Human Reproduction And Health Related Issues Assignment Sample

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Introduction of Human Reproduction And Health Related Issues Assignment

1. Male reproductive system

 Male reproductive system

(Source: Igrejas et. al. 2020)

The male reproductive system contains several glands with their ducts as well as a supporting framework. More specifically the glands are made up of testes, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and Cowper’s or bulbourethral gland (Igrejas et. al. 2020). On the other hand, testes ducts consist of the epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculation ducts and a single urethra. In addition, the male reproductive supporting system can be divided into two categories internal and external. Internal consists of a pair of spermatic cords and the external are made up of the scrotum and penis. The testis is oval in structure contain strong fibrous tissues which is termed tunica albuginea, responsible to produce male sex hormones.

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Functional structure of male testes

(Source: Igrejas et. al. 2020))

As for its functions, Tests can produce as well as store sperm and also maintain a specific temperature of 33 to 35 degrees celsius which is a healthy environment for sperm development and storage. Testes are also responsible for the secretion of testosterone and androgenic hormone. In addition, sperms are produced from the germ cells of males (Igrejas et. al. 2020). Ducts of testes push out the fluid which is generated by Sertoli cells to the lumen of the seminiferous. From the rete, testis sperm go influenced to transfer to the epididymis, termed as ductus epididymis. Epididymis monitor all sperms until maturation and ensure that sperms are able to fertilize an ovum. This process is a time taking process, near about 13-15 days.

At the bottom of the epididymis, helps to reduce the collision in between testes, known as vas deferens as well as ductus deferens. In the male, the urethra merges the reproductive and urinary systems. More specifically its function is to act as the passageway for both urine and semen. It is 20 cm long and passes through the prostate gland and the penis. In the case of an accessory as well as external glands of the male reproductive system including seminal vesicles, it looks like a sac located next to the urinary bladder. Its function is to serve protein and enough nutrition in order to ensure that sperms are getting enough energy for further mobility and also there is a small contribution in semen ejection (Anifandis et. al. 2021). Next is the prostate gland, which releases white, thin, and alkaline contained fluid, functionally enhancing the motility of sperm. Seminal fluid or semen is a special kind of fluid that gets released during orgasm. More than 60 per cent volume of semen is about seminal fluid.

2. Female reproductive system

 External reproductive organs of female

(Source: Moreno and Simon, 2019)

The female reproductive system is one of the critical reproductive systems, categorised into two divisions, external and internal. The functional structure of the female reproductive system allows sperms to enter the uterus and also safeguard genital organisms. External organs of the female reproductive system contain Labia majora which is considered as the protective layer of external organs (Moreno and Simon, 2019). Labia minora located right after the labia majora interconnected as well as the vagina is introduced with it. The Bartholin gland is located internal part of the vagina, which secret a fluid that helps to prevent contraction during sexual intercourse.

 Internal reproductive organ of Female

(Source: Moreno and Simon, 2019)

The internal organs consist of vagina which is interconnected through the cervix which releases outside of the body. Next is the uterus which is a pear-shaped organ, responsible for foetus development and growth. The uterus has two parts, termed cervix and corpus (Moreno and Simon, 2019). Cervix allows sperms to enter the uterus and menstrual blood gets released out through the cervix. Next is Ovaries, which are small, oval-shaped organs located on both sides of the uterus, which produce ovum and secret female hormones. In order to transfer ova from ovaries, fallopian tubes are interconnected in the upper side of the uterus.

3. Error of mitosis and meiosis

 Errors in Mitosis and Meiosis

(Source: Simon et. al. 2018)

Mitosis is a process of normal cell division and meiosis is the cell division process of germ cells which are responsible for gametes production in both male and female bodies. Mitosis and meiosis errors are found due to excess presence or absence of chromosomes during the phase of cell division. This kind of error is registered due to several genetic disorders specifically occurring due to chromosomal miss abbreviation, non-junction as well as during the time of duplication and deletion. Non-junction, miss abbreviation occurs during the cell division event of meiosis I and II. More specifically, when the chromosomes fail to separate from each other (Simon et. al. 2018). This error leads to several genetic disorders such as Patau syndrome, Edward's syndrome and so on.

4. Fertilisation, implantation, pregnancy and childbirth

After sexual intercourse, when male and female gametes fused with each other and got implanted in the uterus, the process in terms of Fertilisation. During the fertilisation process, ectopic pregnancy causes a great complication, occurring due to implantation of embryo outside of the uterus. The mobilisation ability of sperms helps to travel through the fallopian tube and penetrate the protective layer of the ovum called zona pellucida and fuses ovum in order to form a zygote. Implantation is considered the next event of fertilization (Tanos et. al. 2020). The fertilised egg travels throughout the fallopian tube and is implanted in the uterus and participates in other events such as cell divisions which leads to organs and tissues and body development of a baby. Miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy within 20 weeks considered as a great complication. After the implantation of the embryo in the woman's womb and participation in further development of the embryo, this phase is known as pregnancy or gestation. When a baby comes out of the body after 9 to 10 months of pregnancy through the vaginal tract or caesarean process is known as childbirth.

5. Pros and cons of male and female condoms

Condoms play a very crucial role in preventing pregnancy and STDs. As an advantage of male condoms, one can get in easily from anywhere. Male condoms come in different colours, flavours and sizes. It is able to resist STDs and pregnancy. Moreover, it is suitable for unplanned sex without any kind of fear regading pregnancy and STD and no need to get prepared. Cons are also there, regarding, if an individual has an allergy to latex, they can't use condoms, because it is made from latex (Vickram et. al. 2018). Condoms may tear if not used properly. Female condoms also have the same pros as well as advantages as male condoms but cons can be considered as sometimes the inner ring of female condoms makes it uncomfortable as well as leads to itching as well. Female condoms are not easy to get.

6. Mycoplasma genitalium

Mycoplasma genitalia gets sexually communicated starting with one individual then onto the next person. Genitalium contamination is a wrongdoings cause and the predominant rates are very high. The difficulties that are looked at by the NHS that likewise with misdiagnosis of chlamydia is the incendiary illness connected with the pelvic. In this sickness, there is trouble in getting pregnant. People can likewise be misdiagnosed with chlamydia. This angle is known as a misleading disease. The singular feels that they are having a disease however in the genuine world, they don't (Moreno, 2019). A provoke that is looked at due to misdiagnosis of chlamydia prompts the passing of a person. People experiencing the ascent of Mycoplasma genitalium regularly appear to experience the ill effects of destructive cells and growths. Right now there is no FDA supported test for Mycoplasma genitalium. In order to get relief from the difficulties different examples of vaginal, cervical swabs, uterine and endometrial biopsies are associated. Having unprotected sex as in intercourse regularly prompts this infection that is the explanation utilizing appropriate assurance is essential while intercourse for individual security. This is the hereditary ascent of the Mycoplasma genitalium.

7. In-vitro Fertilisation (IVF)

 In vitro fertilisation

(Source: Johnson et. al. 2018)

In Vitro Fertilisation is the process to create a fusion between sperm and ovum within a vitro. This artificial process helps to monitor as well as stimulate a woman's ovulatory process and remove an ovum from their ovaries and let the sperm be fertilised. There are various issues regarding the provision of IVF or In Vitro Fertilisation in the UK (Johnson et. al. 2018). Various side effects are there due to different medications. The requirement of multiple conciseness can cause a great threat to both mother and child. So many cases regarding the provision of IVF are registered in the UK every year. There is also a chance of ectopic pregnancy. The UK government has implemented several rules and guidelines in order to legislation the In Vitro fertilisation process (Gov.UK, 2022). Various side effects are also there due to the whole process of IVF. In vitro often leads to major risks during the time of childbirth. This occurs when multiple embryos have been transmitted to the uterus. The requirement regarding IVF, is 6 out of 12 cycles are given as a term, called artificial insemination. This is the least considered of the cycle. This intrauterine insemination is considered for individual women that didn't require IVF in their life.



Igrejas, G., Ikeda, T.M. and Guzmán, C. eds., 2020. Wheat quality for improving processing and human health (p. 542). Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.


Anifandis, G., Tempest, H.G., Oliva, R., Swanson, G.M., Simopoulou, M., Easley, C.A., Primig, M., Messini, C.I., Turek, P.J., Sutovsky, P. and Ory, S.J., 2021. COVID-19 and human reproduction: A pandemic that packs a serious punch. Systems biology in reproductive medicine67(1), pp.3-23.

Johnson, W.D., O’Leary, A. and Flores, S.A., 2018. Per-partner condom effectiveness against HIV for men who have sex with men. Aids32(11), pp.1499-1505.

Moreno, I. and Simon, C., 2019. Deciphering the effect of reproductive tract microbiota on human reproduction. Reproductive medicine and biology18(1), pp.40-50.

Salas?Huetos, A., James, E.R., Aston, K.I., Carrell, D.T., Jenkins, T.G. and Yeste, M., 2020. The role of miRNAs in male human reproduction: A systematic review. Andrology8(1), pp.7-26.

Simon, C., Greening, D.W., Bolumar, D., Balaguer, N., Salamonsen, L.A. and Vilella, F., 2018. Extracellular vesicles in human reproduction in health and disease. Endocrine reviews39(3), pp.292-332.

Tanos, V., Lingwood, L. and Balami, S., 2020. The importance of the junctional zone of the endometrium in human reproduction. Human Fertility, pp.1-9.

Tomaiuolo, R., Veneruso, I., Cariati, F. and D’Argenio, V., 2020. Microbiota and human reproduction: the case of female infertility. High-throughput9(2), p.12.

Vickram, S., Rohini, K., Srinivasan, S., Nancy Veenakumari, D., Archana, K., Anbarasu, K., Jeyanthi, P., Thanigaivel, S., Gulothungan, G., Rajendiran, N. and Srikumar, P.S., 2021. Role of Zinc (Zn) in human reproduction: A journey from initial spermatogenesis to childbirth. International Journal of Molecular Sciences22(4), p.2188.


Gov.UK, 2022. Welcome to the Government of UK. Available at: [Accessed on 26th March]

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