Disease Infectious And Long-Term Condition Assignment Sample

Infectious Diseases and Long-Term Conditions: Assignment Analysis

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Introduction Of Disease Infectious And Long-Term Condition

The infectious disease and long-term condition and summarising the prevalence and causes of this condition in the chosen country

The identified infectious disease for the following context refers to TB. This is considered a potential bacterial infectious disease that has an adverse impact on lungs and is generally spread by air when an infected person sneezes, coughs or spits (Jeyashree et al. 2022). Although this disease is an airborne disease caused by "Mycobacterium tuberculosis", it is considered curable and preventable by proper treatment and medication (Who.int, 2023a). Common symptoms of this disease refer to prolonged coughs along with blood, chronic chest pain as well as constant weakness, fatigue and severe weight loss, fever and continuous sweating among the population (Who.int, 2023a). Even though the bacteria primarily infect lungs, it has a severe impact on the kidney, brain along with spine and skin which impact on the severity of the disease symptoms. In addition, there are certain conditions that have capabilities to increase the risk for the identified disease such as DM, weak immune system along with malnourishment and excessive consumption of tobacco (Dave & Rupani, 2022).

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In terms of addressing the prevalence of this disease in the identified country, it can be stated that the WHO TB statistics for India in the year 2021 refers to the estimated incident figure of 2590000 million cases along with the rate of 188 per 1 lakh population in India (). This is followed by the decreasing incidence of TB for 77 cases per 1 lakh population by the year 2023 (Who.int, 2023a). This is followed by the overall number of new and relapse cases of the identified disease refer to 1933381 along with the percentage of positive rapid diagnosis of 18%, the presence of known HIV positive cases of 92%, 71% of pulmonary disease and 54% of confirmed cases of bacteriology (Tbfacts.org, 2023). This is followed by the 6% of positive cases of children aged between 0 to 14 years along with 36% of women and 58% of men which explains the infection rate of 40% in India with the identified disease condition (Tbfacts.org, 2023). Among the states in India, Delhi has the highest number of infected people with the known case of TB for over 534 incidents per 1 lakh population (Who.int, 2023a).

While addressing the reasons for prevalence of the identified disease in India, it can be stated that pollution widespread across the country and are considered significant reason that impact the air and associating issues for the population full stop it also help in trading the bacteria from one person to another to increase the chance of catching TB in India (Faujdar et al. 2022). Another reason refers to the low immunity among the population that ignites the overall infection and breaks into the identified disease. This includes the affected population suffering from HIV along with stress, DM, worsen condition of lungs, as well as alcoholism and smoking that have significant impact on degrading the general health conditions of the population (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023a). This is followed by other factors such as lack of awareness along with proper resources, poor infrastructure as well as increasing cases of drag resistance among the population that ignite the cause of the infectious disease. Besides, poor notification as well as the overall negligence towards managing major health challenges despite the presence of poverty and malnourishment impacting the population with the prevalence of the identified disease (Pal et al. 2023). In addition, the presence of and diagnosis along with untreated and unreported cases of TB as well as increasing risk of transmission are capable of posing a challenge for eliminating the identified disease. It also includes close contact with infected persons not taking proper precaution while communicating with TB patients is capable of training the program to eliminate the identified disease as public health issues in India (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023a).

This is considered the most common type of diabetes and it is generally considered a lifestyle related disease as risk factors such as obesity, improper diet management along with low physical activities have an impact on increasing the chance of this disease (Devi et al. 2022). The primary reason for this identified disease refers to the loss of ability of pancreas in terms of producing insulin for the body and that results in elevating blood glucose level. The primary symptoms of this disease referred to increased thirst along with frequent urination hunger as well as fatty and blurred vision (Ghosh & Pal, 2022). As high blood glucose level is capable of damaging the body's organs and impacting long term on macro vascular and microwave colour blood vessels which lead to the other health issues such as heart attack, increased possibility of stroke and issues with kidney, gum and feet and vision (Itrat & Akhlaq, 2022).

In terms of addressing the prevalence of DM and impaired fasting blood glucose level in the selected country refers to the 9.3% as well as 24.5% respectively (Who.int, 2023b). This is followed by 45.8% of the population who are aware of the disease along with 36.1% who are considered under treatment and approximately 15.7% of the population who has the blood sugar under control (Frontiersin.org, 2023). This is followed by approximately 3/4th of the population (approximately 84.0%) who are continuing that treatment under allopathic practiceness for consultation along with 78.8% of individuals that are currently under the treatment procedures in India ((Who.int, 2023b). On the other hand, as per the WHO context, approximately 77 million people above the age of 18 years in India are considered to be suffering from this type of disease and approximately 25 million of population are considered free diabetic in terms of being at risk of developing T2DM in near future (Who.int, 2023b). In addition, approximately 50% of the overall population are considered to be unaware in terms of identifying their disease status which increases the health complication and impacts long term in the form of increased risk of heart attack and strokes (Deshmane & Muley, 2022). This also includes increasing chances of low blood flow to the heart, neuropathy and increasing chance of disease infection such as HIV, TB and many more.

Apart from that, while addressing the causes of prevalence of T2DM in the identified country, it can be stated that the risk of the identified disease is considered largely influenced by several factors such as the ethnicity as well as age factor, obesity and physical inactivity among the population (Singh et al. 2022). This is followed by other factors such as unhealthy and unbalanced diet management and several behavioural habits in regards to genetics and family history that impact the control of blood glucose, blood pressure as well as lipid profiles in blood (Oak et al. 2022). These factors are crucial in terms of preventing or influencing the onset of complications in regards to the identified disease in India. There are other risks which are considered significant in terms of igniting the prevalence of the identified disease in the country. As a progressive disorder, this specific health condition leads to the serious consequences in terms of increasing cost to health care, increasing risk of vascular disease along with igniting the chance of microvascular conditions such as "diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy as well as neuropathy" among the affected population (Valodara & Johar SR, 2022).

Public health problem by considering the physical, psychological and socioeconomic impacts on individuals and the population

This specific infectious disease is considered a public health issue in the identified nation as there are still present factors in the form of lack of awareness as well as appropriate resources infrastructure along with the increasing amount of drug resistant cases and the overall negligence in terms of dealing with the issue (Acosta et al. 2022). Approximately 2.7 million new cases occur every year in India that cause the death of approximately 4 lakhs people and that is considered the significant reason in terms of considering TB a major public Health issue (Who.int, 2023a). The identified disease can be fatal if not treated properly and is considered to be curable with a 6 months course of antibiotics which needs to be completed in order to be cured (Publichealth.hscni.net, 2023). This is followed by causing drug resistance in terms of not completing the full course of the proper medication as well as a slow development of the disease conditions in the body over the time of several months. This is also a significant reason that increases the relapse cases of the identified disease conditions in India (Liu et al. 2022).

Apart from that, it includes the development of prominent physical symptoms such as high fever along with night sweats, persistent cough and weight loss as well as blood in sputum. This is followed by decreasing appetite as well as fatigue which can be caused with a prolonged contact with an infected patient and showing little to no risking factors for others (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023b). On the other hand, prolonged coughs impact patients with chest pain and increase chances of blood in sputum along with impacting respiratory physiology as well as the functional abilities of the patients. The physical impact of the identified infectious disease can be addressed by mentioning eight sub domains in the form of impacting physical function, physical role as well as increased body ache, general health along with vitality, social functioning, role emotion and mental health issues (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023b).
The psychological impact of the identified disease condition refers to the patients feeling hopelessness along with high stress, stigma as well as discrimination in society and family (Dai et al. 2022). This is followed by losing employment opportunities during the diagnosis of the disease along with decreasing marriage prospects and absence of social support and increasing economic burdens (Borham et al. 2022). The presence of stigma for the TB patients can lead to low self-esteem among individuals as well as increasing distress, discrimination along with exclusion from society and the overall impact on the patient's mentality to continue the treatment process. This is followed by increasing chances of patients developing depression and anxiety which are capable of reducing the overall quality of life and increasing morbidity rate among TB patients (Dai et al. 2022). In the case of India, approximately 64.1% of the overall infected population faces psychological distress which has an impact on their recovery process (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023b). It is followed by increasing rates of paranoid ideation and hospitality towards the patients alongside somatization which have a crucial impact on the population by increasing chance psychological distress (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023g).

The socio-economic impact of the identified infectious disease is severe in India as it is capable of affecting the employment opportunities for the patients. In India, most of the TB affected patients age from 25 to 54 years and the number of male (62%) is higher than infected females (38%) (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023c). This factor includes losing job on average three to four months of working aspects along with losing potential earnings of 20 to 30% of yearly household income in India (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023c). In the case of dead patients, the socioeconomic impact refers to the loss of approximately 15 years of total income in terms of addressing the premature loss of life due to TB (Borham et al. 2022). It also includes the role cost in the form of indirect cost of healthcare is relatively high alongside the average time of losing jobs without wages is 3 months. This indicates the inability to afford the care aspects as well as discontinuation from respective job sectors among the affected population (Pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023).

In the case of T2DM, most of the population is unable to use insulin in terms of regulating blood sugar and this has a prolonged impact on damaging body systems as well as nerves and blood vessels (Brown et al. 2022). This also leads to the development of chronic illness including heart disease as well as kidney and amputation of lower limbs. As the disease conditions mortality rate has been elevating irrespective of the population's race, ethnicity as well as income group along with complications and higher mortality rates; it also creates disparities by increasing prevalence among minorities and low economic groups (Beltrán et al. 2022). This is related to poor glycemic control by the overall Indian population and creates diet issues that are responsible for micro as well as macrovascular issues for the T2DM in the arena of public health.

The physical impact of the identified long-term disease refers to the decline of using and producing insulin by the affected bodies and leading towards a high blood glucose level (Beltrán et al. 2022). This is followed by causing severe damages to nerves and blood vessels of the affected person in a long-term process. It also includes prolonged impact of the disease by losing eyesight as well as kidney failure, hypertension and high chance of stroke (Cabasag et al. 2022).

The psychological impact of the identified disease is severe as it has 2 to 3 times more chance of causing depression and anxiety among people in comparison with the non-DM population (Brown et al. 2022). The rapid changes on the psychological health of the patients include excessive fatigue as well as managing thinking and anxiety which have adverse impact on the quality of life of the infected population. This is followed by increasing chances of suicide and sleep disorders that are accountable to affect the overall lifestyle of the affected population (Wibowo et al. 2022). This is followed by psychosocial impact of the disease on self-care of the affected population by causing diabetes distress alongside worries about adverse consequences of the disease conditions. The psychological reaction experienced by the affected population shows typical emotional distress at different levels alongside compromising their needs in the form of 2-fold greater risk of comorbid depression in comparison with the healthy population as well as hampering the quality of life of the patients (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023f). These are associated with functional impairment along with poor adherence to maintain healthy lifestyle, diet and medication as well as inadequate glycaemic control.

The low-income households are at risk in terms of associated disease and this specific disease impact by poverty and poor health. In the case of Indian society, the identified disease conditions are responsible for using approximately 5 to 25% share of household earnings while treating issues in regards to the T2DM (Globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral, 2023). It is also considered the 7th leading cause of mortality rate in India along with the association of several health issues (Who.int, 2023b). It also includes certain socioeconomic risk factors that are interconnected with the prevalence of T2DM and refer to obesity, physical inactivity as well as smoking and low birth weight. These impact on glucose intolerance and the overall grade of employment. In addition, the low socioeconomic status areas are prevalent of this disease alongside the deprivation of age factors in the form of 40 to 69 years (Jech.bmj, 2023). This is followed by their inability to check primary healthcare sessions regularly alongside measuring blood glucose, high stress factors due to prolonged unemployment impacted on the socio-economic section.

Assessing disease conditions by addressing public health organisations and policies in identified countries with remaining challenges

In the case of India, the identified disease program has been pointed out in terms of resolving the issue of drag resistance among the identified population and improving the disease service across the country. This is followed by introducing new drugs in terms of treating the disease and effectively cutting the duration of treatment from 2 years to 1 year (Rupani, 2023). The Government of India with the associations of ICMR has declared TV as a public health trade and emergencies and issued campaign mode in order to prevent the disease (Bhat et al. 2022). This factor includes increasing the budgetary provision up to 3% as well as launching a National TB campaign by engaging different ambassadors at the regional level with the aim of increasing the visibility of the program (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023d). This is followed by rebranding RNTCP which consists of name as well as logo and slogans of the disease campaign with the aim of minimising the stigmatisation in regards to the identified disease. It also includes engaging a diverse range of shareholders as well as elected representatives of States and civil servants with the aim of establishing intersectoral coordination and empowering engaging TB communities by improving care process and decision making (Khanna et al. 2022). This factor also includes improving the surveillance and monitoring system associated with the national TB institute as well as Bangalore as the nodal place along with developing sentinel centres in order to use human resources for establishing improved research infrastructure in India. This is followed by establishing an additional laboratory in reference to the national level in west and north east areas of the country while passing several policies such as "National TB policy, TB elimination board and an apex body as the primary facilitators of policy development" to improve the situation (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023d).

However, the major challenges regarding the elimination of the identified disease refers to the issues of eradicating poverty and reducing malnourishment in society. It also includes a huge list of missing data of infected people that is creating issues with fulfilling the "End TB strategy" and improving primary health infrastructure (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023a). It also includes poor infrastructure of primary care and irregular primary care approaches, lacking in political will and high corruption in administration creating adverse environments while carrying out the agenda of removing this disease.

In terms of tackling the rising prevalence of identified disease in India the Indian government has initiated a "national diabetes control programme" since 1987 in pilot mode to cover the districts of Tamilnadu, Kashmir, Jammu and Karnataka (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023e). This program is responsible for allocating budget alongside collaborating with other programs such as "prevention and control of diabetes cardiovascular disease and show (NPCDCS)" to extend the awareness by educating on these factors as well as early diagnosis process and appropriate management of the disease (Saleem et al. 2022). The "Authoritative institute of health and welfare (AIHW) and the Chennai urban rural epidemiology study" have initiated with the improve research context in terms of lowering the number of obesity patient as well as increasing physical activities to reduce the impact for the identified disease institutions are associated with the "international diabetes federation" and working with the aim of engaging millions of population in India to advocate the disease context and increasing awareness among the population (Sathish et al. 2022).

However, even though the awareness programs are continuously working for an improved disease condition, there are several areas that are lacking in addressing the disease issues. This factor includes the unavailability of HbA1C gold standard test for the large section of the Indian population (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023e). This is followed by the absence of clinical inertia in terms of using insulin therapy for the wide section of the population. Besides, lack of healthcare facilities focusing on diabetes care along with non-adherent treatment and diet advice creates issues to remove the disease prevalence in India (Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2023e). It also includes cost of exercise while managing lifestyle in the case of T2DM alongside high chance of injury and high transportation cost also addresses the negative factor to manage a healthy lifestyle and impacting the prevalence of the disease.

However, with a continuous effort from the Indian government sides as well as the combination effort by stakeholders, the target facilitation toward easy screening of infectious and non-infectious diseases can lead to the early detection of issues. This would also help with proper disease prevention, self-management as well as counselling of patients to reduce the overall impact in India.


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