Mobile Application for Reproductive Healthcare During Pandemic
Introduction of Mobile Application for Reproductive Healthcare During Pandemic Assignment Sample
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For a long time, telemedicine and digital applications have been applied in various ways. Health-related fields worldwide have used and assessed this technology. New possibilities, notably in health communication, have evolved because of the Internet's impact on society at large, including medicine and healthcare. There are a lot of changes taking place in the health care system because to E-Health (Electronic Health) and mHealth (Mobile Health). It has become more important to integrate novel supply strategies in health care because of Covid-19, which has given digital health care a greater importance.
Routine diagnostic and treatment procedures, as well as physician-patient relationships, are expected to be transformed by cutting-edge technology. There are several Apps and digital platforms that provide live consultations and courses, as well as mediation services and video lectures, in the field of pregnancy, birthing, childbirth, and life with a kid (O’Hare et al., 2020). A few applications are free of charge, while others need a paid subscription.
When a lady gets pregnant, she finds herself in an entirely different living circumstance. Women are seeking direction, security, and personal control as new medical, social, and psychological demands emerge, and they want to feel in charge of their lives. The provision of good health care requires meeting all these requirements, as well as the need of the pregnant woman to comprehend what is occurring in her body. When it comes to practising medicine, however, there is frequently insufficient time to address these complete demands, and not every woman who requests a midwife is now provided with one. One that many pregnant women are faced with, and one that our development team hopes to alleviate via research and development.
The software that is currently being developed is meant to assist pregnant women by enhancing their skills. Pregnant women use the app to keep track of their own body perception, symptoms, and values throughout their pregnancy (Lightner & Kalra, 2019). The app assists in understanding the recorded data and categorising it over the duration of a pregnancy, and the lady gets relevant information and counselling because of this.
This makes one's own pregnancy more bearable, and it encourages one to take responsibility for one's own health. The app is designed to give a digital supply offering that complements analogue care while also assisting in the closure of supply gaps that currently exist. This is being accomplished via collaboration with a health insurance business, which will allow the app to be made accessible to all women on an equitable basis.
The idea is to utilise digitalization to provide women with all their abilities on their cell phones, allowing them to enjoy this time in a manner that suits them. The ability to make decisions for oneself throughout this stage of life is associated with greater health and contentment in both the mother and the kid. To comply with all applicable rules, we have gathered comprehensive information and instructions on this issue. There is already a library of already certified applications, as well as a PDF handbook and a guidance through the application procedure, available on the websites of the regulatory bodies.
We expect that as soon as feasible, a functional and complimentary tandem of analogue medicine and digital care will be established and implemented. Our suggested software, which incorporates personalised monitoring and telemedicine, lovingly guides pregnant women through their pregnancies from a modern-female viewpoint and with a scientific grounding. According to the new legislation on the "app on prescription," which allows pregnant women to use it free of charge while also securing recompense from health insurance companies as part of providing better treatment, we hope to get compensation.
During this period, many pregnant women experience feelings of isolation and insecurity (Kevin et al., 2020). They are subjected to unnecessarily aggressive interventions, are required to participate in forums, and lose their sense of self-determination over their bodies. As the healthcare system becomes more digital, pregnant women will have a greater chance to participate in the shaping of the system's future.
The ultimate objective is to provide women with all the abilities they need on their cell phones to be able to enjoy the magical period of pregnancy and delivery as independently and securely as possible during this time. It is the fact that we draw on the present study scenario in our material and that we take great care in addressing pregnant women to ensure that they have the room to navigate their pregnancy in their own unique manner that distinguishes us.
Rather than patronising them, we would want to provide them assistance and advise when necessary (Nilmini, 2019). Because we want to get our software approved as a medical device in the future, there are some standards for users' accessibility that must be met. Beyond usability, it was critical for us to be gender-sensitive in our colour design and images to separate ourselves from the competition in the design department.
Nowadays, many individuals utilise mobile health applications (mHealth apps), which gather health data and produce individualised action suggestions. This is where ideas such as persuasiveness come into play in the context of behaviour modification. Various design tactics and gamification techniques are used, all of which are coupled with ethical difficulties and hazards of their own. An enormous number of issues have been raised about mobile health, including those about its application, efficacy, data privacy and security, as well as ones about ethics and regulatory measures. There is still a need for study on the (un)ethical design of mHealth solutions in this field, according to experts.
When developing mHealth apps, it is critical to understand the design patterns that are used. The emphasis is on lifestyle applications since they are mostly supplied in the second, unregulated healthcare sector and are primarily utilised by healthy people, which is why they are being highlighted (Nielsen & Kimaro, 2019). Specifically, it will be looked at to see whether and to what degree persuasive design and gamification overlap with Dark Patterns in this context. In this paper, we examine how these approaches may have a detrimental influence on human behaviour and psyche, what hazards are linked with the usage of mHealth apps, and to what degree the operator considers privacy concerns while developing these applications. The current state of research was determined for this aim.
With the use of an online survey, we were able to Find out which lifestyle apps are utilised and why they are stopped from being used, as well as how much the public's perception of mHealth and the handling of personal data after using them might alter. Whether or whether the findings can be connected to dark patterns is something that should be investigated.
Because the present standards and criteria for the platforms that make mHealth apps accessible are only imprecisely written, there are Privacy Concerns with the use of these platforms. Consequently, the results may help to strengthening rules to provide more protection for consumers and to better serve them. In the same way, the implementation of design methodologies that do not take the interests of the user into consideration and result in harm may be avoided by implementing the necessary precautionary steps.
As a result, the matter has a high level of political significance as well. The numerous parallels are taught to one another by various design strategies that are based on psychological insights and are intended to persuade or modify behaviour. As a result, direct changes are not usually immediately apparent at first glance. On top of that, there are what Harry Brignull14 refers to as "dark patterns," which are "user interfaces intentionally engineered to deceive the user into doing things" and "do not have the user's best interests in mind."
Therefore, while using an interactive system, the user is presented with a choice that is influenced by manipulative tactics, the limitations of human reasoning, and perceptual and behavioural patterns that are exploited to accomplish the purpose set forth by the system designers. One purpose of dark patterns is to enhance user engagement (for example, via gamification) and the subsequent conversion rate15, without considering the user's autonomy and informed permission. It is possible to demonstrate and enhance the effectiveness of such initiatives via the use of A/B testing16, among other methods.
Another purpose is the collecting of the user's personal data, which may be accomplished, for example, using cookie banners that take up the whole screen and are difficult to interpret. This practise is becoming more common in web-based services. As a result, firms that use strategies such as these, relying on financial resources, data, and the attention of users separate from themselves, stand to gain from their efforts in the long run. Science is also becoming more aware of the importance of dark patterns, and the prevalence of these patterns has been investigated in a variety of settings.
Gray and colleagues provide a summary of methodologies that, according to different experts, are now in use in the fields of user experience design and human-computer interaction. Mathur et al. constructed a taxonomy of six typical qualities in dark patterns based on these tactics, and they detail how they discovered, using a simulation tool they built, that about 1,200 major online retailers had incorporated dark patterns in their code. In addition to mobile apps, elements of this notion may be seen in games.
As a result, Di Geronimo and colleagues conducted research in which they discovered Dark Patterns in 95 percent of the most widely used free Android applications. Coercion and fraud are outlawed in persuasive technology, then what is persuasive technology? However, this does not exclude designers from using manipulative approaches in their work. Because of this, the manipulative potential of a System is determined by its creator's intentions. Sax and colleagues claim that especially commercial and popular mHealth programmes depend on the Optimization of "user retention, user engagement, and conversion" and, as a result, place a strong emphasis on maximising profits. This varies mainly in that Apps in the context of health reflect "an inevitable necessity and a universal desire for individuals," as opposed to other kinds of applications.
Dark patterns that may emerge in mobile health applications are detailed in further detail below. Only lifestyle apps are considered in the research since they are mostly commercial in their nature. This design pattern, on the other hand, is not ruled out for usage in service-oriented or medical applications, which may also comprise it. collection of health data. Due to the length and weight of the policy, which includes a lot of easy-to-understand information in certain circumstances, the user often does not read through or does not read through adequately before providing his approval to save time. The user's health information is made accessible to other parties in this manner, even if they are not aware of it. The Dark Patterns Taxonomy developed by Gray and colleagues refers to this as "hidden information."
The system can pre-configure the privacy settings. Individual privacy settings may be configured in such a manner that the user voluntarily gives more information about himself than he really desires in this situation. When used in conjunction with social networking services, wherein user information may be made public, this is a common occurrence. This method is referred to as Bad Defaults in the context of Privacy Dark Patterns.
User engagement strategies such as gamification may be used to encourage users to utilise an application on a regular basis, which is meant to assist them in living a healthy lifestyle. The user may get praise or incentives for attaining a goal or successfully completing tasks, whereas failure or inaction may result in punishment. These are extrinsic motivators, which are those that originate from outside the user and are hence referred to as extrinsic motivation. The Fogg Behavior Model's motivators of pleasure/pain and hope/fear are included into this model. Connection to gamification components such as praise, rewards, feedback, and badges.
If the achievement is made public on social media, it is possible to get recognition and acclaim that way as well. According to the Fogg Behavior or Model, this is once again the motivator of social approval or rejection as a motivation. The pursuit of praise, recognition, or reward, on the other hand, might result in tension or a sense of compulsion. According to one article published by The Conversation According to a survey of 200 women who used Fitbit to measure their activity.
According to Schmidt-Kraepelin et al., excessive usage of an application, particularly if activities are done repeatedly, may result in overexertion. For example, fitness applications, if personal limitations are disregarded and surpassed, can result in overexertion. The BBC reported on a female amateur athlete who developed a fitness addiction because of her usage of mHealth applications and wearables, according to the article.
In the Fogg Behavior Model, the installation of social rewards, based on the gamification aspect of social interaction, has parallels to the social acceptance/rejection motivator, and it may also contribute to the initiation of addictive behaviour. Here are some of my classmates. Pressure/normative influence, competitive or cooperative components, such as what is referred to as social comparison, are all examples of pressure/normative influence. A user has access to all these things, and you may feel pressured to keep up. Depending on the nature of the either elicit a continual effort from the user, both in terms of it itself and needing to prove to others or result in discouragement and termination of the use of the It was the identical instance from the BBC story mentioned above that depicted the amateur athlete's sense of self-worth as well.
After the social incentives worn off since their fitness application kept them coming back up, it was pointed out to her that she had gotten careless and that her friends had made more progress than she had, she agreed. When utilised in the Fogg Behavior Model, the cues to action element, also known as a signal, serves to remind the user of a goal or task, while also motivating them to do the activity at the time of the recollection.
While this is true, depending on the frequency and content of the messages, it might result in undue distraction since such communications promise to capture the user's attention. Additional strain and tension might be added to the distraction if the communication specifies a deadline that must be reached to avoid losing ground on a project. If the user is presently preoccupied with other activities and the completion of objectives is not a high priority for the user at this time, the notice may have an impact on how the user goes about his or her daily routine.
Because the number of people who utilise mobile health apps has risen, particularly after the Corona Pandemic, and because mHealth technologies are continually being improved, the subject will continue to be very relevant in the future. Persuasive Health Technology employs cutting-edge techniques that must be further investigated and refined. The dark patterns that have been observed may be exploited to raise awareness. Consumers may find it simpler to determine whether to use a mobile health application as a result of this. HealthOn is a platform for consumers and patients that examines the quality of mHealth applications in accordance with the HealthOn app code of ethics, among other criteria, and provides recommendations. Referring to data protection standards, advertising policies, and financing sources, among other things. At this time, however, only free mHealth applications have been evaluated. In addition to health applications and fitness trackers, the testing institution AV-TEST also has a data protection site that examines these products as well.
It may therefore be beneficial to develop a tool that not only increases the trustworthiness of mHealth apps when they are evaluated in terms of data protection and advertising measures, but also when the gamification elements present in an app are critically examined and checked for potential risks as well (Davies & Mueller, 2020). Consumer information may also be made accessible in this location, and the hazards associated with its usage might be discussed. It is also very important for designers or prospective designers to be aware of dark patterns, as well as their effects and repercussions, to create effective designs.
If designers are also encouraged to adopt ethical techniques in their work, this may have a good influence on the choices made about the creation of mobile health applications. Political action should also be made to ensure that such immoral design practises are not used in the first place. Furthermore, since it mainly provides items to consumers, the second, non-regulated health sector may probably be scrutinised more rigorously. In the future, utilising a prototype in the framework of mHealth, it will be possible to measure the level of awareness and influence of Dark patterns.
Since this question was only posed for illness management apps as part of the online survey that was conducted as part of this study effort, it is possible that more surveys will shed light on whether Dark Patterns may arise in other service-oriented mHealth applications as well. Consider if Dark Patterns, such as unwelcome updates to mHealth programmes, may lead to new research opportunities as well. Along with the online survey, an interview with test subjects may be conducted to determine why the Users' perceptions of and attitudes about personal data have changed or remained the same during the course of the study.
Davies, A., & Mueller, J. (2020). Developing Medical Apps and mHealth Interventions: A Guide for Researchers, Physicians and Informaticians. Springer Nature.
Kevin, Y., Eshetu, A., Eskinder, & Lita, C. (2020). Design and Quality Considerations for Developing Mobile Apps for Medication Management: Emerging Research and Opportunities: Emerging Research and Opportunities. IGI Global.
Lightner, N. J., & Kalra, J. (2019). Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Medical Devices: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Medical Devices, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA. Springer.
Nielsen, P., & Kimaro, H. C. (2019). Information and Communication Technologies for Development. Strengthening Southern-Driven Cooperation as a Catalyst for ICT4D: 15th IFIP WG 9.4 International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries, ICT4D 2019, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, May 1–3, 2019, Proceedings, Part I. Springer.
Nilmini, W. (2019). Handbook of Research on Optimizing Healthcare Management Techniques. IGI Global.
O’Hare, G. M. P., O’Grady, M. J., O’Donoghue, J., & Henn, P. (2020). Wireless Mobile Communication and Healthcare: 8th EAI International Conference, MobiHealth 2019, Dublin, Ireland, November 14-15, 2019, Proceedings. Springer Nature.