Organizational Behaviour Assignment
Tesco is a multinational retailer of food and other merchandise based in London. Its headquarters are in England. Tesco has a horizontal organizational culture. Positions and duties are divided into divisions in this structure to ensure that the project is completed effectively and successfully. The apex of the business pyramid has more responsibilities and influence. Politics, authority, and an organization's culture are frequently used to guide an organization's activities (Bangun, Ratnasari, and Hakim, 2019). The primary purpose of this project is to understand the influence of politics, power, and society on Tesco Plc., which will primarily aid the firm in regulating the behavior of every employee to boost the company's efficiency. A professional working crew with adequate experience and behavior is required for every organization to sustain correct day-to-day operations. This study also assesses the role and effectiveness of the group leader in achieving Tesco Plc's ultimate aim.
Get free written samples by our Top-Notch subject experts and Assignment Help Service team.
Culture, politics, power, and motivation evaluation of how these aspects of organizational behavior have influenced separate and team behavior in the workplace.
Profoundly in an organization, the culture remains the highest state of organizational behavior over which the organization behaves. The work atmosphere usually poses the organizational culture that is driven by the purpose and clear its clear of expectation (Szyd?o, and Grze?-Buk?aho, 2020). Moreover, it usually tends to motivate them and inspire the employees. To be more engaged in their work for the duties and interaction with others. Further, the role of Tesco's organizational culture generally belongs to trust and respect that are significant for achievement.
Also, for the context of the organizational behavior, the power culture has been correlated with the context of the organizational approach as there are only a few individuals in the organization who have the power to make a choice and make rules. These are the individual with a higher level of authority in the organization. Nevertheless, the subordinates do not have any power as they are bounded by their followed for their highly authoritative instruction.
In organizational behavior of any industry and with the industry of choice for this that is Tesco the task culture, basis the employees’ skills and ability, organizations provide the task. It is the team that is created according to the condition and solve the issues and achieves the aim of the organization Tesco. The member of teams has the power to take the effective strategic and management decision for the retail corporate for Tesco to grow their reach all over the world with the increase in shops opening (Szyd?o, and Grze?-Buk?aho, 2020).
Most organizations in today's society provide a fertile ground for politics. Politics has an influence, both favorable and negative, on both the ordinary workforce and the success of a firm. For this reason, all businesses strive to create a stable political atmosphere in the workplace, which largely aids the corporation in increasing the yield of each employee. Workers may engage in political maneuvering to get undue attention and recognition from other members of an organization (Paais and Pattiruhu, 2020). Politics may also have an impact on employees' and co-workers’ attitudes, which can impair their ability to focus on the task at hand. Various political problems of an organization may harm its brand name, demoralizing each stakeholder.
As an outcome of this, the management of Tesco also organizes various cultural programs to inspire their work with the view to preserve the overall behaviors of the organization. Moreover, the power that is the only the prole in the organization having the power to take decisions and make rules. In context to the situation, people are higher than the level of authority that makes strategic and management decisions for Tesco's success. The power is generally in the hand of authorities thus time they misuse their power to make the employee negative. Further, if the power is provided to talented people like manger a so then they might use the right decisions or the welfare and goodwill for the worker for Tesco and make them positive towards the brand.
It is the important factor that underlies the drive of the individual to accomplish the task and purpose. Several factors influence employee motivation including the organizational structure integrity of the company for the operations and Tesco culture.
Behavioral motivational theories and techniques have been applied in your organization, justifying with relevant examples.
Many successful businesses attribute their success to the motivational efforts of employees who collaborated with supervisors to make their duties more bearable. Employees in Tesco must be involved from start to finish. All personnel involved in a project should be included throughout its life cycle, from design to completion. Personal ambitions should be linked to personal goals (Sahu Padhy, and Dhir, 2020). There appears to be a reason why salespeople who surpass their weekly objectives are more likely to provide services towards the end of the month. An individual who believes that even a goal is unreachable may be discouraged from working hard and completing the task. Goals should be adjusted as needed. Too many construction businesses and managers establish goals. As required, goals should be changed. Various organizations and construction managers establish targets at the start of the year and then take action with little room for revision. Goals must be examined intelligently. According to some experts, objectives should be “SMART goals” that are clear, measurable, actionable, outcome-oriented, and time-bound.
Various organizational cultures, with special reference to process and content theories of motivation, focus on the motivational techniques adopted by Tesco.
- Adhocracy culture- A proactive, ambitious Create Culture entrepreneurial influences
- Clan culture- Individuals are the Clan Culture, which welcomes Collaborate Culture.
- Hierarchy culture- It is mainly process-oriented and structures control culture.
- Market culture -– the competitive, outcome-oriented Culture of Competence (Nderitu Waiganjo and Orwa, 2021).
Content Theories of Motivation
Maslow encompasses the five-level hierarchy of needs which he drew as necessary for the achievement of a content individual; or in his circumstances, a self-actualized being. All persons want are “physiological, security, love, esteem, and self-actualization”.
Physiological demands are the barometer of a person's requirements; they are the necessities of human life. For instance, air, water, food, and shelter. Personal financial security, health and well-being, employment, and access to resources are all aspects of saving that create stability and consistency in everyday life. Interactions and social links such as love, family, and proximity are fundamental to our sense of belonging (Stewart, Mandell and Beidas 2021). Esteem and self-actualization are manifestations of our goals for worth, self-esteem, and a sense of belonging.
Lastly, when all other wants and needs are satisfied and fulfilled, such a person achieves self-actualization. Maslow cites fifteen criteria that self-actualized persons possess, therefore defining what it means to be "self-actualized" is difficult. Among the traits are tolerance for do-it-yourself, people, and nature; drive; freedom regardless of culture or society; and spiritual experience (Hopper, 2020).
“Herzberg who was influenced by both Maslow and McGregor”, established the motivation-hygiene notion, a unique theory of determination. In this, he divides event intensity into two categories: motivators and "hygiene variables. Job satisfaction is driven by motivators that are related to the nature of work and are akin to Maslow's higher demands: achievement, reputation, obligation, and growth (Kotni and Karumuri, 2018). Internal elements that might contribute to job satisfaction are referred to as sources of motivation. On the other hand, hygiene characteristics are related to Maslow's lower-level needs and do not always result in inspiration or fulfillment, but appear to be extrinsic and just reduce job unhappiness. Hygiene considerations include store policy and governance, direction, supervision quality, and working environment.
Process Theories of Motivation
While process theories focus on the necessities that everyone shares, content theories focus on the cognitive distinctions that people have.
Vroom's cognitive decision-making and action are characterized by three motives: polarity, utility, and expectation. Polarity is just the intensity of desire for the perceived consequence; the desire for the payment, if you will. The idea that doing a given activity will result in the intended outcome is referred to as equipment. According to expectation theory, you will be able to get your desired outcome. Keeping these needs in mind affects the amount of inspiration a person may experience.
John S. Adams (1963), and appears to be based on Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory as well as the concept of the "glass dimly self" (Dasaev, 2018). Equity theory is founded on the premise that individuals would be better fulfilled in personal and professional relationships if the "give and take" are equal. In the business environment, this might imply that a person evaluates himself by comparing their ideas to outcomes ratio to that of their co-workers. Adams proposed that socializing aids in the development of a sense of equality.
Theories influence behaviors within organizations and how this helps to achieve the organizational goals.
Behavior- This brief overview of Maslow and his hierarchy of human needs is crucial since many of Maslow's conclusions explain why the cult Variety companies are so successful. Maslow's writings show the fundamental motives that guide people's behavior and decisions.
Herzberg - According to Herzberg, cleanliness issues might excite employees, but if managed properly, they can reduce discontent. In other words, they can only be unhappy if they aren't present or if they are abused. Company policies, supervision, salary, social connections, and working environment are all examples of hygiene issues (Keshtkar Rajabi and Etebarian, 2018). Moreover, to achieve Tesco’s goals over their employees. Motivational factors that would offer employees a sense of fulfillment, as well as sanitary conditions that would provide the essential regularity of job protection.
Fig: Maslow's of Maslow and his Hierarchy of Human Needs
Source (Keshtkar Rajabi, and Etebarian, 2018)
- It contributes to the reduction of global food waste and ensures that surplus food is allocated to those in need.
- It also makes it an individuals easy to live a healthier lifestyle.
- Items that encourage contact, are low-cost, and ecologically friendly (Sultan, 2020).
- A substantial positive impact on the communities where we operate is generally consistent.
Thus, these above Tesco goals first needed to be the context for the Maslow theory for all the five needs for the organization.
Tesco uses the 'Tesco Steering Wheel' to improve performance. This section discusses the key performance indicators for people, money, clients, operations, and the community. Each site has its driving wheel as well as market sentiment statistics. Quarterly earnings are then reported to business headquarters. A further suggestion that Tesco could improve the performance of their staff to meet goals is to examine the performance indicators.
- Make an effort to be thoughtful in your communication.
- Keep your attention focused.
- Maintain a low degree of excitement.
- Consider responsibility as a top priority.
- Thank you for your feedback.
- Offer incentives.
- Create and train a workforce (Sultan, 2020).
Assess the benefits of working in a team. Identify the mix of knowledge, skills, and experience necessary for a team to fulfil its functions in an organization. Also, reflect in your assessment what makes a team ineffective.
Benefits of working in a team-
Productivity Gain - When team members share the workload evenly and tasks are distributed based on each group member's abilities and talents, jobs are completed faster and more efficiently, resulting in a significant increase in productivity.
Encourages Innovation - cooperation implies being more imaginative, exchanging ideas, and coming up with inventive and effective solutions to issues. When working in a group on a brainstorming session, people are more confident and come up with original and creative ideas.
Improves Morale - When a team shares the responsibility, the collaboration helps all members to have a greater sense of success when the work is completed. Each individual goes above and beyond what they could achieve on their own, getting accolades and a sense of belonging that boosts their ego (Zwikael, Chih and Meredith, 2018). This leads to job satisfaction, as well as the delight that comes from a sense of belonging.
Support Network - During challenging times, team members will help and rely on one another for guidance and support. This helps individuals to focus on the goal, decreases stress at difficult moments, and allows them to complete assignments quickly.
Mix of knowledge
Knowledge acquisition is the most fundamental type of knowledge and is easiest to pass on since it’s written down and available.
Knowledge acquisition refers to the therapeutic application of information or knowledge. Your firm is the most likely source of knowledge.
Tacit knowledge is the information that we have obtained from personal observation and circumstances (Crawford and Jenkins, 2018). It is the knowledge that's the hardest to write down, express, or present physically if asked.
Clear, Effective Communication
As a manager, your goal is to assist your co-workers in guards in a way that is efficient, consistent, and aligned with the firm's bigger strategic objectives.
Emotional intelligence is a distinguishing trait of good managers and leaders. Someone with a great sense of self-awareness, compassion, and other social skills can encourage and influence others, which is an important attribute for managers to have.
In contrast to the day-to-day operations of your team members, you may be responsible for funds and project deadlines. Organization Every management has problems, regardless of how effectively a project or method is prepared, planned or developed. This might take the form of a strict deadline or a milestone (Zhang et al., 2019). This might result in an unexpected failure in the supply chain. The manager makes all choices on job prioritization, allocation, and delegation. A competent person understands how to delegate authority to others. This necessitates determining who is best suited to carry out a specific duty. It also means ensuring that an employee gets the resources he or she needs to succeed and that they feel empowered to make decisions. It's critical that your staff feel comfortable contacting you with questions and concerns, especially if they need clarity on what they're expected to do.
In my point of view, I think that Ineffective teams are frequently made up of people who do not get along or who do not have the necessary skills to complete the tasks at hand. Some teams may have several members with similar expertise, whereas others may be lacking inadequate training. Further, I have seen that ineffective teams need the qualities depicted.
Also, I believed that disruption in communication tends to lack communication is a major reason why teams may perform poorly with Leadership that is truly ineffective, and dissatisfied employees those lack motivation and also have low ow job compatibility.
Team and group development theories.
Team and group development theories
"Tuckman's Stages of Group Development, created by psychologist Bruce Tuckman in 1965”. is one of the strongest ideas concerning team development. It describes four steps via which teams might progress: forming, storming, norming, and executing. Although the phases appear to be linear, groups may go backward to prior stages based on the events that affect the team and the message methods that it employs (Robb, 2022). Many teams may become trapped in a rut and never attain their full potential.
Fig: Tuckman Model Stages
Source (Robb, 2022)
In this stage it is to notice since communication is a critical component of successfully progressing to the next phase at each stage. When everyone is getting to know one another and attempting to create a good first impression, the time of the original is an excellent opportunity to develop a set of estimations based, on rules, or possibly a role of leadership (Unruh et al., 2020). A squad exercise is also a good way to build trust and get to know your teammates' strengths and shortcomings. This is an orientation stage in which early limits and standards are established on both a personal and professional level.
The storming stage is distinguished by the most intense group conflict. As less is learned about everyone's intentions, it is common for early assumptions and limitations to simply be challenged. This refers to the "brainstorming" stage of design, in which each team member contributes ideas that may eventually become the site's focal point. It is also the stage during which team members learn about one other's strengths and weaknesses, as well as strive to set their roles and duties (Unruh et al., 2020). At this stage, learning to accept the positive possibilities of conflict and compromise is crucial for moving on to the next standard.
In this norming stage, if the problems have been handled and teammates have demonstrated flexibility, things are moving well during the norming stage, but each team member realizes their function and is thus focused on their piece of the task. Workers operate alone at this stage, and they should check in with teammates regularly to ensure that the workflow is productive and lucrative (Unruh et al., 2020). Team cohesiveness guarantees that everyone is dedicated to the project and one another, and Gantt Charts may be quite useful in keeping everyone on track at this point. Difficulties may develop during this stage if peers do not fully understand their role, collaborative aims, or the overall goal; the assembly or storming step may need to be reassessed.
Performing or Adjourning
In this last stage of several first teams reach the presenting stage because they have worked effectively together and, on several projects, created rapport, and established mechanisms that allow endeavors to function as smoothly as feasible (Jones, 2019). It takes minimal time to develop, storm, and conform to norms; motivated individuals can approach the topic at hand quickly and collaboratively. Moreover, adjourning may be an emotional experience for these teams. illustrates the progression of each team member through each level.
Fig: Teammate trajectory over each step of a Tuckman team formation model.
Source (Jones, 2019)
Development of cooperation within an effective team.
To opine the relation of this model approach it truly promotes collaboration, leaders must establish an environment in which individuals are not afraid to share their opinions. Leaders must create an environment that fosters and encourages the flow of ideas.
Some other factors for the development of cooperation within an effective team.
- Improve your listening skills. Make certain that if a co-worker approaches you, you actively listen to what they have to say.
- Talk to your co-worker directly.
- Make greater use of nonverbal communication.
- Create a positive team spirit (Jones, 2019).
Concepts and philosophies of organizational behavior inform and influence behavior.
Concepts of organizational behavior inform behavior.
A few research ideas about the nature of people and organizations underpin organizational culture. Individual differences, a whole individual, actions or an individual is caused, a person has integrity, institutions are inherently social, mutuality of involvement among many members of an organization; and holistic organizational performance are some fundamental assumptions in business management.
To effectively promote cooperation, managers must create an environment in which individuals are not hesitant to communicate their thoughts. Leaders must foster an environment that encourages and facilitates the exchange of ideas.
When a person is hired by a company, he or she is chosen not only based on their talents but also their likes and preferences, as well as their pride and assumptions.
Caused behavior suggests that anytime someone behaves badly, there is always a cause for it.
Human dignity dictates that each individual be treated differently. It demonstrates dignity because employees at all income levels want to be handled with decency and respect.
Philosophies of organizational behavior inform and influence behavior.
Business management principles have been developed within the context of the organization and a specific business circumstance to better understand the behavior of firms and their employees to shape or influence the culture, attitudes, and behaviors of an organization and the world in general.
Organizational Behaviour provides a humanistic perspective to persons who work in businesses (Ajzen, 2020). It is fascinated by human emotions and ideas. The premise of Organizational Behaviour is that humans have an intrinsic need to be ego, creative, and creative.
The main philosophies that underlie the organizational behavior that performs for influences behaviors are as follows:-
People make up the internal organizational structure. This system is made up of organizations and individuals that might be large or small, official or informal. Organizations are always evolving.
An organization's structure establishes the formal relationship and utilization of personnel. Managers and employees, as well as accounts assembly lines, are hired to carry out various tasks.
Technology both offers resources for employees and influences the activities that they do. They are still unable to complete activities with their bare hands.
An organizational component is part of a bigger program that includes several other parts such as administration, family, and other groups. Several environmental changes impose obligations on corporations (Ajzen, 2020).
Performance and productivity of the situation.
Employee productivity is inextricably linked to an organization's performance. As a result, a substantial quantity of study has been undertaken in an attempt to identify techniques to boost staff productivity. While employee recruiting and retention receive a lot of attention, employee productivity must also be prioritized for the organization's sake (Cao and Yu, 2019). Though employee talent is vital to any company, it is difficult to consistently get someone to function at an optimal level throughout the day and produce the outcomes you feel they are capable of formulating to hance performance and productivity.
Employee motivation must be at the top of every employer's priority list. According to recent research undertaken by professors at the "University of Warwick," happy employees are 13% less productive at work, whereas unhappy employees are 10% less productive. Consult these experts' tips on how to inspire employees if you're looking for ways to encourage your personnel. Further, the comment can also be influenced by the nature of teamwork: Everyone Achieves More Together Again what a team symbolizes is more (Cao and Yu, 2019). A company must ensure that each member of the team connects. Only then can the desired outcomes be realized. According to a study, poorly managed work teams are 50 percent less productive and 44 percent less expensive than well-managed work teams.
Hence to conclude, Tesco culture is critical because it determines whether or not a location is a pleasurable or productive place to live and work. When conveying and selling the corporate ethos to people, worker knowledge and acceptance can influence their work attitudes and actions.
Ajzen, I., 2020. The theory of planned behavior: Frequently asked questions. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 2(4), pp.314-324.
Bangun, R., Ratnasari, S.L. and Hakim, L., 2019. The influence of leadership, organization behavior, compensation, and work discipline on employee performance in non-production departments PT. Team Metal Indonesia. Journal of Research in Psychology, 1(4), pp.13-17.
Cao, X. and Yu, L., 2019. Exploring the influence of excessive social media use at work: A three-dimension usage perspective. International Journal of Information Management, 46, pp.83-92.
Crawford, R. and Jenkins, L.E., 2018. Making pedagogy tangible: Developing skills and knowledge using a team teaching and blended learning approach. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 43(1), pp.127-142.
Dasaev, D.R., 2018. Features Of Theories Of Personnel Motivation, And The Cross-Cultural View On Their Effectiveness. ??? Science, (1), Pp.47-51.
Hopper, E., 2020. Maslow's hierarchy of needs explained. ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 24.
Jones, D., 2019. The Tuckman’s Model Implementation, Effect, and Analysis & the New Development of Jones LSI Model on a Small Group. Journal of Management, 6(4).
Keshtkar Rajabi, M. and Etebarian, A.A., 2018. The study and philosophical critique of Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory from a symbolic-interpretative viewpoint. Management Studies in Development and Evolution, 27(89), pp.119-144.
Kotni, V.D.P. and Karumuri, V., 2018. Application of Herzberg two-factor theory model for motivating retail salesforce. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(1), pp.24-42.
Nderitu, J.W., Waiganjo, E. and Orwa, G.O., 2021. Effect of Market Culture and Hierarchy Culture on the Implementation of Corporate Strategy in Private Chartered Universities in Kenya. Journal of Business and Economic Development, 6(3), p.133.
Paais, M. and Pattiruhu, J.R., 2020. Effect of motivation, leadership, and organizational culture on satisfaction and employee performance. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(8), pp.577-588.
Robb, M.A., 2022. Stages of Group Development and Group Preparation. Group Art Therapy, pp.107-115.
Sahu, A.K., Padhy, R.K. and Dhir, A., 2020. Envisioning the future of behavioral decision-making: A systematic literature review of behavioral reasoning theory. Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), 28(4), pp.145-159.
Stewart, R.E., Mandell, D.S. and Beidas, R.S., 2021. Lessons from Maslow: Prioritizing funding to improve the quality of community mental health and substance use services. Psychiatric Services, 72(10), pp.1219-1221.
Sultan, A., 2020. Effective leadership and its impact on organisational performance: retail industry (Tesco) (Doctoral dissertation, University of the West of Scotland).
Szyd?o, J. and Grze?-Buk?aho, J., 2020. Relations between national and organisational culture—Case study. Sustainability, 12(4), p.1522.
Unruh, P., Nuschke, M., Strauß, P. and Welck, F., 2020. Overview on grid-forming inverter control methods. Energies, 13(10), p.2589.
Upadhyay, A., Kumar, A. and Akter, S., 2021. An analysis of UK retailers’ initiatives towards circular economy transition and policy-driven directions. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, pp.1-9.
Zhang, W., Sun, S.L., Jiang, Y. and Zhang, W., 2019. Openness to experience and team creativity: Effects of knowledge sharing and transformational leadership. Creativity research journal, 31(1), pp.62-73.
Zwikael, O., Chih, Y.Y. and Meredith, J.R., 2018. Project benefit management: Setting effective target benefits. International Journal of Project Management, 36(4), pp.650-658.