Importance of Leadership & Non-Technical Skills in Healthcare Operation Theatre Performance Assignment Sample

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Introduction of Leadership Management In Operating Theatres Assignment

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Leadership is reflected in adaptability, collaboration, experience and effective communication deliverables. The healthcare sectors are relevant to follow all these traits of leaders to achieve the services and goals. In Australia, work structure, work progress, care for patients and staff management are major elements of health care organization. Hospitals and nursing homes are concerned about operation theatre management for major actions and activities associated with patient treatment and care. However, in addition to this background, a research question is developed to be examined with this literature review, as mentioned below:

Research question

"What is the importance of non-technical skills of leadership management in operation theatre performance?"


Leadership management

Technical and non-technical skills

Operation theatre performance development

Present issue

The asserted is going to explore the existing issues in operation theatre related to inconvenient leadership management. The leadership management in hospitals has declined with staff performance, allocation, mood leadership and external factors' impacts. According to Van (2018, p.1), the total population of 25 million containing 7000,000 Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders population with specific health issues, experience major gaps in facilities and services outcomes. Thus, the outcome is stated with the potential loss of services and performance equally adverse to the condition.

Existing gaps

The previous studies and research have lacked significant evidence and evaluation about leadership mood and conditions that influenced operation theatre performance. The specific understanding and identification poorly empathize on leadership management mood in health care's most important part of the operation theatre.

Purpose of literature review

The presentation is going to disclose the leadership management impact on operation theatre performance. In a specification, the major concern is going to be employed within non-technical skills interferences to increase the operation theatre performance such as communication, adaptability, collaboration and effective communication. Exploring this concerning matter helps to promote research competence; interest will be conducted with a literature review process. The literature review is the most effective procedure to experiment with exciting works of theories. The wider opportunity to collect greater resources with limited capital investment and the major advantage is identified with accounting over differentiated theories and mood of leadership in health care sectors. Thus, an operation theatre's technical skills are as important as traditional skills. Therefore, non-technical skills in health care are highly required during the 21st century. Henceforth, the rationale of constructed question is adequate and significant to provide a thick description of the present issue.


The documented account is conducted with a literature review procedure. The qualitative data are extracted from existing articles and papers collected from various digital platforms and databases. The overall search strategy of this study is evaluated below:

Search strategy and outcomes



Boolean operators


Google Scholar

Operation room”, “operation theatre”, “leadership management” and “non-technical skills”

“And’ or “Or”

? 2018 to 2022

? English

? Fulltext


Communication”, “non-technical”, “OT”, “leadership theory” and “leadership mood”

“And’ or “Or”

? 2018 to 2022

? English

? Fulltext

? Peer reviewed


“leadership mood”,“non-technical skills” , “leadership theory”, and “operation theatre”.

“And’ or “Or”

? 2018 -2022

? Fulltext

? Peer review

? English

Research gate

“operation theatre”, " Communication", and "non-technical skills"


? Peer review

? English

? 2018 to 2022

The search strategy used with mentioned databases is included in this literature review. The keywords and Boolean operators are used for a specific search. The non-technician skills identification, its effects on operation theatre and leadership management impact are the major part of this literature review. The identified literature is screened with inclusion and exclusion criteria. However, the limitation of the search strategy is further designed by adopting the inclusion and exclusion criteria implementation. The criteria are mentioned with a timeline, language and location as core elements.

Inclusion and exclusion





Health care

Other locations than Australia


Recent five years (2018 to 2022)

Before 2018

Peer review

Peer review

Non-peer review



Other than English

Search outcomes

The search was initially started on databases (e.g. google scholar, research gate, Springer and Medline ) with 687. Among this total number of result, 252 are found on Google Schooler, while 150 is identified in Medline. However, the 100 papers and articles are initially rejected with major exclusion criteria of location specificness. The abstract reading is the second criterion to reject 150 articles from 200 articles. The screening of full text available on the database is further included as another criterion of inclusion and exclusion. In addition to this condition and principle, the other 50 articles are excluded. However, ultimately with all the inclusion, exclusion and screening processes, 8 numbers or articles are included in this literature review.

PRISMA flow diagram

Summary table of literature review

Author and year


Study design

Sample size and sites


The quality appraisal includes/exclude

Sonneborn et al., (2018)


Cross-sectional with survey tool application

53 operational nurses

51 registered nurse

2 enrolled nurse

Total: 106

The existing experiences are identified among 19.9% of nurses.

94.1% have knowledge about the disaster.

The knowledge about disaster management is poor (1.79%)


Marshall et al. (2019)


Primary survey

138 clinicians

43.8% of cases are identified before implementation, and 12.5% are identified after implementation


Minehar et al., (2020)


Qualitative and descriptive study design

50 leaders

Inclusive leadership behaviour within health care provides safety and quality to the services.


Clay-Williams et al. (2020)


Primary survey. Descriptive statistics have been applied to survey outcomes.

One thousand three hundred eighty-two clinicians (doctors, allied health care providers and nurses) and the sampling is performed with DUQuA.

The RMSEA is extracted with 0.071, and SRMR is identified with 0.058. The factors associated with leadership are linked with reliability and independent constructs.


Dexter et al. (2020)


Narrative analysis of the case

2 case

The surgical procedure with phase 1 application required multiple ambulatory surgery interventions.


Wong et al. (2020)


Qualitative study design

The hospitals from Singapore with 1700 participants.

The outbreak has made significant changes in management Decision-making.


Thompson, Venkatesh & Finfer (2019)


Randosided trail

500 patients with sepsis

Haemodynamic management responding with protocols and user care development.


Göras et al. (2020)


Group interview with qualitative exploratory study design

17 participants

The resources of care development with safety and quality interferences are positively adapted to operation theatre management with non-technical skills.


Hassan et al.


Hospital Based Case Study

51 cases in Main Operation Theatre of Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health

25.22% cases showed difficulty in proper management of operation theatre due to insufficient and old equipments, absence of








Redaelli 2018


Ethnographic Study

Operating department of a hospital located in northern Italy

Nontechnical skills of circulating nurses can be described using five categories: leadership, situation awareness, task management, communication, and teamwork


Colore code system

Article 1:

  • Disaster knowledge
  • Nurse education
  • Acute care

Article 2:

  • Transitioning
  • Hand-offs
  • Intensive care unit

Article 3:

  • Inclusive behaviour
  • Traditional techniques
  • Inclusive leadership

Article 4:

  • Leadership
  • Safety and Quality
  • Culture

Article 5:

  • Long duration
  • Surgical procedure
  • Covid-19 intervention

Article 6:

  • Increased capacity
  • Operating room management
  • Communication

Article 7:

  • Nursing knowledge
  • Quality
  • Management

Article 8:

  • Operation room
  • Teamwork
  • Collaboration
  • Plan

Article 9

  • Coordination
  • Difficulty
  • Operation Theatre
  • Communication

Article 10

  • Anaesthesia
  • Observation
  • Non-technical skills
  • Task management


Theme 1: Quality and safety development for the patient is operated with non-technical skills induced by the health care provider.

The first theme of this study is being recognized with operation theatre management in terms and conditions with non-technical skills application as this study has aimed to provide the nases for constructed questions on the basis of evidence which are mainly secondary sources (e.g. literature). The theme is that the non-technical skills of nurses and allied nurses commonly interfere with additional staff (Redaelli, 2018). Quality management within the operation theatre has been intervened with significant effects of non-technical and technical skills for better outcomes.

Theme 2: communication and adaptability are two major concerning non-technical skills to manage the operation theatre.

The second theme of this study is associated with communication and collaboration as the key trait of operational theatre performance. The operation theatre's performance is recognized with different tasks, such as transportation, machine management, preparedness and leadership impacts. According to Labrague, Nwafor & Tsaras (2020, p.1111), transformational leadership has been performed within the healthcare organization to provide greater satisfaction to the job. The motivation of nurses at the workplace is important to deliver performance with quality.

Theme 3:The leadership mood is associated with developing clinical practice at the hospital.

The third theme of this study is stated with clinical practice in the case of operation theatre performance. The mood of leadership is identified with the study of Göras et al. (2020, p. 08); in the operation room, the management decision and strategic planning to provide high effectiveness about the performance are highly lined with clinical practice and interferences of clinicians.


The exploration of operation theatre intervention with the leadership mood implementation is recognized with existing literature and their analysis. The literature analysis shares a significant discussion on transformational leadership theory and its impact on collaboration development. According to Vogelsang et al. (2020, p.496), patient care safety and quality must be developed with significant interference communication. Therefore, the importance of communication as a non-technical skill of nurses at health care organizations is linked with operation threat management development. Therefore, this theme has reflected the major relevance of the acute implementation of collaboration. Belrhiti et al. (2020, p.159) state that motivation is in the prime position with effective communication interferences. Thus, healthcare workers and professionals are interconnected with each other in the communication medium. As stated by Popp & Harwich (2018), the transformational mood of leadership is highly relevant to extract the motivation of employees (e.g. nurses and allied staff) in developing performance. The main question of this study seems to be explored with transformational theory, and the transferable mood of leadership is implied by leaders. However, themes 1 and 2 correspond with communication and collaboration at the major point. Though, the theme 3 is being responded to with major outcomes of clinical practice eliminated.

The theory and mood leadership style for operation theatre performance development is regulated by employees' non-technical skills. The asserted skills are reexamined with a literature review. Thus, the effective theory of leadership has been allowed to caret optimal performance during complex situations (Hassan et al. 2021). The covid-19 pandemic is the most recent and acknowledgeable As stated by Mushtaq et al. (2021, p.2419), the transformational theory of leadership has been effective in the practice of non-technical skills, communication, adaptability, collaboration and experience. Thus, the qualities and skills are equivalent to providing services with high outcomes.

Conclusion and recommendation

The purpose of this study, with the literature review provided, are, allowed to identify the leadership management influenced the operation theatre performance. The non-technical skills are recognized to have equivalent importance in developing the performance with safety and quality at the operation theatre. The analysis of results and discussion has asserted that communication and collaboration are key non-technical skills of nurses and other healthcare organization staff to revive performance. This study can be used to extend the operation theatre performance development level. However, this study has identified major gaps in implementing non-technical skills among the target group. Therefore, the recommendation is designed to develop future outcomes and deliverables.


  • Communication has been lacking collaboration. Hence, the literature is suggested to follow collaboration with effective communication development. In addition to this suggestion, organizations are required to promote communication development within and between teams. The communication developed with verbal and non-verbal types of processes. The healthcare sector is required to follow scientific communication with nursing practice.
  • The transportation in operation theatre can be developed with collaboration between the operational management group and HR management. The major concern of leadership interference in operation theatre performance needs to be completed with a collaboration process.
  • The goal of health care is to achieve the quality and safety of patients during the operation; the room's environment is required to maintain a positive and professional attitude. Therefore, Training and education for non-technical skills development at the organization is the most effective approach to building a positive environment.


Reviewed articles

Clay-Williams, R., Taylor, N., Ting, H. P., Winata, T., Arnolda, G., & Braithwaite, J. (2020). The clinician safety culture and leadership questionnaire: refinement and validation in Australian public hospitals. International Journal for Quality in Health Care , 32 (Supplement_1), 52-59. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzz106

Dexter, F., Elhakim, M., Loftus, R. W., Seering, M. S., & Epstein, R. H. (2020). Strategies for daily operating room management of ambulatory surgery centers following resolution of the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia , 64 , 109854.

Göras, C., Nilsson, U., Ekstedt, M., Unbeck, M., & Ehrenberg, A. (2020). Managing complexity in the operating room: a group interview study. BMC health services research , 20 (1), 1-12.

Hassan, T., Saeed, S., Moazzam, M., Sadiq, M., Siddique, S., & Ayub, F. (2021). Coordination Difficulties in the Management of Operation Theatre in Children Hospital Lahore. Asian Journal of Allied Health Sciences (AJAHS).

Marshall, A. P., Tobiano, G., Murphy, N., Comadira, G., Willis, N., Gardiner, T., ... & Gillespie, B. M. (2019). Handover from operating theatre to the intensive care unit: A quality improvement study. Australian Critical Care , 32 (3), 229-236. doi:10.1016/j.aucc.2018.03.009

Minehart, R. D., Foldy, E. G., Long, J. A., & Weller, J. M. (2020). Challenging gender stereotypes and advancing inclusive leadership in the operating theatre. British Journal of Anaesthesia , 124 (3), e148-e154.

Redaelli, I. (2018). Nontechnical skills of the operating theatre circulating nurse: an ethnographic study. Journal of advanced nursing , 74(12), 2851-2859.

Sonneborn, O., Miller, C., Head, L., & Cross, R. (2018). Disaster education and preparedness in the acute care setting: A cross sectional survey of operating theatre nurse's disaster knowledge and education. Nurse education today , 65 , 23-29. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2018.02.015

Thompson, K., Venkatesh, B., & Finfer, S. (2019). Sepsis and septic shock: current approaches to management. Internal medicine journal , 49 (2), 160-170. doi:10.1111/imj.14199

Wong, J., Goh, Q. Y., Tan, Z., Lie, S. A., Tay, Y. C., Ng, S. Y., & Soh, C. R. (2020). Preparing for a COVID-19 pandemic: a review of operating room outbreak response measures in a large tertiary hospital in Singapore. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie , 67 (6), 732-745.

Other sources

André Van (2018). Zundert Chapter 12 - Operating Theatre Management in Australia.

Belrhiti, Z., Van Damme, W., Belalia, A., & Marchal, B. (2020). Unravelling the role of leadership in motivation of health workers in a Moroccan public hospital: a realist evaluation. BMJ open , 10 (1), e031160. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2019-031160

Labrague, L. J., Nwafor, C. E., & Tsaras, K. (2020). Influence of toxic and transformational leadership practices on nurses' job satisfaction, job stress, absenteeism and turnover intention: A cross?sectional study. Journal of Nursing Management , 28 (5), 1104-1113. doi: 10.1111/jonm.13053

MUSHTAQ, K., HUSSAIN, M., KOUSAR PARVEEN, M. A., KHAN, S., & AMIR, S. (2021). Impact of Transformational Leadership Intervention on Head Nurses Working in Government Hospital. Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences , 15 (9), 2417-2421. DOI:

Popp, M., & Hadwich, K. (2018). Examining the effects of employees' behaviour by transferring a leadership contingency theory to the service context. SMR-Journal of Service Management Research , 2 (3), 44-62. DOI/10.15358/2511-8676-2018-3-44

von Vogelsang, A. C., Swenne, C. L., Gustafsson, B. Å., & Falk Brynhildsen, K. (2020). Operating theatre nurse specialist competence to ensure patient safety in the operating theatre: A discursive paper. Nursing open , 7 (2), 495-502. DOI: 10.1002/nop2.424

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