Management and Operations Assignment sample 1

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Introduction of Management and Operations

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Management defines the planning, leadership, organizing, decision-making, and controlling of human resources to attain the highest efficiency of an organization. Management is termed as a broad concept under which all the management activities are included. Operational management refers to how various departments of the organization come together to carry out business activity in the organization. This report aims to illustrate the function and role of a leader in Sansbury’s. In addition to this apportion of roles that leaders and managers play while operating the organization has been illustrated. The objective is to define the factors in the business environment which creates an impact on operational management.

LO1 Difference between the role of a leader and function of a manager

Comparing and defining different roles and characteristics of a manager and a leader

Leader

A leader is a person who guides people in handling a different situation with the objective of attaining the real goal (Willis et al., 2017). A leader is well experienced in the field and has an inspiring vision that helps solve problems and provide a proper solution for attaining the organization's objective.

Manager

A manager is referred to a supervisor who is responsible for managing the employee in the organization. He acts as a middleman between a leader and the employee of the company (Hallinger, 2018). A manager breaks down the entire business goals into smaller stapes and assigns the correct individual into the correct operation area.

Comparing between a manager and leader

Manager

Leader

Based on the roles and functions performed

A manager is required to have the efficient skill, knowledge in which will help handle the employee and make plans for the growth of the organization (Hallinger and Kova?evi?, 2021). The idea lies in making profits and sales by using the best alternatives.

As stated in the Contingency Theory, a leader is required to be innovative enough to utilize all situation to the advantage of the company. Here the leader creates an effective communication network, which enables eliminating the problem of miscommunication. 

The manager goes through the problem, takes the advice of the leaders and finds alternatives for attaining the targets. The manager plays an important in organizing different work activity.

As stated in the transformational leadership theory, a leader always cheers up the manager of the organization by providing a suggestion of methods that can be adopted for organizational success.

The manager puts a lot of efforts into managing the work efficiency of the employees for attaining organizational objectives. The manager is required to be attentive for allocating the correct individual in the rich place as per the necessary skills acquired by the employee.

The situation theory states that the entire concept of leadership is based on the current situation (Meena et al., 2017). A leader analysis the type of task and the way in which the different methods are to be used for organizational success.

Based on the characteristics of a leader

A manager is also needed to be innovative, but the management of a small section of the work process is carried under the responsibility as stated in administrative management theory (Assis, 2020). Here if the manager fails to manage the group of people, the then team under his management fails to attain targets.

A leader is required to have proper skill in the field of innovation, thinking ability as it is under the leadership of leaders, and the entire organization is based on. If the leader direct in the wrong direction, then the entire organization will be facing huge losses in the business.

A manager has to deal with a number of employee in the organization, therefore, is needed to be transparent in nature.

For example, the managers of Sansbury are transparent and therefore create a good workplace environment for attaining internal organizational success. 

A leader is very cheerful here. He acts as a motivating member in the company, where motivation is provided to the entire team.

For example, the leaders are in Sansbury are well trained enough to provide a solution to problems faced while entering into newer market regions. 

Analyze and differentiate between the role of a leader and the function of a manager by effectively applying a range of theories and concepts

In regards to the Contingency Theory and Situation leadership theory, the leaders of the company play a significant role in providing an effective solution by analyzing the current state of the organization (Azcarate et al., 2017). Here, the leaders act as a motivator to cheers up the company's employees for attaining business goals. In addition to this, the leadership trait theory, the leaders make efforts to maintain proper internal communication in the organization. 

In the case of, managers the activities are quite different, but they utilize their managerial skills in the process of assigning the correct set of the individual in the correct area of work. Taking small areas of advantage adds to the main objective of the organization.

LO2 Apply the role of a leader and the function of a manager in given contexts

Providing examples in regards to the role of a leader and managerial functions apply in different cases

Role of a leader

Firstly, creating an organizational structure as they are accounted for the job role will enable the team member to attain a high quality of work and decision-making authority.

Example:The leaders in Sainsbury has created an effective leadership structure which has enabled the company to hold 16% of the market share after TESCO. There has been an enormously competitive environment with TESCO as there lies implementing new ideas in the process of expansion (Wang et al.2018). The creative measure of diversification has led the company to enter into other businesses like vegetables, fresh food, electronic appliances and other products.

Secondly, build a feeling of trust and confidence among the member of the company. Leaders are required to be accountable and have the skill of trust, which will help in ensuring the worker in the organization has followed the instructions.

Example: There are over 111,900 employees in the company. Managing such a high workforce is not simple. There is a situation where the employee is not true to each other which raises conflicts. In early 2000 there Sansbury’s was facing a huge rate of employee turnover as transparency among the members was not considered (Our purpose, 2021). Later on, the company has implemented a new organizational management procedure where the work of individual workers are monitored.

Functions of a manager

Firstly, the managers do a lot of work activity to control the organization's work activity. Here he constantly monitors the entire team to attain the organization goal (Pereira et al., 2018). 

Example: In each department, the manages the work activity of the employee with by software tool. This helps in knowing the amount of progress by the team and help in selecting the best alternatives measures for improving the efficiency of the company as there are over 1428 shops.

Secondly, Diving the work among the member. Here, the manager makes sure that the work is divided properly among the company's employees, making sure that their skilled employee is assigned in the designated area of work.

Example: Sansbury’s is a well established retaining company having over 16% of the supermarket share. The company has a skilled workforce, and each step of work is assigned to a skilled worker to foster the growth of the business.

Implementing different models and theories in the case of situational leadership system leadership and contingency

Situation 1

The rise in the competition in the retailing market has been making it difficulty for Sansbury’s to carry out business activities. There lies a need to take effective measures for making creativity in different sectors, creating a more loyal customer base.

Transformational leadership theory

The transformational leadership strategy will help in identifying the areas where the change is required. This will also create a vision, which will help in guiding the change through the process of inspiration, and Sansbury’s will come up with extra offering for its customers.

Strength

Firstly, it helps in setting clear and consistent goals of Sansbury’s

Secondly, this will help in inspiring others to rise o challenges in Sansbury’s

Weakness

Firstly, The entire theory is very conceptual, and at times, it fails to attain the real objectives.

Secondly, The task focus in the activity is mostly missing and therefore failing to highlight the necessary duties required by the workers.

Situation 2

The company was undergoing the problem of employee turnover over the past few years. This problem is resulting in a reduction in the number of skilled workers. In addition to this, the process of recruiting skilled workers in the company is expensive. 

Situation theory

The situation theory aims at identifying the problem Sansbury’s has been facing and figure out the necessary solution. The need lies in creating a good working environment and increase in transparency among the employee members.

Strength

Firstly, the flexibility in the areas of needs gets identified

Secondly,A comfortable working environment is created among the workers

Weakness

Firstly,the focus gets shifted to the short term needs rather than long term needs.

Secondly, for some leaders, enough information is not provided

Situation 3

The organization has been facing work coordination among the employee, which has resulted in increased time taken while answering customers quarries. This is termed to be alarming forSansbury’s as this will reduce the loyal customer base.

Contingency Theory

The contingency theory aims at identifying the best way to organize the corporation, which will lead the company to make the proper decision in the course of action is contingent. As analysis is required, this will create an effective communication process in the organization.

Strength

Firstly, helps the leaders to enhance the leadership and decision making skills.

Secondly, more options are provided to the managers, which helps them share ideas as they grow.

Weakness

Firstly,the entire contingency theory is reactive in nature and handling the situation for the manager gets difficult.

Secondly, the theory fails to identify the executive action and thus depends on the situation.

LO3 Demonstrate an appreciation of the role, which leaders and managers play in the operations function of an organization

Highlighting the key approaches to operational management and illustrating the role played by leaders and a manager.

Operational management is related to activities and procedure which is related to managing various activities in the organization. Here the sole objective is to do efficient management practices for achieving organizational objectives.

The following are theories of operational management.

Business process management (BPM): This theory is very effective as it helps in continuous optimization and improving the process. Here Sansbury’s can effectively use this process of analyzing every step of productivity in the organization. Ideas for success can be implemented with the help of properly going through automation, which results in optimizing productivity (Ali,2019).

Sustainable operations management: This helps in the process of sustaining the supply chain of the organization. Sansbury’s has been continuously expanding into new markets, and there lies a need for making the supply chain stable. There Sansbury’s can analyze the current supply chain of the country and make arrangement for strengthening the supply chain.

The following are the operational management approaches and their application in the role of leaders and manager.

Six Sigma

Six sigma refers to the set of tools an which are required for the improvement in operational management. Here improvement in the management quality has been made, which aims at minimizing variability and other business processes. There statistical and empirical management method has been used for making improvement. Based on the following principles, Sansbury’s can apply them for improving the efficiency of the company.

Principles of Six Sigma

  • Focus is always made on the customers
  • Creating a situation of smooth flow of process
  • The efforts are made systematic and scientific
  • It results in a concentration of value and reduction of wastes
  • Clarity of work activity takes place
  • Creates collaboration among the team members

Lean manufacturing

Lean manufacturing is an effective operational management approach that is used in the process of reducing the wastes produced in the company. Here mainly the management process talks place based on internal management Sansbury’s can use the approach by analyzing the following principles

Principles of Lean manufacturing

  • Designing products as per the needs of the customers
  • Removing the additional features which do not meet the expected needs
  • Mapping the entire value system
  • Eliminating the process of overproduction and underproduction

Role of leadership in operational management

Lean manufacturing and six sigma are very effective operational management approaches that the leaders of Sansbury’s can implement in the organization's functioning. Here proper knowledge and training about the topic are required to be delivered by the leader. The leader's role is to increase his speaking skills, which will help the employees understand the need for the approaches. This can help the company to deliver high-quality products to its customers. 

Manager’s role in operational management

In this case, the managers are responsible for the process of managing the work activity, making sure that each work is carried out in an effective manner. The managers of Sansbury’s can effectively manage the operational process, which embraces proper designing and planning activity which will help in improving overall customers satisfaction. The manager is required to implement a number of systematic approaches which will help in monitoring the work activity.

Illustrating the values and importance of operational management in the case of attaining business goals

The objective of Sansbury’s include

  1. Creating a more loyal customers base
  2. Offering more products to the customers
  3. Building up a better brand image

Importance of operational management in the case of attaining business goals

1.Creating a loyal customer base is important for Sansbury’s as this will helps in creating stability in the process of revenue collection. The leaders and managers of Sansbury’s are required to undergo a review process after implementing Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing in the company. This will help in the process of identifying the exact needs of the customers.

  1. Diversification helps in the process of offering more products to the customers. The diversification process is helpful in operational management as it aims at increasing the overall productivity and generate more revenue for the business. Here Six sigma is required to be taken into consideration which will help in attracting more customers.
  2. Building up a better brand image helps in increasing the valuation of the company. Every business aims for making the best offering to the customers asSansbury’s already holds 16% of the overall market share, which is massive but the managmenet is required to increase more over market structure.

Evaluate how leaders and managers can improve efficiencies of operational management to successfully meet business objectives.

In order to attain success in the field of meeting the business objectives, the managers and the leaders are required to be skilled enough to implement changes for improving the efficiency of the organization. The need for training and development activities help in improving the efficiency of the workers, which will help in innovative thinking. Furthermoreeacher activities in the organization is required to be monitoring the work activity of the employees. 

LO4 Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between leadership and management in a contemporary business environment

Discussing the factors in the business environment which creates an impact on operational management

There are a number of factors required to influence the operation and decision-making of the leaders and the managers.

Corporate social responsibility:

The CSR practices helps in ensuring the stability in the management process has been maintained in the organization. The practices helps the organization to make the right decision at the correct time in the field of ethical nature. Sansbury’s is required to use all-natural resources in the production process like biodegradable bags and ensure that the policies of the organization lings with the development of the local community.

Values:

Sansbury’s is required to follow guidelines as the products will be delivering value to the customers and the employees. Value is considered to be an important element which helps in welcoming the customers with essential consideration. The manager and the leaders of Sansbury’sis required to create an effective work culture. A platform is also required to be created where the employee can show the talent of work activity.

Ethics:

The ethics refer to the process of following the CSR policies, which helps ensure a proper work environment is been followed out in the company. There lies a need to ensure that Sansbury’s follows all the rules and regulation relating to the welfare of the stakeholders. Support is also required to be made in the case of underlying the code of conduct.

Analyze how these different factors affect the business environment and wider community

The following are the factors that influence the business environment and community

  1. The employee productivity is most important as it enables the business environment to widen up the business community as it is the quality of work that matters to the business. If the employee is not satisfied with their work, theproductivity is automatically bound to deteriorate.
  2. Making improvement in the collaboration process is essential as it ensures the work activity is carried out in a smooth manner. Here corporate social responsibility helps in the process of widening up the community and business environment.

Conclusion

From the above topic, it can be concluded that the process of management is important for managing the entire production activity of the organization. Both the leaders and the managers are important for running the organization (Willis et al. 2017). In addition to this, there are a lot of key differences between a manager and a leader in terms of functions, role and characteristics. In a company likeSansbury’s management is considered important as it enables in attaining the organization's goals. The leaders are also required to follow different factors in the contemporary business environment like CSR, value and ethics.

Reference list

Journals

Ali, H., 2019. What Factors Contribute to Efficient Management of The Supply Chain of Supermarket Within UK Retailers? Case Study?Sainsbury Supermarket PLC Supply Chain.https://twasp.info/journal/archive/46-63%20(1).pdf

Assis, L.S.D., 2020. Operational management of crude oil supply: models and solution strategies.https://repositorio.ufsc.br/bitstream/handle/123456789/216636/PEAS0354-T.pdf?sequence=-1

Azcarate, C., Mallor, F. and Mateo, P., 2017.Tactical and operational management of wind energy systems with storage using a probabilistic forecast of the energy resource. Renewable energy102, pp.445-456.https://zaguan.unizar.es/record/63140/files/texto_completo.pdf

Hallinger, P. and Kova?evi?, J., 2021. Science mapping the knowledge base in educational leadership and management: A longitudinal bibliometric analysis, 1960 to 2018. Educational Management Administration & Leadership49(1), pp.5-30.https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jasna_Kovacevic4/publication/335869157_Science_mapping_the_knowledge_base_in_educational_leadership_and_management_A_longitudinal_bibliometric_analysis_1960_to_2018/links/5d98f61192851c2f70eed0d5/Science-mapping-the-knowledge-base-in-educational-leadership-and-management-A-longitudinal-bibliometric-analysis-1960-to-2018.pdf

Hallinger, P., 2018. Surfacing a hidden literature: A systematic review of research on educational leadership and management in Africa. Educational Management Administration & Leadership46(3), pp.362-384.https://www.llse.org.uk/uploads/datahub/4567ceb%5E03in-03/2018-08-23-Research%20-%20EMAL%20-%20Review%20of%20research%20on%20educational%20leadership%20and%20management%20in%20Africa.pdf

Meena, N.K., Parashar, S., Swarnkar, A., Gupta, N., Niazi, K.R. and Bansal, R.C., 2017. Mobile power infrastructure planning and operational management for smart city applications. Energy Procedia142, pp.2202-2207.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610217363452/pdf?md5=e62a4128ae79197192c4ab792c63326d&pid=1-s2.0-S1876610217363452-main.pdf

Pereira, A., Pinho, J.L., Faria, R. and Vieira, J.M.P., 2018. A DSS for operational management of wastewaters under uncertain conditions.https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/58986/1/2881-A_DSS_for_Operational_Management_of_Wastewaters_under_Uncertain_Conditions.pdf

Wang, Y., Alamo, T., Puig, V. and Cembrano, G., 2018.Economic model predictive control with nonlinear constraint relaxation for the operational management of water distribution networks. Energies11(4), p.991.https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/11/4/991/pdf

Willis, S., Clarke, S. and O'Connor, E., 2017. Contextualizing leadership: Transformational leadership and Management?By?Exception?Active in safety?critical contexts. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology90(3), pp.281-305.https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/files/64870534/Willis_Clarke_O_Connor_2017_AAM.docx

Online

About.sainsburys.co.uk. 2021. Our purpose. [online] Available at: <https://www.about.sainsburys.co.uk/about-us/our-purpose> [Accessed 9 May 2021].

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