Influence Of Public Participation And Eia Effectiveness On Decision Making For Waste Management Assignment Sample

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Introduction of Influence Of Public Participation And Eia Effectiveness On Decision Making For Waste Management Assignment

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1.1. Background

Public participation is referred to as the remarkable principle of EIA which is broadly utilised to create the decisions of the environment. The inclusion of views of interested and impacted public assists in ensuring the process of decision-making which is fair and equitable and leads to better outcomes for the environment and infrared choice. The study will focus on evaluating the information regarding the impact of public engagement and the effectiveness of EIA on waste management.

1.2. Rationale

One of the main issues with the public involvement in EIA is the faith lost in an agency. As opined by Liu et al. (2018), waste management in the UK follows the technique of disposal method where the issue leads to poor management of waste that highly contributes to air pollution and climate change. In the UK report, it is revealed that the UK generated almost 222 million waste tonnes in 2016 as compared to 2014 (Bbc, 2022). It is because demolition and construction produce more waste which is nearly 136 million tonnes.

Generation of waste in the UK

(Source: Bbc, 2022)

Households of the UK generate less waste in comparison to the others demonstrated by the above figure. As cited by Daniel and Habsari (2019), loss of faith and trust in public participation is an issue because of poor management of the decision-making process. The process's negative experience may take the participants to have negative thoughts and perceptions of the results.

1.3. Aims and Objectives

Aim

The study will aim to explore the influencing factor of EIA effectiveness and public participation in the decision-making process on “waste management”.

Objectives

  • To evaluate the significance of EIA effectiveness and waste management
  • To analyse the potential challenges of waste management experienced by UK citizens
  • To explore the impact of "public involvement" on the "decision-making process of waste management"

1.4. Summary

The study will be focusing on the issues and the impact of waste management in the study which will be gathered through both the research methods. The structure of the dissertation will be provided in the figure for better comprehension of the study structure.

1.5. Structure of Dissertation

Dissertation structure

(Source: Reed et al. 2018)

2. Literature review

2.1. Introduction

The study will explore the existing literature regarding the context of research work. In this chapter of research work, the concept along with the challenges and the impact of the decision-making process on waste management will be critically discussed. Theoretical background will be thoroughly monitored and evaluated to demonstrate the mitigating factors.

2.2. Concept of EIA effectiveness and waste management

EIA demonstrates “Environmental Impact Assessment” which is the method of analysing the likely environmental influence of a proposed project or development. As opined by Byambaa and de Vries (2019), EIA considers inter-associated cultural, socio-economic and human health influences both adverse and beneficial). EIA plays a crucial role in the process of decision-making which is a tool to assist the authorities to create the decisions associated with the approval of projects and which situations are required to be fulfilled (Reed et al. 2018). In the UK, legislation of EIA often decides the extent and form of public involvement.

Waste management is described as different types of activities that are necessary to manage the waste from the point of accumulating the waste to monitoring and recycling. The main objective of waste management is to give efficient, hygienic and economic storage of solid waste, and treatment of waste without polluting the water system or atmosphere (Esmaeilian et al. 2018). The main motive of waste management is to minimise and eliminate the adverse effect of waste materials on the environment and human health to aid superior life quality and economic development.

2.3. Challenges of waste management

Waste management is a problematic area which leads to healthcare and the medical waste being mixed with household waste. In the UK, waste disposal and collection are managed by "unitary authorities" and the policies of management of waste are set by the central government (Ayilara et al. 2020). Some of the major issues in managing waste include "balancing objectives between protecting customers and fostering recycling" against the detrimental chemical substances in the recycled objects, "inadequate collection of data", "quality aspects concerning recycling" and "energy waste recovery". The UK experienced major issues when it comes to plastic waste or recycling.

Figure 3: Challenges of waste management

(Source: Ayilara et al. 2020)

The program of waste management and recycling plastic waste is the most problematic area. As opined by Patel et al. (2021), the UK people do not tend to recycle their waste but are limited and bound by the offered program of recycling which creates certain difficulties for the people to understand. The other issue lies with UK waste management is that CPET ("Crystallised Polyethylene terephthalate") is regarded as unrecyclable because most recyclable machines cannot recognise black colour items which is the major problematic area.

2.4. Impact of EIA effectiveness and public participation on the decision-making for waste management

Public participation in the decision-making process of EIA gives high opportunity to those impacted by the project to express their opinions and views on the social and environmental impact. As mentioned by Simpson, and Basta (2018), public participation in EIA often creates miserable issues with the trust factor which may have a negative impact on the decision-making process. The environmental impact assessment helps in predicting and analysing the "foreseeable environmental consequences" of proposed development policies, plans and projects (Heidari et al. 2018). In the program of waste management, EIA takes the initiative to get approval and ensures the project is done properly.

2.5. Theoretical concept

Waste management theory

(Source: Heidari et al. 2018)

Waste management theory and lean management theory is based on certain expectations that the management of waste is to fend off the waste from causing an issue to the environment and human health. As opined by Tiwari et al. (2020), the UK can undergo the approach of lean management that is regarded for the longest term that works systematically and seeks to accomplish small to develop quality and efficiency. UK people can demonstrate the theory of waste management and lean management for better environment (Heidari et al. 2018). The theory states that managing and recycling the waste is extremely important to designing the sustainable goal and agendas.

2.6. Summary

The study has identified some issues which create difficulty for the UK to manage its waste and recycling process. The public participation in the decision-making process of EIA concerning waste management creates a negative impact due to unfaithfulness. The lean management approach and waste management theory can be effective approaches in the waste management of the UK.

3. Research Methodology

3.1. Introduction

Choosing appropriate methods for the research study is enormously important to conduct reliable and validated research work. The methodology chapter of the research work is defined as the elaboration concerning the particular methods selected and used in the research paper. The study will focus on choosing the proper methods that will be beneficial for the research context to get authentic information.

3.2. Qualitative research

The qualitative research method will be used in this research study where an evaluation of case study consequences in a descriptive, narrative accounts of practice or setting (Mohajan, 2018). The main motive for utilising this research method will be to obtain better comprehension through truthful reporting, quotations of original conversations and first-hand experiences.

3.3. Quantitative research

The quantitative research method will be utilised in this research work which is the procedure of evaluating and gathering the numerical data. The study will quantify the data that is based on testing causal relationships, making predictions and generalising the outcomes to the managers of a particular organisation (Newman and Gough, 2020). Quantitative research methods will be utilised to attain broad knowledge and comprehension of the social world.

 3.4. Research framework and scope

 Research Onion

(Source: D?wigo? and D?wigo?-Barosz, 2018)

The research framework is demonstrated as the structure that provides the underlying and detailed design to aid the collective efforts of the research. As opined by D?wigo? and D?wigo?-Barosz (2018), the research framework follows the Research onion to define different stages of the research work. Positivism research philosophy, Deductive research approach and descriptive research design will be utilised in this study to conduct the research work appropriately.

3.5. Case study (Secondary research)

The secondary data collection method is associated with gathering the information from different existing sources such as the Internet, Google Scholar, ProQuest and many more. In this study, the secondary research method will be focused on analysing the authenticity of the case study (Zangirolami-Raimundo et al. 2018). One of the major advantages of utilising this research method is that abundance of resources is available in different forms.

3.6. Case study locations (Primary research)

The primary data collection method is based on gathering information through direct sources where a person, organisation or any concerned authority are involved (Mohajan, 2018). In the study, primary data collection method will be utilised where the interview process will be mainly focused on obtaining the information on waste management and the impact of EIA and public participation on the decision-making process. 

3.7. Questionnaire design

Q1. What do you think about the importance of waste management in the UK?

Q2. What is your opinion regarding the effectiveness of EIA on the decision-making factor of waste management?

Q3. Do you believe that a lean approach can assist the citizens of the UK to recycle and manage their waste?

3.8. Interview design

Interview design will be mainly focused in this research study where 3 managers of the renowned construction organisation in the UK will be considered (Franzitta et al. 2020). The interview process will assist the research study to get authentic and validated information regarding the effectiveness of EIA on public participation and its impact on the decision making process for waste management.

3.9. Summary

The study will use the methods based on the objectives where the research onion framework will be focused mainly. The framework will provide insight to the researcher to follow the steps that are required in the conduction of research work. The main part is that the research study will follow both the data collection method.

4. Data analysis and discussion

4.1. Introduction

Data analysis is associated with evaluating the data that will be collected by using the respective methods and approaches. In this chapter, the findings of the collected data will be explored and discussed for a proper understanding of the context.

4.2. Methods of analysis

Descriptive analysis will be used for this research study where the qualitative and quantitative data analysis types will be used. As opined by Ngozwana (2018), quantitative analysis includes searching for hard information which is related to numbers. Qualitative analysis concerns subjective opinions and features that used to be explored subjectively.

4.3. Presentation of results from secondary research

Secondary data collection techniques will be used where there is a probability of obtaining mainly 6 journals through the PRISMA method. The journals will be based on gathering informative data where causes of the emergence of issues of waste management, information on the effectiveness of EIA and involvement of the public will be critically available.

4.4. Presentation of results from primary research

The responses of the manager that will be gathered while collecting the data will be evaluated in this section. The responses of 3 managers from the same organisation will be compared and evaluated on the information on waste management (Daniel and Habsari, 2019). The significance of assessment policy for environmental protection approaches of organisations undertaking the new strategy and transforming the existing policy will be gathered from the managers.

4.5. Descriptive analysis of the result

Descriptive analysis of the results of this study will be based on illustrating the primary characteristics of the information (Johnson, 2020). The descriptive study analysis will feature the phenomenon responding to the questions regarding who, what and when and to what extent.

4.6. Inferential analysis of results

Inferential analysis of data will assist this research study to come to a concluding statement and make assumptions based on the information (Kantamaturapoj et al. 2018).. The inferential analysis will establish the relationships or patterns of the responses of managers in a certain manner.

4.7. Cause and effect scenario

Cause and effect in the study will assist the researcher in obtaining the causes and problems of EIA's effectiveness in decision making waste management (Simpson, and Basta, 2018). This means that the research study will be able to identify and fix the main reason without the reason running on.

4.8. Relating research findings to research objectives

The analysis will be thoroughly based on the objectives identified in the initiation of research work. Working through the assistance of objectives will benefit the study to explore the significant facts of the study.

4.9. Discussion of findings of research

The research study will elaborate on the cross-sectional discussion and longitudinal discussion (Zangirolami-Raimundo et al. 2018). This discussion will illustrate, evaluate and interpret the findings obtained from the analysis of data.

4.10. Summary

The study will focus on different types of analysis of data obtained from the data collection method. The discussion will be based on objectives which will focus on all the aspects that are necessary to conduct this research study.

5. Conclusion and further research

5.1. Introduction

The study will conclude with the findings of the study that will make the research work successfully. In this section of the research work, limitations of the research work will be identified and recommendations will be provided.

5.2. Main findings

  • Conduction of research through primary and secondary methods.
  • Descriptive data analysis through qualitative and quantitative methods.
  • Exploration of existing literature through PRISMA and qualitative analysis of responses of managers.

5.3. Reconsideration of hypothesis

  1. Ho: Waste management through the usage of EIA tools does not help in waste minimisation.

H1: Waste management through the usage of EIA tools helps in waste minimisation.

  1. H0: UK citizens do not experience any issues with waste management.

H1: UK citizens experience any issue with waste management.

  1. H0: Public participation does not have the potential impact on the decision-making of EIA on waste management.

H1: Public participation has the potential impact on the decision-making of EIA on waste management.

5.4. Conclusion

Based on the overall evaluation, several aspects of public participation, EIA effectiveness and waste management will be overviewed. The data will be collected from the existing sources and the responses of the managers for conducting the in-depth analysis. Significance and issues will be identified and evaluated based on the subject matter.

5.5. Practical implication

Managing waste will be beneficial in real life as it will help to foster a better environment (Johnson, 2020). Waste management will assist in developing air and environment quality and minimise the emissions of greenhouse gas. In practical life, human diseases will become less with the implementation of the waste management process.

5.6. Recommendations

  • The UK government must dissect the garbage accordingly to successfully recycle the waste (Conserve-energy-future, 2022).
  • The rules must be precise and clear which helps the people to be knowledgeable on this respective matter (Conserve-energy-future, 2022).
  • The recycling organisation must depend on the people and come up with effective approaches and solutions.

5.7. Limitations

Limitation affects the study findings. Budget along with times constraints could be major hindrance in conduction of the study regarding public participation about the reliable solution for waste management.

5.8. Recommendations for further research

The study will focus on the limitations and try to meet those knowledge limitations to remove the knowledge gap. Expansion of the theory and reassessing the model and framework will have positive implications for the findings of the research study.

References

Ayilara, M.S., Olanrewaju, O.S., Babalola, O.O. and Odeyemi, O., 2020. Waste management through composting: Challenges and potentials. Sustainability, 12(11), p.4456.

Byambaa, B. and de Vries, W.T., 2019. The needs of nomadic-pastoral land users with respect to EIA theory, methods and effectiveness: What are they and does EIA address them?. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 74, pp.54-62.

Daniel, D. and Habsari, P., 2019. Informational asymmetry in public participation on environmental monitoring in Indonesian regulation: A preliminary discourse. Journal of Infrastructure Development, 2(1), pp.4-19.

Daniel, D. and Habsari, P., 2019. Informational asymmetry in public participation on environmental monitoring in Indonesian regulation: A preliminary discourse. Journal of Infrastructure Development, 2(1), pp.4-19.

D?wigo?, H. and D?wigo?-Barosz, M., 2018. Scientific research methodology in management sciences. Financial and credit activity problems of theory and practice, 2(25), pp.424-437.

Esmaeilian, B., Wang, B., Lewis, K., Duarte, F., Ratti, C. and Behdad, S., 2018. The future of waste management in smart and sustainable cities: A review and concept paper. Waste management, 81, pp.177-195.

Franzitta, V., Longo, S., Sollazzo, G., Cellura, M. and Celauro, C., 2020. Primary data collection and environmental/energy audit of hot mix asphalt production. Energies, 13(8), p.2045.

Heidari, A., Kolahi, M., Behravesh, N., Ghorbanyon, M., Ehsanmansh, F., Hashemolhosini, N. and Zanganeh, F., 2018. Youth and sustainable waste management: a SEM approach and extended theory of planned behavior. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 20(4), pp.2041-2053.

Johnson, T., 2020. Public participation in China's EIA process and the regulation of environmental disputes. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 81, p.106359.

Kantamaturapoj, K., Piyajun, G. and Wibulpolprasert, S., 2018. Stakeholder’s opinion of public participation in Thai environmental and health impact assessment. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 36(5), pp.429-441.

Liu, B., Hu, Y., Wang, A., Yu, Z., Yu, J. and Wu, X., 2018. Critical factors of effective public participation in sustainable energy projects. Journal of Management in Engineering, 34(5), p.04018029.

Mohajan, H.K., 2018. Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), pp.23-48.

Newman, M. and Gough, D., 2020. Systematic reviews in educational research: Methodology, perspectives and application. Systematic reviews in educational research, pp.3-22.

Ngozwana, N., 2018. Ethical dilemmas in qualitative research methodology: Researcher’s reflections. International Journal of Educational Methodology, 4(1), pp.19-28.

Patel, S., Dora, M., Hahladakis, J.N. and Iacovidou, E., 2021. Opportunities, challenges and trade-offs with decreasing avoidable food waste in the UK. Waste Management & Research, 39(3), pp.473-488.

Reed, M.S., Vella, S., Challies, E., De Vente, J., Frewer, L., Hohenwallner?Ries, D., Huber, T., Neumann, R.K., Oughton, E.A., Sidoli del Ceno, J. and van Delden, H., 2018. A theory of participation: what makes stakeholder and public engagement in environmental management work?. Restoration ecology, 26, pp.S7-S17.

Simpson, N.P. and Basta, C., 2018. Sufficiently capable for effective participation in environmental impact assessment?. Environmental impact assessment review, 70, pp.57-70.

Simpson, N.P. and Basta, C., 2018. Sufficiently capable for effective participation in environmental impact assessment?. Environmental impact assessment review, 70, pp.57-70.

Tiwari, P., Sadeghi, J.K. and Eseonu, C., 2020. A sustainable lean production framework with a case implementation: practice-based view theory. Journal of Cleaner Production, 277, p.123078.

Zangirolami-Raimundo, J., Echeimberg, J.D.O. and Leone, C., 2018. Research methodology topics: Cross-sectional studies. Journal of Human Growth and Development, 28(3), pp.356-360.

Websites

Bbc, 2022, About Where does recycling and rubbish from the UK go? Available from: https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-49827945 [Accessed on : 28th April 2022]

Conserve-energy-future, 2022, About The UK’s Problem With Recycling and How it is Being Addressed, Available from : https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/uk-problem-recycling-addressed.php#:~:text=In%20the%20past%20years%2C%20the,this%20is%20a%20big%20problem. [Accessed on : 28th April 2022]

 

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