered as key aspects that also attract travellers. Key attractions at the destination are Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Unguja, etc. Many natural parks and animal reserves are there that also help in attracting travellers.
It can be said that destinations must have proper combination of different characteristics so that destination can have accurate development. Better satisfaction to the travellers can be provided by having focus on different characteristics of global destinations. It allows having better balance of different aspects such as politics, economy, environment and culture (Van Niekerk, 2017). It also facilitates to have better development of destination and ensure regarding attaining better infrastructure support. Tourism activities promotion can be considered by nations properly through having reference of different characteristics in defining a range of global destinations. Quality of services in context to tourism activities can also be promoted in adequate manner.
According to Batinić, (2018) considering the different characteristics in range of global destinations the authorities can have focus on aspects like attractions, amenities, activities, etc. It facilitate to have growth of the destination and ensure regarding attracting more travellers. Satisfaction to the travellers can be provided properly and ensure to have development of destination. Sigala and Robinson, (2019) has argued that application of economic and infrastructure development measures can also be promoted within destinations through reference of characteristics associated with the destinations.
From study, different characteristics of destination are needed to be considered by Nepal tourism authority to deal with the issues and promote destinations in the world. Activities and development measures are need to be employed according to key characteristics and availability of core resources to have destination growth.
Destination management is referred as a combination of different activities that are essential for development of destination and promotion of tourist activities. Coordinated management of all the components associated with the destination is being promoted in form of activities. It includes accurate consideration of different attraction, amenities, access, marketing and pricing. Proper reference of strategic approach is necessary to have development of destination and promote the place as combination of different characteristics (Mariani, Di Felice and Mura, 2016). In addition to this, destination management is referred as a practice that allows having management or arrangement of different resources, implementation of events, activities management, and tour and transportation promotion.
In order to have proper promotion of the destinations like Nepal, Italy and Tanzania the consideration of destination management can be taken into account. In this, design of the objectives is necessary to refer by the tourism authority so that destination can be promoted adequately. There are different objectives that need to be considered while having use of destination management.
· To increase the market shares in the existing market.
· To improve destination awareness in the market
· To have control and management of quality aspects regarding services offered at the destination
· To plan and control tourism infrastructure development
In addition to this, use of destination management is focused towards development of destination and ensures that marketing of destination attractions can be done in adequate manner. It facilitates to attract more travelers at the destination and ensure regarding growth. Different benefits are being attained by tourism authorities through having a focus on the destination management (Koo and et. al 2016). It can be said that strategic planning regarding development of destination can be referred by authorities. It assists in meeting objectives and ensure regarding promotion of compelling experience. Promotion of quality infrastructure can be taken into account in accurate manner.
Figure 1: Destination management
(Source: mbie, 2020)
In addition to this, destination management allows to have proper consideration of different factors that are necessary for development of destination. Safety, security aspects can be developed accurately and offer better experience to the guest. Aspects like finance and budget management in respect to destination can also be considered accurately. It facilitates to have better growth and ensure regarding meeting objectives. Better policies regarding development can be framed by tourism authorities so that destination performance and awareness in the market can be advanced.
It has been noticed that destination management organizations plays a critical role in managing destination. Considering the destination management aspects accurately the aspects in context to human resource development can be balanced. For example, at local and nation level the allocation of human resource and employees can be considered so that development practices can be promoted accurately. Volunteers hiring can also be referred by the destination management organisations. It facilitates to have better opportunity in the market and ensure regarding meeting objectives (Sheehan and et. al 2016). Also, allocation of funds and budgeting control activities consideration can also be referred by destination management organisations. Such kind of associations have allocation of fund to the development activities according to need of area. It means fund allocation at national, regional and local level will be different as per requirement. It also helps in development of new attractions so that management of destination can be considered accurately.
At Nepal, Italy and Tanzania the tourism authorities are need to have classification of activities in structured manner so that overall development can be promoted adequately. It also facilitates to have destination development in significant manner. Different nation level and regional level infrastructure projects can be start and control by the destination management organisations (Krce Miočić, Razovič and Klarin, 2016). Such organisations focus on development of activities that can offer better experience to the travellers.
Figure 2: Tourism center
(Source: Linda Bordoni, 2020)
Role of destination management organisations is to have partnership with different government authorities and other parties to have promotion of infrastructure development. Use of such measures is necessary to consider accurately so that key outcomes can be well maintained. Stakeholder’s partnership and involvement promotion through better relationship is also considered as a key role of organization. At all the levels as per destination requirements and characteristics the promotion of facilitation has been considered (Pino and et. al 2019). Also, improvement in coordination of tourism services is also referred as key role so that support to destination can be advanced. Other than this, safety and security measures application is also being considered by organizations in order to have development of destinations.
Role of destination management organisations is also to have development of employment at destination so that support in terms to destination development can also be promoted. Also, Tourism activities and management of foreign exchange is being referred. Disaster planning model application at national, regional and local level is also being considered by organisations for managing a destination. Several crises management activities and nature and characteristics of destination is also being referred significantly by the organizations to have destination development.
As per view Abou-Shouk, (2018) destination management plays a significant role in organizations at different levels such as national, regional and local while managing tourism destination. It has been identified that it involve various aspects as human resource has greater impact on the development of tourism segment and further evaluates in achieving success. At the local and national level human resource are considered as important aspect that further supports in the evaluation of business activities for achieving higher profits. In addition to this, it provides opportunity to grow and development in the market aspects. It is necessary to evaluate and consider destination management for achieving and meeting objectives of the organizations.
On the other hand Kozak and Kozak, (2019) argued that allocation of fund is considered while carry out business activities at the regional level. In addition to this, allocation of fund at national, regional and local level is according to the requirement of organization. This supports in attracting new visitors towards the destination. It has been observed that Nepal, Italy and Tanzania have different authorities that are regulating laws and policies adopted for the overall development of the particular region. This supports in the evaluation of various segments that is considered for improving performance of organizations at different level. Further, role of destination is considered as effective and building brand reputation that is necessary for the future development and creating change that is considered as an essential element for the future.
It can be recommended that for improvement of role and performance organizations should adopt effective strategies that supports in attracting larger visitor towards it. In addition to this, further implementation is being done that supports in the evaluation of performance and consider as effective change in business activities. It will be necessary for organizations to set role of the development of destination management and evolve in building difference in the destination and contribute towards the development of performance in various destinations. Moreover, it will be suggested that adopting effective strategy for the further improvement in performance of organization. This will support in the evaluation of various changes that will be carry out in building change and further bringing out aspects for the development in the organizations.
Moreover, it is suggested that destination management will have to carry out activities according to needs and expectation of visitors so that it further supports in meeting objectives and goals. It is important for destination management to taken into account different aspects related with the development and improvement in performance that supports in caters difference in the evaluation of various practices by the organization.
This part of report emphasize on destination life cycle and its implication on the destination management. It also includes various stages involves in life cycle of destination along with examples. Furthermore, it focuses on priorities involved while selecting destination for the organization.
There are mainly six stages considered within the destination life cycle are as under:
Exploration: - This is considered as the first stage within the destination cycle as here some adventurous tourists come and visit the place. In this case, few facilities are provided to the public for visiting destination. For example, Nepal is taken into account as one of the destinations for people to cater and explore different places within the country. Here, tourists get attracted towards the destination as there may be any reason behind it that includes nature around the destination etc (Vujko and et. al 2016). This only attracts specific visitors towards the destination. On the other side, it influences the Nepal tourism sector as only a few tourists get attracted towards the destination.
Involvement:- In the second stage, there is less interaction between the visitor and the local community of Nepal. This further resulted in getting basic services within the destination. In addition to this, for further involvement, Nepal carries out advertising activities for attracting larger visitor base towards the destination. This supports in cater to various needs and further involvement can be enhanced after doing promotion by the selected destination. It also impacts destination management as due to less communication between tourist and local people this creates differences in between them and affects the sale and profitability of the destination management.
Development: - This is a third stage emphasize on achieving growth among visitors towards the particular destination. In addition to this, it is considered as development stage for Nepal to gain more visitors within the country (Lozano-Oyola and et. al 2019). Here, additional facilities are also provided to visitors so that it supports in improving promotional efforts by the country. There is a significant rise of visitors under this stage that further helps in carrying out various business operations. Apart from this, it considered a peak rise in a number of visitors towards Nepal. This further supports in increasing revenue of the country through tourists.
Consolidation: - This stage provides an insight when the growth rate of visitors decline significantly then Nepal enter into the consolidation stage. It has been evaluated that tourism is considered an important element for the economy to raise revenue and attracting visitors towards the country. Here, in this stage, some of the facilities are getting outdated so the selected destination tries to improve facilities and provide then again effective services to the visitors in Nepal. Here, visitor’s attraction towards the country gets declined and further influence tourism of the country.
Stagnation:- Furthermore, in this stage again a number of visitors rise and the level of tourism attraction gets increased (Baggio and Scaglione, 2018). This supports in the evaluation of tourists in Nepal and again revenue comes at its stable condition. Here, Nepal gained established image in front of visitors but there is also a negative impact of it as the popularity of destination is not remain for a longer period of time. Moreover, facilities provided by destination management gets impacted and turnover can be lower due to fewer visitors in the country.
Post-stagnation:- This is the last stage considered in the destination life cycle as either it reaches towards declining stage or rejuvenation. Here, different changes occurred can be positive or negative while considering a number of tourist arrivals in the selected destination.
It has been observed that destination management plays a crucial role in every stage of the destination life cycle. It is important for management to carry out all activities related to tourism in an effective manner. Further, it supports in achieving organizational goals and objectives. The role of management can be taken into account as the first stage comprises of exploration in which visitors explore destinations as to where they have to visit on websites or through different applications of the company (Nomm, Albrecht and Lovelock, 2020). Here, the destination manager is responsible for providing various facilities to visitors that come and visit Nepal, Italy and Tanzania. In addition to this, they provide information about facilities provided by it and cater to effective communication with tourists. This supports in attracting larger tourists in the country.
Furthermore, the second stage deals with the involvement of visitors towards a particular destination. In this stage, the revenue of the country increases and further evaluates in bringing out the change in the tourism sector. Role of destination manager in this stage is to further involve more visitors towards the country. This helps in increasing customer attraction and evaluates in building change in the activities within the country. It is necessary for the manager of the destination to attract larger visitors so that moreover, it supports in improving profits of the country under the tourism sector. On the other hand, the third stage involves development within Nepal and different destinations that are considered to carry out further research (Pikkemaat, Peters and Chan, 2018). Here, the number of visitors increased that further supports in improving visitor base in the country. Destination management foster creativity and provides additional services to visitors so that it further attracts more tourists and the tourism sector get improved.
The fourth stage is related to consolidation where there is a decrease in the number of visitor in the country. In this stage, the destination manager carries out certain activities for promoting tourism to other countries that help in attracting more tourists towards the country. This supports in bringing out change and cater difference in building and achieving higher profits that are necessary for the future. In addition to this, it also improves communication between visitors and local communities by involving more and more under the tourism sector and analyzing the expectation and needs of visitors from the destination. Stagnation is considered as the fifth stage under the destination life cycle that further improves the level of visitors towards the destination. This supports in enhancing the revenue of the country and involve a certain perspective that is important for gaining competitive advantage under the tourism sector (Reitsamer and Brunner-Sperdin, 2017). Here, destination management provides more guidance to visitors and further involve different activities that are necessary for attracting larger visitors to Nepal. Apart from this, a special discount is provided by it to visitors so they take more interest and this supports in gaining more tourists within the destination.
The last stage is post-stagnation that either involves declining or enhancing of visitors towards the particular destination. Role of destination management in this stage to identify loopholes so that solution can be gathered and fulfil gaps for further enhancing growth under the tourism sector.
According to Kotíková and Pavlů, (2019) it has been observed that there are six stages consider under destination life cycle such as exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and post-stagnation. All these are considered as important stages under the cycle of destination. It has been found that at the exploration stage priority is given to visitors that come as tourist at the destination and here, proper treatment is being provided to them based on their needs and expectation. Further, in the involvement stage priority is given to tourists as they are getting more involved with facilities that are provided at the destination to them.
On the other hand, Hristov, Scott and Minocha, (2018) argued that in the development stage priority of destination management is to provide leisure services to visitors so that it further supports in attracting more visitors towards the selected destination. For example: Accommodation facilities are also provided to visitors so that it further supports in enhances revenue. In addition to this, at the consolidation stage tourists is becoming a priority for destination management as here large number of customers is involved with tourism and sector and searching for best place to visit. In the stagnation stage, priority of destination management is to serve visitors in an effective manner. Finally, the last stage comprises of post-stagnation where either destination get selected or declined by visitor so here priority is also provided to visitors.
It can be recommended that destination management should adopt specific strategies that help in the development of destination life cycle. It has been found that at the stage of exploration improvement will be done by adopting certain strategies that further supports in the evaluation of destination by visitors in an easy manner. They did not have to involve much with larger destinations and it’s become easy for them to select right destination. Further, at involvement stage communication will be enhanced by destination management for getting involved with more and more people and provide them services that help in attracting towards the destination.
In addition to this, development is considered as third stage that emphasizes on building brand reputation and enhances activities involved at the time of selection of destination by tourists. This supports in involving much into the activities performed while selecting destination. Further, at consolidations stage additional services will be provided to visitors so that this supports in attracting more tourists towards the selected destination. Stagnation stage will be improved by implementing strategies under this stage that supports in providing services to visitors that helps in achieve future goal. The last stage relates with post-stagnation so for the improvement at this stage policies and procedures will be implemented that will further supports in achieving success.
It can be analyzed from the above research that destination management cycle involves six stages that further supports visitors in selecting destination. It has observed that different stages involved helps tourist in explore number of destination and provides them effective knowledge about it.
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