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Introduction Of Health And Social Care

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Of the four major phases of a human, the second major phase of growing up is childhood. The first is the infancy stage, where the child is between birth and the ability to acquire language. The third phase is adolescence which marks the onset of puberty, and the fourth stage is adulthood, where they have acquired the intellectual capability and gain the optimum mental function. Out of all these stages, the major stage of growing and acquiring mental and intellectual capability is the stage of childhood. The starting point of cognitive, emotional, intellectual and mental ability is this age.

Origins Of Childhood

The French historian Philippe Aries interpreted childhood and was of the opinion that 'childhood' as we know of today as a time in a person's life where they require special needs, resources and efforts is the invention of the nineteenth century before those children were treated almost as adults who were small. He theorised that childhood was a social construction rather than biological, and it was the invention after the 1800s; before this, children were considered adults as long as they could take care of their own (Lee et al., 2020). The children being deemed as weak and beings who needed the support of adults to grow started during the eighteenth century when society became more family-centric.

By looking at the history of childhood briefly, it can be said that the biblical tradition considered children born scared with the original sin. According to Hugh Cunningham, this changed during the age of romanticism when the theories of John Locke and the romantic movement engulfed Europe. From this era, children were considered to be innocent. This era gave the children something which was never anticipated before.

The children were given the right to a childhood (Lee et al., 2020). This included the right to have their innocence protected and prolonged. Then in the Victorian era, the concept of children as innocents started normalising. It was during this period that the industrial revolution started, and children were made to work in factories and mines. All this was changed when Lord Ashley and people like him saved them from this ill fate, and the street children were rescued by the NSPCC in the late 1880s (Bhopal and Pitkin, 2020). The liberal government during that time, influenced by the labour movement all across Europe, passed the Age Pension Act of 1908 and the National Insurance Act of 1911, which brought a radical change in the welfare right of the UK.

A country like Sweden offers free education at all level to its children. A major part of their taxes goes to improving the education policy and making it more accessible to the population (Bhopal and Pitkin, 2020). The economic structure of a country like the UK depends on its education policies and vice-versa. New innovative reforms can help the system of education become better in the UK. The politicisation of education has pushed the narrative of learning according to what the political leaders want. The present time of childhood is generally thought to be a good time (Bhopal and Pitkin, 2020). However, philosophers like Sue Palmer have given the theory that childhood in the present world tries to separate itself from adulthood which is pessimistic from all sides, and this is very toxic.

History of Education and legislative changes

As we are talking about the history of education, we can talk about the accessibility of it to children in the UK. The first grammar school was established in the year 598 AD in Canterbury, and by 600 AD, there were many grammar schools all around the country like Worcester, Malmesbury, Hexham, Hereford, Lichfield, Winchester and Dorchester. Later the Ecclesiastical History of England was written by Bede. A few decades later, Oxford University and Cambridge University was established, and during the age of reformation and renaissance, these two became important institutions of education (Sabia, 2021). However, there was a huge gap between the people who could afford education and the ones who could. The gap of equality was huge. During the industrial era of the 1800s, children were made to work in factories and mines. Their condition was bad, and they had little hope to get themselves educated (Bhopal and Pitkin, 2020). The Factory Act of 1883 was implemented to improve the conditions of these children. The act prohibited factories from hiring children under nine years of age and lowering their working hours. However, for them to become educated was still a big problem. Then after decades of struggle, the Education Act of 1944 was passed, which permitted free education to all the pupils at the secondary level.

The liberal government during that time, influenced by the labour movement all across Europe, passed the Age Pension Act of 1908 and the National Insurance Act of 1911, which brought a radical change in the welfare right of the UK. A country like Sweden offers free education at all level to its children (Sabia, 2021). A major part of their taxes goes to improving the education policy and making it more accessible to the population. The economic structure of a country like the UK depends on its education policies and vice-versa. New innovative reforms can help the system of education become better in the UK. The politicisation of education has pushed the narrative of learning according to what the political leaders want. Another Education Act of 2011 was passed just a decade ago, which gave more power to the school authority to function independently (Sabia, 2021). As of the present time, the number of schools offering free education to children has increased a lot, and the children are now in much better condition.

Political and Economic Perspectives of Education in the UK and Saudi Arabia and Sweden

Compared to the other countries in Europe, there still many changes that need to be made in order to improve the education system of the country. A country like Sweden offers free education at all level to its children. A major part of their taxes goes to improving the education policy and making it more accessible to the population. The economic structure of a country like the UK depends on its education policies and vice-versa. New innovative reforms can help the system of education become better in the UK (Yige, 2019). The politicisation of education has pushed the narrative of learning according to what the political leaders want. The study of the countries histories is mostly sugarcoated and favours the rich people of the society. The perspective of the political policies is mostly based on the school level education and not beyond that, which is a problem. There has been political protest demanding free education from the government. The struggle of acquiring good education is still always something ongoing.

Beveridge Report and Premium Funding

During the industrial era of the 1800s, children were made to work in factories and mines. Their condition was bad, and they had little hope to get themselves educated. The Factory Act of 1883 was implemented to improve the conditions of these children. The act prohibited factories from hiring children under nine years of age and lowering their working hours. However, for them to become educated was still a big problem. According to Hugh Cunningham, this changed during the age of romanticism when the theories of John Locke and the romantic movement engulfed Europe (Yige, 2019). From this era, children were considered to be innocent. This era gave the children something which was never anticipated before. The children were given the right to a childhood. This included the right to have their innocence protected and prolonged. Then in the Victorian era, the concept of children as innocents started normalising. It was during this period that the industrial revolution started, and children were made to work in factories and mines. All this was changed when Lord Ashley and people like him saved them from this ill fate, and the street children were rescued by the NSPCC in the late 1880s (Yige, 2019). Then in 1942, on the 1st of December, the coalition wartime government published a report which was titled 'Social Insurance and Allied Services. This report was written by the extremely talented and highly respected economist Sir William Beveridge, who mostly talked about the problems of unemployment. This report later came to be known as the Beveridge Report, which served as a blueprint to the modern welfare British state (Yige, 2019). This report was measured as a landmark by the conservative government of Margaret Thacher almost fifty years later. This report provided a change for the improvement of the society. The proposal was that all the people from the working class have to pay a weekly contribution to the state in return for which the money would be used to provide for the needs of the unemployed, widowed, sick and retired. The aim of the report was to ensure that nobody in the UK falls below the minimum standard of living.

Links to policy

For Victorian society, the reason for poverty, unemployment and issues like that were a result of the idleness and the failure of the adult to do something to sustain themselves. However, with time the political and the economic perspective changed, and people started to understand the real reasons behind these problems and progressed towards reforms (Morris and Dobson, 2021). The liberal government during that time, influenced by the labour movement all across Europe, passed the Age Pension Act of 1908 and the National Insurance Act of 1911, which brought a radical change in the welfare right of the UK. A country like Sweden offers free education at all level to its children. A major part of their taxes goes to improving the education policy and making it more accessible to the population. The economic structure of a country like the UK depends on its education policies and vice-versa. New innovative reforms can help the system of education become better in the UK (Morris and Dobson, 2021). The politicisation of education has pushed the narrative of learning according to what the political leaders want. The study of the countries histories is mostly sugarcoated and favours the rich people of the society. The perspective of the political policies is mostly based on the school level education and not beyond that, which is a problem.

In the Victorian era, the concept of children as innocents started normalising. It was during this period that the industrial revolution started, and children were made to work in factories and mines. During the industrial era of the 1800s, children were made to work in factories and mines (Mahony and Weiner, 2019). Their condition was bad, and they had little hope to get themselves educated. The Factory Act of 1883 was implemented to improve the conditions of these children. The act prohibited factories from hiring children under nine years of age and lowering their working hours. However, for them to become educated was still a big problem.

Then in the Victorian era, the concept of children as innocents started normalising. It was during this period that the industrial revolution started, and children were made to work in factories and mines (Mahony and Weiner, 2019). All this was changed when Lord Ashley and people like him saved them from this ill fate, and the street children were rescued by the NSPCC in the late 1880s. The liberal government during that time, influenced by the labour movement all across Europe, passed the Age Pension Act of 1908 and the National Insurance Act of 1911, which brought a radical change in the welfare right of the UK (Mahony and Weiner, 2019). A country like Sweden offers free education at all level to its children. A major part of their taxes goes to improving the education policy and making it more accessible to the population. The economic structure of a country like the UK depends on its education policies and vice-versa. New innovative reforms can help the system of education become better in the UK. The politicisation of education has pushed the narrative of learning according to what the political leaders want. The present time of childhood is generally thought to be a good time.

Pupil Premium

The present time of childhood is generally thought to be a good time. A major part of the taxes goes to improving the education policy and making it more accessible to the population (Foster and Long, 2017). The economic structure of a country like the UK depends on its education policies and vice-versa. New innovative reforms can help the system of education become better in the UK. The politicisation of education has pushed the narrative of learning according to what the political leaders want. The study of the countries histories is mostly sugarcoated and favours the rich people of the society (Foster and Long, 2017). The perspective of the political policies is mostly based on the school level education and not beyond that, which is a problem.

How does pupil premium work within the context of 2021 

Here we come to the topic of pupil premium. In the year 2011, the children of low-income families were eligible for free meals, or their responsibility for six months was taken by the schools (Foster and Long, 2017). This was done throughout the Pupil Premium funding, which was around 12 million pounds, and this was done to encourage education among the young children keeping in mind that they do not stop learning when the money is becoming a factor. The economic structure of a country like the UK depends on its education policies and vice-versa (Foster and Long, 2017). New innovative reforms can help the system of education become better in the UK. The politicisation of education has pushed the narrative of learning according to what the political leaders want. The study of the countries histories is mostly sugarcoated and favours the rich people of the society.

What political and social struggles does education follow 

After decades of struggle, the Education Act of 1944 was passed, which permitted free education to all the pupils at the secondary level. The liberal government during that time, influenced by the labour movement all across Europe, passed the Age Pension Act of 1908 and the National Insurance Act of 1911, which brought a radical change in the welfare right of the UK (Holliday et al. 2018). All this was changed when Lord Ashley and people like him saved them from this ill fate, and the street children were rescued by the NSPCC in the late 1880s. After decades of struggle, the Education Act of 1944 was passed, which permitted free education to all the pupils at the secondary level. Another Education Act of 2011 was passed just a decade ago, which gave more power to the school authority to function independently. As of the present time, the number of schools offering free education to children has increased a lot, and the children are now in much better condition (Holliday et al. 2018). The children were given the right to a childhood. This included the right to have their innocence protected and prolonged.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the perspective of the political policies is mostly based on the school level education and not beyond that, which is a problem. After decades of struggle, the Education Act of 1944 was passed, which permitted free education to all the pupils at the secondary level. Another Education Act of 2011 was passed just a decade ago, which gave more power to the school authority to function independently. As of the present time, the number of schools offering free education to children has increased a lot, and the children are now in much better condition. The children were given the right to a childhood. This included the right to have their innocence protected and prolonged.

References

Bhopal, K., and Pitkin, C. 2020. 'Same old story, just a different policy': race and policymaking in higher education in the UK. Race Ethnicity and Education23(4), 530-547.

Bloomberg, M., Dugravot, A., Dumurgier, J., Kivimaki, M., Fayosse, A., Steptoe, A., ... and Sabia, S. 2021. Sex differences and the role of education in cognitive ageing: analysis of two UK-based prospective cohort studies. The Lancet Public Health6(2), e106-e115.

Foster, D., and Long, R. 2017. The pupil premium.

Holliday, R., Amin, K., Lawrence, V., and Preshaw, P. M. 2018. Tobacco education in UK dental schools: A survey of current practice. European Journal of Dental Education22(2), e248-e252.

Lee, E., Vare, P., and Finlayson, A. 2020. The Ebb and flow of environmental and sustainability education in UK schools. In Green Schools Globally (pp. 365-384). Springer, Cham.

Mahony, P., and Weiner, G. 2019. Neo-liberalism and the state of higher education in the UK. Journal of Further and Higher Education43(4), 560-572.

Morris, R., and Dobson, G. 2021. Spending the pupil premium: What influences leaders’ decision-making?. Educational Management Administration and Leadership49(2), 284-302.

Yige, M. M. 2019. Visual arts education provisions for primary schools in Turkey. Arts Education Policy Review120(1), 11-18.

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