Introduction of Healthcare Management Assignment
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Healthcare management refers to all the activities that are related to health and social care in the UK and to managing all the performances of the healthcare organizations like health clinics as well as hospitals. In the country of UK, NHS mainly manages the healthcare management operations, it is a government organization and that was mainly set up in terms of providing healthcare facilities to the public in the UK. Management and leadership in terms of nursing have a great impact that leads them to voluntarily follow. Apart from that the difference between leaders and managers will also discussed in this study. Effective leadership is very essential for the development of the healthcare management system that guides to increase the administrative performance of the healthcare organizations. According to Safonov et al. (2018), the leadership helps a wider workforce along with the development of the state of patient satisfaction. The concerned study emphasizes the evolving process of management practices in the NHS, the origins of the management theory of NHS and the role of social research in information management practices in health and social care in the UK. Apart from that, the role of NHS and other health and social care settings in the management theory is also discussed in the present study.
2. The process of evolving management and leadership practices in the NHS
In the current situation, the role of managers of the NHS has evolved a lot in terms of administrative performances as well as leadership activities. As per the point of view of Khatoon (2020), in the initial stage, the organization structure was smaller and more complex with limited nurses and doctors that were mainly supervised by the managers of the organization. “Situational or contingency leadership model” can be followed by the NHS management that guides to implement of supportive, directive as well as participative leadership policies that guide to improve of the organizational strategies (Safonov et al. 2018). This leadership model also recommends improving the situation of the organization by improving the work environment to motivate subordinates the improvement of their professional characteristics as well as efficiency. The principal purpose of healthcare management is to manage all the administrative activities of the healthcare organizations and solve all the issues related to overall public health as well as other kinds of medical facilities. According to Keskinocak and Savva (2020), the Incorporation of the government rules and regulations has developed the work process of the organization and for the administrative performance, a plethora of different regulators have been incorporated that guide the performances of the managers of NHS. By the end of 1990, the government of the UK has changed the leadership agenda of the NHS that guided the management to take more responsibility for the leadership policy (Safonov et al. 2018). In the very recent time, the chief executive of NHS, Lord David Prior has stated that the organization mainly missioner to provide any kind of health and social care facilities to all the UK people and served them to stay healthy, especially during the pandemic situation.
Different regulations and legislation are applied to these healthcare organizations. Different management theories guide to increasing specialized sections that guide to improve the services in terms of public health and social care system. In the current situation, As per the perception of Senthilkumaret al. (2020). NHS includes different sections for “Human Resource Management”, “Procurement Management”, IT and “Estate Management” for the development of performances in terms of health and social care performances (Wielogórska and Ekwobi, 2020). Clinical specialties are another important section of HNS that mainly performs the medical services of the UK people.
During the pandemic caused by the sudden outbreak of coronavirus, the healthcare staff has to perform their duties for a longer period of a day. As per the opinion of Safonov et al. (2018), the “Functional Leadership Theory” is very important to them to motivate and re-energize them. Apart from that, this particular theory guides to organize people in the workplace and improves their performance. The leadership performance was also improvised in the current situation to handle the different small units as well as multi-disciplinary teams of NHS. “National Leadership Council” has also implemented several significant regulations like “The Health Protection Act 2022” especially after the pandemic situation due to the sudden outbreak of coronavirus (Wielogórska and Ekwobi, 2020). In order to make a balance between the performances of clinical management as well as the managerial power of the organization fully relies on consensus. As per the perception of Dash et al. (2019), the changes in management structure were made in 1981 and in that regulation; it was told that the managers of NHS should have persuasion, as well as negotiation skills that guide them to achieve the organizational goal by influencing the managers of the other sectors.
The clinical leadership theory was also improved in the current situation. After the pandemic situation, the government of the UK has more focused on the activities and responsibilities of the NHS. Since setting up NHS in 1948, the government provides nearly £11.4 billion for the development process of the NHS but in the current situation, the government expenditure ratio was increased to more than £152.9 billion each year (Willan et al. 2020). During the pandemic situation, the government expenditure on the organization was more than £129.5 billion.
3. A basic understanding of the origins of the management theory of NHS
The process of evolving management practices in the NHS has totally changed after the implementation of “Classical Management Theory” which guides altering the hierarchical structure of the NHS. Apart from that, specialization and incentives are the two principal aspects of this theory that guides to improve the organization's inner construction. After the implementation of this theory into the working process of NHS the work division activities, the performances of management authority and the responsibility were improved significantly (Grant et al. 2021). Apart from that, the process of centralization, scalar chain, equity as well as the initiative of the organization was also improved.
In NHS, the “Functional Leadership Theory” is mainly maintained that focuses on the collaborative effort to perform. According to this theory, the team performance is improved when the individual performances are developed so NHS mainly emphasizes the individual health staff performances. The significant features of this theory are proper planning for work, team controlling abilities and result evaluation as well as motivating the employees.
“Human Relations Theory” is another important there that guides the improvement of the performance of the management of NHS. According to this theory, the understanding of staff's psychological as well as social needs is recognized easily that guides the improvement of the organization's culture that leads to increased productivity as well as the development the service quality. The process of management was also improved by the application of the theory that guides to perform all the duties of the organization accordingly. As per the point of view of Punnakitikashem and Hallinger (2019), the “Human Relations Theory” guides the improvement of the workplace environment by motivating the employees and making them energetic. After the application of this theory, the team performance of the organization also increased greatly. The concerned theory also guides the improvement of the leadership behaviour of the healthcare organization that develops the service quality of NHS (Martin et al. 2021). Apart from that, this theory also guides the leaders of NHS to a better understanding of the characteristics as well as the culture of the organization and changes the organization's communication policy as per requirement. The intelligence and open-mindedness qualities of the leaders make smoothen the performance of the management (Wyatt and Silvester, 2018). Leadership is different from management as management consists of different types of organizational performances and leadership is one of them. [Refer to appendix 1]
Maslow’s hierarchy theory
The application of “Maslow’s hierarchy theory” has a significant impact on the development of employment status as well as the organization's behavior status. As per the theory, when the different needs of the employees are fulfilled then the employees feel value and that reflects on their performances to increase the organizational productivity (Godier-McBardet al. 2022). During the pandemic situation, all the employees had to remain most of the time in the healthcare organization so during that period employee motivation is a very important guide to improving the service quality of the organization (Godier-McBardet al. 2022). This particular theory also guides to improve the safety and security of the employees and provides freedom to perform their duties.
“Immaturity-Maturity Theory” is another important theory that guides to improve the attendance of the employees. As per the perception of Wielogórska and Ekwobi (2020), the average healthcare staff attendance is around 10.7 days/year, which is very hectic for any people so maturity theory guides the employees to perform their duties accordingly. According to recent research, it is disclosed that more than 4.8% of people in the UK are connected to health and social care organizations and the direct cost of the absence of healthcare people is around £1.7 billion/year (San Juan et al. 2021). Therefore, the “Immaturity-Maturity Theory” guides to resolve the absence issues of the healthcare employees by reducing their mental stress.
4. Discussion on the role of social research in information management practices in the health and social care in the UK
In the context of social research, the healthcare management practices in the UK have faced several issues that mitigate organizational productivity as well as organizational culture. In terms of health and social care facilities, NHS has faced several difficulties to provides medical facilities to the UK people (San Juan et al. 2021). The desire to lead is the most important feature of leaders and a leader should perform with honesty and integrity. Self-esteem and confidence make the leader motivated and provide energy to the workers for enhancing the business performance. The The accumulation of “Integrated Health Services” is the most burning challenge for NHS in the current situation. During the post-pandemic situation, the organization intended to shift its healthcare service through digital media (West, 2004). For that purpose, an “AI-integrated software application” has been implemented into the working process of NHS that guides the management of all the health and social care services through digital platforms accordingly.
The rate of cyber attacks in the healthcare management in the UK
Cyber security is the principal concern of the healthcare management system in the current situation as all the documents of patient information as well as the organization's confidential paper are stored in different cloud computing services (Iles and Sutherland, 2001). Therefore, as per the perception of Willan et al. (2020), it attracts the concentration of malicious hackers from healthcare providers. According to recent research by NHS, it is disclosed that more than 40% price hike can be seen in last 5 years not only in terms of medicine process but the healthcare pieces of equipment price also increase greatly (Gilleenet al. 2021). The rate of cyberattacks is gradually increasing day by day. In 2009, 199cyber attacks are found in the healthcare industry in the UK but the rate of cyber attacks was increased to more than 365 in 2018. A rapid increase in health care cost is another concern of this sector in the present day.
The main five disrupters of the healthcare system in the UK
In the current situation, the principal challenges of the health and social care challenges in the UK are the digital revolution, and changes in rules and regulations in the healthcare organizations. In order, to improve different health projects effective leadership is very important and it guides the performance of organization management (Homan et al. 2020). Apart from those online medicine delivery service providers, individualized medicine facilities, as well as consumerism, are the difficulties for the healthcare organization. In the digital era, investment in IT health and social care sectors has highly increased in the present day. As opined by Grant et al. (2021), the IT system in the health and social care sectors is very important for this digital period as most of the healthcare services are provided though digital platforms. “Pressure on Pharmaceutical Prices”is another concern of the health and social care sectors in the UK (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2005). According to the recent research by the “RX Savings Solutions” in 2019, it is disclosed that more than 6.3% price was increased in each prescription that increasing overall 2.2% of the total healthcare expenditure.
Trait theory of leadership
“The trait theory of leadership” has been implemented in the leadership process of NHS that guides to improve the management performances development of the organization. This leadership theory provides different leadership features that guide to make smoothen the administrative work. As per this theory, a leader of the organization should have complete knowledge of the business performance and has the ability to drive the employees toward the organizational objectives (Wyatt and Silvester, 2018).
5. Discussion on the role of NHS and other health and social care settings in the management theory
In the initial stage, all the people who live in the UK are provided with all types of health and social care facilities. In contrast, in the current situation, NHS only provides medical facilities to the citizens of the UK and for others; it takes a minimum change for health and social care facilities. NHS was established in July 1948, with a budget of nearly £437million and with the day, the government of the UK has spent a great amount of money on the development of management of the organization (Mullins, 2019). Apart from that, from 2008 to 2010 the government provides more than £90 billion to the organization to improve the infrastructure as well as the healthcare service quality (Nhs, 2022). According to recent research, it is disclosed that more than 60% of the healthcare staff of NHS are very satisfied with the leading policy of the organization (Homan et al. 2020). In comparison, around 21% of healthcare staff has reported that the organizational leader has harassed them. According to P?duraruet al. (2022), of the total budget of NHS, the government and other non-government organizations provide more than 70%. According to the recent research conducted by the “Strategic Health Authorities” in the UK, it is disclosed that of the total budget of NHS, it spends more than 20% on the infrastructure development like the expansion of buildings, recruitment of new physicians, and appointed more in health care service providers (Soley-Boriet al. 2021). Apart from that, around 20% of the total budget of NHS is spent on medical, drugs and other medicines-related supplies.
6. Conclusion– please end conclusion in relation to the assignment title.
Taking into consideration the above study it can be concluded that different types of organizational theory guide to increasing the organization management system of the healthcare organization in the UK. The job difference between the managers and leaders is managers only direct and implement the organizational strategy whereas the leaders are responsible to execute the policies with the help of healthcare staff. Effective management is very essential for the healthcare setting as it guides to performance of all the activities of the organization accordingly. In the healthcare organization, the managers are only monitors and look after the requirements of the patients but the leaders of the organization have to deal with the health care staff and also maintain a good service quality. In order to implement the effective management style into the working process of NHS, the managers and government bodies set rules and regulations for better service quality.
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