Introduction of Organisational Behaviour Assignment
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Organizational Behaviour gives a guide to the organisation when comprehended. When it comes to today's corporate climate, organisational behaviour is extremely important. People management in today's workplace is impossible without understanding organisational behaviour (Huberts and van Montfort, 2020). The effectiveness of the team will be evaluated by the synergy and conduct among the members. In-depth training helps workers better grasp one another's communication styles. It's critical that they get along so that the project may continue smoothly. Long-term success is impossible to implement without the unity of the people. The company's workers are at the core of the whole behavioural research. They really are the foundation of any company. They carry out all the job in a methodical way and succeed in their objectives (Cross and Carbery, 2018). The behaviour of an organisation is critical in helping a leader resolve problem.
Almost every business or organization's aim is to inspire people to work together toward a common vision or objective. When a company is able to determine the most influential individual factors that affect workplace behaviour, it may produce a positive working environment. Job contentment and performance are often linked in all companies (Awwad and Al-Aseer, 2021). It's critical to create a positive work environment for employees in order to get the most out of them. Accordingly, the following study assesses the significance of developing an efficient workforce via the adoption of individual views, traits, and qualities and makes suggestions on how to create an efficient team for efficient management of the organisation.
“Assess own personality traits and attributes in terms of them having a positive or negative effect on management approaches and company performance”
As a whole, one's personality is made up of a variety of characteristics that are generally constant throughout time. In order to know how someone would behave and feel in different situations, one need to know their personality in order to make predictions about their conduct (Nagahi et al., 2021). Understanding the different personalities of workers helps managers manage more successfully. Furthermore, knowing this information may help with the placement of individuals into groups and professions.
When psychologists looked at the terms used to describe personality qualities, they found that many of these pointed to a single dimension of personality. Whenever these words were put together, five dimensions appeared, which account for a good deal of the diversity in our personalities. It's important to remember that these aren't the only characteristics that exist. In addition to the Big Five, there are additional, more specific characteristics that reflect different dimensions. Recognizing them helps us begin to comprehend personality traits.
(Source: Awwad and Al-Aseer, 2021)
These five characteristics are "openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism," as shown in the above image (Awwad and Al-Aseer, 2021).
“Openness”: The extent to which an individual is inquisitive, innovative, intelligent, creative, and receptive to new ideas is assessed by his or her openness. If anyone is open to new opportunities, they are more likely to succeed in circumstances that call for flexibility and agility (Tay et al., 2020). They have a strong desire to learn new things and do well in classes. Additionally, they have an edge if they join a new company. A person's willingness to learn new things makes them a better candidate for a new job since they are more receptive to getting criticism on their performance and building connections.
“Conscientiousness”: The level of conscientiousness indicates how well someone is organised, methodical, on time, goal-oriented, and reliable. When it comes to work performance, only conscientiousness determines how well a person would do in various professions. For this purpose, recruiters look for candidates that have a high level of agreeableness (Dowsett and Fromm, 2020). Candidates with this characteristic do well in interviews. While conscientious workers do well in the workplace, they also have reduced turnover, fewer absenteeism, and better safety performance because they are more motivated to perform well once they are recruited.
“Extraversion: Extraversion is a personality trait that describes how open, chatty, and friendly a person is. It also refers to how much they love being around other people. According to research, they're most successful in sales-related professions. Aside from that, they're good managers who show inspiring leadership characteristics.
“Agreeableness”: The extent to which someone is agreeable, amiable, forgiving, sensitive, trustworthy, kind, and friendly is referred to as their agreeableness. To put it another way, individuals with high levels of agreeableness are liked and get along well with others (Tay et al., 2020). A pleasant personality trait, assisting others at work doesn't rely on one's mood. The interaction between personal characteristics and experiential states on intraindividual variations of civic behaviour.
“Neurotic”: To be neurotic is to be nervous, restless, temperamental, and moody to a high degree. The only other Big Five metric where a high score is not desired is this one. Emotional adjustment problems are common among neurotic individuals, and they are often plagued by feelings of anxiety and despair. People with high levels of Neuroticism often have difficulties in their professional lives. When it comes to establishing and sustaining connections, they struggle. They are much less likely to be something others turn to for companionship and guidance.
Conceptually and empirically, it is critical to know how individuals make moral choices. Over this, knowing the moral mind is important for understanding how the mind functions in general, as well as the role moral concerns play in our day-to-day lives. Relying on others for assistance, advice, and direction while making choices is an example of a dependent decision-making style Procrastination and postponing of choices are hallmarks of the avoidant approach (Dowsett and Fromm, 2020). In contrast, impulsive decision-making style is defined by a tendency to act on the spur of the moment in order to expedite the decision-making process. When it comes to producing choices, the intuitive approach is more reliant on intuition, instinct, and emotions than on systematic sequencing and analysis, thus it relies on hunches and gut feelings.
Authoritarian, participatory, and democratic management styles are the most often mentioned and used. Another of the major goals of this research is to find out how managers' personality characteristics influence their decision-making and management style, accordingly (Rendall, Brooks, and Hillenbrand, 2021). It's also worth noting that although conscientiousness aids rational and proactive choice, avoidant decision-making suffers the consequences of its negative impact. With regard to decision-making styles, neuroticism has a positive impact on inutiative and avoidant styles as well as spontaneous ones. It really has the opposite effect, impairing rationality. Finally, extraversion has a favourable impact on decision-making styles that are reliant and spontaneous.
“Reflect on the value and importance of personality and perception for effective managerial relationships”.
A workplace is made up of individuals. Human relations are all of the interactions that take place with and between individuals. A person's ability to perform well at work is often influenced by their personality traits such as attitudes and values, combined with their drive to achieve in their goals and objectives (Dowsett and Fromm, 2020). Conflict, instability, and other common workplace circumstances are all influenced by one's personality and attitude. An organization's ability to function effectively depends on knowing its workers' qualities. A strong leader has the capacity to make the many qualities of people within a team work together in harmony, enhancing the company's opportunity to compete.
Organizational behaviourists define personality as the sum of a person's emotions, ideas, actions, and responses to various circumstances and individuals. Having this information is helpful when it comes to putting individuals in positions of leadership and in companies. To be successful, one need an engaging personality. As a result, it's an important factor in determining effective leadership. A person with a good outlook seems to have the ability to guide their thoughts, manage their emotions, and maintain a stable outlook. That's why managerial characteristics like personality and attitudes affect organisational values, because toxic work environments lead to decreased productivity and high employee turnover when managers have negative personalities.
“Apply content and process theories of motivation for enhancing and maintaining an effective organisational workforce, providing specific examples”.
Motivation is defined as the direct and indirect factors that influence an individual's commitment and excitement for a task. Motivation increases the level of happiness of the workers and leads to a successful outcome for the business. When workers see their potential, they become more motivated, which helps the company realise its goal.
People are inspired and supported by two distinct types of motivation, such as:
Extrinsic type of Motivation: Motivation that comes from outside oneself, such as allowances and various monetary incentives, such as housing, housing services, package holiday bonuses, extra hours and paid maternity leave are examples of this kind of external motivation (Kearney, 2018). A worker may get disheartened if there is no driving force behind their efforts. Even though everyone works to earn a living, employees need more incentive than monetary rewards alone. To be successful, a company must respond to the concerns and requirements of its workers.
Intrinsic type of Motivation: People are motivated by numerous reasons other than money, and not only financial incentives. This is known as intrinsic motivation since it is based on human encouragement rather than monetary incentives.
Various motivational theories:
Individuals and groups have various natures and are motivated by different compulsions when it comes to motivation. There have generally been two kinds of motivation based on their respective philosophies.
People's behaviour is controlled by this theory, which reflects the results via intuition or motivation (Mahadi and Jafari, 2012). Acting and predicting go hand in hand with this idea. Pay attention to the mental processes that underlie how individuals feel motivated or pushed in their lives. As the criteria are customised, they overcome the effects of the activities. In order to motivate and alter employee behaviour, theories of processes such as "goal-setting theory" and "Vroom's theory of expectations" are very useful.
Equity Theory of Motivation
John Stacey Adams, a business behaviour psychologist, created Adam's Equity Theory, often referred as that of the "Equity Theory of Motivation," in 1963. The basis of equity suggests that people are driven by a sense of justice. Simply put, equity theory says that if a people notice an unfairness in the relationship between him or herself and a peer, he or she will make changes to their work to balance the scales. To illustrate equity theory, if an employee discovers that a colleague receiving more money than them is performing the exact same job, they may opt to work less, thereby establishing justice in their view.
“Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation”
In 1964, "Yale School of Management professor" Victor Vroom developed the expectation hypothesis. Both Maslow and Herzberg, Vroom emphasises and focuses on results rather than needs (Bai et al., 2021). As per this idea, the strength of a person's propensity to act in a certain way is controlled by how strongly they anticipate their behaviour to be followed by a certain result, as well as how appealing that result is to them personally.
Expectancy theory states that employee motivation is a consequence of a person's desire for compensation (Valence), the likelihood that his or her efforts will produce the desired outcomes (Expectancy), but whether or not the employee thinks that the results will lead to a compensation (Instrumentality).
People's goals and plans to solve issues are discussed in this kind of motivation. The theory of "Maslow's hierarchy of needs", "Herzberg's hierarchy of requirements", McClelland's hierarchy of needs, McClelland's theories of needs and ERG theory.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
“Maslow's hierarchy of needs” is indeed a psychological motivational theory that depicts a five-tiered model of human requirements as levels inside a pyramid. "From the bottom of the hierarchy upwards, the needs are: physiological (food and clothing), safety (job security), love and belonging needs (friendship), esteem, and self-actualization"( Yates and Patall, 2021).
(Source: Hale et al., 2019)
Basic physical requirements include things like drinking and eating when you're hungry or thirsty. Maslow considered human physiological requirements as the most important. When a person is in need of more than one thing, they're more likely to prioritise their physiological requirements first (Hale et al., 2019). It's difficult, for example, to concentrate on anything else while you're starving. Sleep deprivation, for example, would be an instance of a physiological requirement.
To meet people's psychological demands, one must first provide for their physical needs. When it comes to safety, one can see it even in the children. Children want predictable and secure surroundings, and when they don't get them, they respond with dread or worry (Kearney, 2018). Safety requirements are more evident for people living in industrialised countries during emergencies (such as wars and catastrophes), but Maslow argues that these needs explain why we choose the familiar and why we buy health insurance and donate to a savings account.
Love and Belonging
The next need to have in Maslow's hierarchy is to feel accepted and loved. This desire encompasses all kinds of connections, including friendships and familial ties. The desire to feel like a part of something larger than ourselves is part of this concept. It's worth noting that this need includes both the desire to be loved and the want to be loved in return.
“Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation”:
Employee motivation is at the heart of “Herzberg's Theory of Motivation”. In Herzberg's analysis, motivators and hygienic elements were shown to be important.
- Motivating Factors
Employees are working more when motivators are there. To find them, look inside the actual job description.
- Hygiene Factors
Employees would work less hard if hygienic elements are absent (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl, and Maude, 2017). The hygiene elements don't really exist in the work itself, but rather in the environment in which the job is performed.
Motivating factors include:
Job satisfaction: A work should provide a feeling of job satisfaction to its employees. This will give a sense of accomplishment since you've accomplished something tough yet valuable.
Recognition: Praise and acknowledgment are crucial ingredients of a work for an individual to feel appreciated and successful (Kotni and Karumuri, 2018). Both their supervisors and peers should give them credit for their achievements in this regard.
The work itself: In time to retain workers engaged, the position must be engaging, diverse, and challenging enough.
Responsibility: Employees must take responsibility for and pride in their work. In order for them to not feel ostracised, they must be responsible for the project's completion.
Advancement: The worker should have the option to further his or her career.
Growth: Workers should be encouraged to acquire new skills on the job (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl, and Maude, 2017). There are two ways to learn this: on-the-job or via more rigorous education and preparation.
Factors related to hygiene include:
Company policies: It is important that the company's rules be fair and understandable to all employees. They must also be on par with similar products from other companies.
Monitoring: Monitoring has to be fair and suitable. A fair amount of freedom should be provided to the employee. A fair amount of freedom should be provided to the employee.
Relationships: Bullying and cliques have no role in relationships (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl, and Maude, 2017). Peers, bosses, and subordinates all need to get along and have a good relationship.
Working conditions: It's critical that the tools you use are safe, effective, and sanitary.
Salary: Paid time off should be compensated fairly. It must also be able to compete with other businesses in the same field.
Status: The company should keep track of the status of all of its workers. Having a sense of purpose in the job may give you a boost in your self-esteem.
Safety: It's critical that employees know they have a job they can rely on and aren't always on the verge of being fired.
“Contribute to the creation and management of effective team-working in a given business situation”.
Definition of a Team
A team is composed of at least two people working together to achieve a common objective. Participants' accomplishments are recognised as group accomplishments, and basic group comparisons like these are used to incorporate them:
Difference between a group and a team
A group is made up of two or more people who all have the same purpose, but the group as a whole accomplishes something else (Chinomona, Dhurup and Joubert, 2017). To achieve a common objective, members are involved whereas to achieve a separate goal, people are included in a conference. Participants will be motivated to do the task if the group's members are successful in achieving a big collective goal. A group fosters more communication and participation than a team.
At least two people must be involved inside the team's engagement or execution in order for the team to be created by cohesiveness, and connections must be developed in order to increase execution.
Elements of a successful team
There are a few things that go into putting together a successful team. Basically, this includes everything from strength to speed to cohesion to consciousness to the latest in technological advancements. If the team doesn't have a credible leader, it appears they can't represent themselves effectively. Leaders are project managers, and the performance of their teams is dependent on good management (Chinomona, Dhurup and Joubert, 2017). The importance of team communication cannot be overstated. It opens doors for things like collaboration and other positive outcomes. If reciprocal communication isn't guaranteed, the collective won't be able to function properly.
In addition, cohesive and inclusive team growth is needed. Although a bigger squad is more effective, its reluctance to participate results in a team that is more susceptible. Incorrect use of technology, on the other hand, may increase feasibility to the point where it becomes difficult for the team to go any farther (O'Neill and Salas, 2018). Large communities suffer because of increased carelessness and unity improves involvement and cohesiveness because of the absence of involvement, the team would not develop sufficiently.
“Explore the relevance of group behaviour and team theory in the creation and management of effective team-working”.
It is the team's ability to work towards achieving the objectives established by an authority, participants, or leaders, that defines its effectiveness.
“The GRPI Model of Team Effectiveness proposed by Rubin, Plovnick, and Fry”:
Rubin, Plovnick, and Fry first presented this team effectiveness model in 1977. The term GRPI, which refers for Goals, Roles, Processes, and Interpersonal Relationships, is yet another name for it (Shahid and Din, 2021). This paradigm, shown as a pyramid diagram, highlights four parts that teams must have in order to be successful:
This paradigm, shown as a pyramid diagram, highlights four parts that teams must have in order to be successful:
Goals: Priorities and objectives must be conveyed effectively at all levels of the organisation.
Roles: a clear understanding of duties and support for the idea of a boss
Processes: Decision-making processes and work methods must be very clear.
Interpersonal relationships: Good communication, trust, and adaptability are essential in interpersonal interactions.
GRPI is an excellent model to employ when establishing a team or when confronted with a team-related issue that is difficult to diagnose.
Stages of Team Development
Team growth is the development of figuring out how to operate well with others. According to the findings of recent studies, teams get through the distinct phases of growth. An educational psychologist named Bruce Tuckman found that most teams go through a five-stage growth process before they reach peak performance. " Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning" were his terms for the phases of the process (Super, 2020). The following flowchart depicts the team's progress through each step.
An introduction and familiarisation phase occurs during the formation stage. There is a lot of uncertainty at this point, and people are seeking for direction and authoritative figures to help them through it. The person in charge may be a member with authority or expertise.
It is the most challenging and life-or-death stage: the storming period. Individual personalities are beginning to develop at a time of strife and rivalry (Shahid and Din, 2021). At this point, team performance also might deteriorate as team members divert their attention to ineffective tasks. On top of disagreements over team objectives, cliques may develop around individuals with a lot of clout or groups that have same interests.
Teams who survive it through the storming phase overcome their differences and begin to function as a unit. There will be agreement on the leader or leaders, and the responsibilities of each individual member, during the norming stage (Ekmekcioglu, Aydintan, and Celeb, 2018). As disparities between people are addressed, a feeling of cohesiveness and togetherness develops. Interpersonally.
On stage, the team seems to have a solid foundation of agreement and collaboration, and it is mature, structured, and well-functioning. The team has a well-defined and stable structure, and everyone is dedicated to achieving the team's goals.
Almost all of the team's objectives were achieved by the time the meeting adjourned last week. Finally completing tasks and recording the effort and outcomes are the primary concerns right now. Individual team members may be transferred to other groups when the workload is reduced, and the team may dissolve (Nikitenko et al., 2019). A formal acknowledgment of the team's effort and achievement may be beneficial when there is sorrow over the team's ending.
Belbin’s Team role theory
Roles and duties are divided according to this idea into three categories, as shown below:
· Monitor Evaluator
· Group Worker
· Resource Identifier
The “Belbin theory” aids the team in arriving to collective decisions on new and inventive ideas to solve financial problems and improve outcomes over time to tackle challenges. Forming roles for teams involves using activity diagrams that show how future needs are being prepared and determined. To assess the impact of people, screen and evaluate group activities, establish regulations, and perform exercises.
Examine how the operation of power, politics and culture in an organisation affect employee behaviour and the accomplishment of organisational goals.
Culture refers to the ideas, practices, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours of a particular group of people who combine to form a society. As a result of their involvement and acceptance of certain behavioural patterns, employees develop an organisation behaviour. Each company has a unique culture, frequently diverging from the beliefs and practises of the competition (Nikitenko et al., 2019). Corporate culture must be put into action if the organisation is to be successful. Having complete and unwavering faith in one's community is the most critical element.
Organizing culture is defined by Shahid and Din, (2021) as a way in which workers within organisations may be motivated to perform their job roles in order to meet the quantified goals of the business. The culture of the organization determines the members as an assumption and conveyed ideals of each organisation.
Hofstede Model of Organization Culture
Another of the most often quoted and cited cultural and organisational theory frameworks is Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory. The results of this approach led him to make six key findings, each of which he then revised in light of new research.
“Power distance”: The power distance between being an authority person and a subordinate describes how hard it is for a subordinate to question that authority figure's authority.
“Uncertainty avoidance”: Uncertainty avoidance relates to how comfortable a company feels taking risks. Due to the fact that rate of return are highly correlated in the business world, it is critical for companies should foster a culture of taking calculated risks.
“Individualism vs. collectivism”: A firm's degree of integration of group mentality and promotion of a strong feeling of community (instead of individuality) inside the organisation may be described as either individualism or collectivism (Minkov and Kaasa, 2020).
“Masculinity vs. femininity”: masculinity and femininity in the workplace refers to the ways in which some behaviours are classified as "masculine" and others as "female." For instance, many people believe that a culture that is aggressive and hypercompetitive is more male in nature (Nikitenko et al., 2019).
“Long-Term Orientation”: A company or culture's realistic long-term planning vs. short-term benefits may be described as having a long-term orientation.
“Indulgence vs. Restraint”: There are two types of spending: indulgence and self-control. Indulgence refers to overspending, while self-control relates to underspending. If a business has a conservative culture, for example, stringent guidelines may govern how employees may access corporate resources.
Additionally, politics influences how well people perform and behave. It increases the employee's power. Cultural workers from every political party, corporations, and so on may join unions and have a significant impact on the organisation. Workers' morale is boosted by the political party because they believe their liberties are expanding as a result of it (Senaratne and Gunawardane, 2015). But at the other hand, excessive political involvement inside a business may be dangerous and very destructive. Because different political parties do not share the same fundamental ideas, they can lead to hostilities that are difficult to settle.
Power has a massive effect on both individual and group behaviour inside an enterprise. The character of a person or a team is influenced more by their degree of pleasure when they have access to power. It also increases the likelihood of their succeeding in their goals. A strong level of motivation is also required. Even if it doesn't benefit them, power has the ability to change other people's views
(Minkov and Kaasa, 2020). Rather than generating predictable conflicts between individuals and organisations, power may lead to unexpected disagreements that reduce profitability and quality. An excessive amount of authority may have damaging consequences on a company's internal employees (Spencer, 2018). As long as employees are given the opportunity, they should strive for a balance of power in the workplace since this increases efficiency while also increasing the ability to manage the environment and foster innovation. Take Organisational Behaviour Assignment Help from an Expert like us.
To conclude, it can be summarized that the goal of almost any company or organisation is to get individuals enthusiastic about working together to achieve a shared goal. Identifying the individuals who have the most influence on workplace behaviour may help a business create a more productive atmosphere. There is a strong correlation between job satisfaction and job performance in all organisations. Thus, the manager’s personality, attitude as well as perception tends to play a key role in determining organisational productivity that in turn impacts the overall performance.
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