Marks & Spencer Organizational Behavior Analysis Assignment Sample

A critical evaluation of how M&S can leverage following factors to improve its work culture and environment.

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Introduction of Organizational Behaviour, Motivation Theories and Cultural Dimensions Assignment


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1. Introduction

The term Organizational Behaviour refers to the study that involves different people working differently and interacting with each other in groups (Kartono, Indrianti and Hartono, 2020). For this analysis, Marks & Spencer has been chosen and it is a company which is very popular and well-known in the United Kingdom and it is the largest British retail chain for clothing as well as food.

2. Analysis of the cultural, political and power influence on the behaviour of others in an organizational context

2.1 Analysis of how culture, politics, power influence individuals and team behaviour and the performance


The culture of Marks & Spencer has four essential aspects in its culture that are power culture, role culture task culture, person culture (Fernandes, 2018). In terms of M&S’s power culture, there are some superiors who have power, task culture includes different individuals working, personal culture involves the importance of Human resources, and role culture involves different roles and responsibilities.


M&S has a political environment just like every other organization and healthy politics as well as unhealthy politics can be recognised in M&S which is responsible for influencing the behaviour of the employees (Ulrich-Schad and Duncan, 2018). However, unhealthy politics can affect the work environment and it can even discourage employees.


In M&S, there are some superiors and higher subordinates who have superior power and a whole hierarchical structure can be identified in the business organization (Islam, Tseng and Karia, 2019). In the hierarchical structure of M&S, Steve Rowe is the CEO of M&S

2.2 Critically analysis of how the culture, politics and power of an organization can influence the individual and team behaviour and performance 166


There are four aspects in M&S; Power Culture that involves people like Steve Rowe, CEO of M&S having ultimate power and other people have different power as per their position. The Task Culture of M&S encourages the workforce to carry out business operations effectively (Fitria, 2021). Person Culture put emphasis on providing a safe and healthy work environment to the workforce. Role culture in M&S is comprised of different roles and accountabilities which can motivate the workforce.


M&S has a healthy political environment as well as a negative political environment which aids in the increment of the organization's productivity (Böhm, Jones and Land, 2021). On the downside, unhealthy politics can completely ruin the work environment and it can even demoralise the workforce which can even result in “absenteeism” of the workforce.


The M&S proper delegate all the roles or responsibilities and power to the workforce to enable M&S to attain maximum productivity in its business operations. The healthy use of roles, responsibility or power in the organization can encourage and provide opportunities to employees to grow and develop (Horváth and Szabó, 2019). On the downside, the unhealthy utilization of power can result in employee turnover.

3. Evaluation of how to motivate individuals and teams to achieve a goal

3.1 Evaluation of how the content and process theories of motivation and motivation techniques enable effective achievement of goals in an organizational context

Content Theory

McClelland’s Theory of Needs: This theory is made up of 3 components of a motivator that involves the need for achievement, the need for affiliation and the need for power. The need for achievement is the person’s drive to accomplish set goals according to his/her set standards (Rybnicek, Bergner and Gutschelhofer, 2019). The need for affiliation is the basic need of connecting and marinating a healthy relationship with a friend or other people. The need for power is the burning desire of different individuals to influence other people effectively and feel superior in the process.

Process Theory

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is comprised of Valence, Expectancy and Instrumentality. Valence express and show the worth of the different people to the potential rewards that are connected to the outcome (Chopra, 2019). Expectancy shows the different beliefs of the different people in terms of putting extra effort into accomplishing the set goals and objectives of the business organization. The Instrumentality is very relevant to increase the employees’ performance via the introduction of motivating rewards.

3.2 Critical evaluation of how to influence the behaviour of others through the effective application of behavioural motivational theories, concepts and models

McClelland’s Theory of Needs

The McClelland Theory of Needs was discovered and carried forward by David McClelland in 1960 and this theory is a very vital component for influencing the behaviour of different individuals while also motivating them. This theory is comprised of three major components that are needed for achievement, need for power, need for affiliation. The need for achievement can involve extrinsic as well as intrinsic force that results in the formation of a burning desire to accomplish goals and objectives no matter how challenging the path is (Ta'rifin, 2018). The need for affiliation is acceptance, healthy relationships with other people; these individuals are more willing to work collaboratively. M&S can increase work productivity. At last, the need for power involves the people who are hungry for power, position and self-esteem, these people are very self-controlled and M&S can make good and effective use of these people.

 McClelland’s Theory of needs

(Source: Ta'rifin, 2018)

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Vroom's Expectancy Theory involves three major elements which are Expectancy, Valence, and Instrumentality. Expectancy is heavily impacted by the factors such as required skills from employees, the performance of the job etc. In Valence, the final result is already expected and individuals do not get satisfaction after accomplishing the goals and objectives (Rehman, Sehar and Afzal, 2019). The instrumentality explains how employees or the workforce acts like a “cog in the machine” and they are the most important and vital assets for the business organization, the right motivation can influence the employee behaviour and their performance.

 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

(Source: Rehman, Sehar and Afzal, 2019)

4. Hofstede Dimension Culture theory

Hofstede model is also known by other names i.e. “Geert Hofstede” which explains how the factors such as regional and national can make a significant impact on the organizational culture and it can even influence employee behaviour (Huang and Crotts, 2019).

Power Distance

This index shows the differentiation in the “work culture” on the basis of the power given to the workforce (Jain and Jain, 2018). Marks & Spencer has a power culture that involves some appointed leaders or the manager of the team responsible for the performance and progress of the given project.

Masculinity vs. Feminity

This index shows the impact of differences in the value regarding males and females on the organizational culture. A business organization which is having more males than female has to adopt different policies for the work culture (Zainuddin et al., 2018). On the other hand, organizations with more females than males have to use different policies. The responsibility is delegated according to the gender of the employees depending on the masculinity rate and feminity rate.

Individualism vs. collectivism

The organization that is having a huge emphasis on teamwork like M&S are going to have a collectivism culture in the workplace and in this type of culture, the collaborative work environment is evident (Yang, 2019).

Uncertainty Avoidance Index

The uncertainty avoidance index involves uncertain and ambiguous circumstances for the business organization (Tran, 2020). This index shows the level of tolerance of the workforce in uncertain circumstances as well as uncomfortable circumstances.

Long Term Orientation

The long term orientation shows whether the organization is putting heavy emphasis on long term goals or short term goals (Chun et al., 2021).

 Hofstede Dimension Cultural Theory

(Source: Huang and Crotts, 2019)

5. Critically evaluation of the relationship between culture, politics, power and motivation that enable teams and organizations to succeed with justified recommendations

Marks & Spencer has to concentrate on constantly improving and enhancing the culture of the organization by considering the politics, power of the work environment that can allow the employee workforce to perform effectively and efficiently (Fernandes, 2018). The organizational culture has a huge role in influencing employee behaviour and it can even increase the motivation level of the employees. M&S can have a healthy work environment and culture by the effective utilization of the three aspects of the organizational culture that is power, politics, motivation. The theories of motivation such as McClelland's Theory of needs, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory can hugely aid Marks & Spencer to understand the psychology of the different individuals and furthermore, it can even accomplish the goals and objectives of M&S.

6. Conclusion

This report has come to an end and it has attempted to discuss the various aspect of organizational behaviour and how the effective implication of the motivational theories and the theory of culture, politics, power and even the Hofstede cultural dimension can help the business organization and M&S to improve the work culture as well as the work environment by a large margin.


Böhm, S., Jones, C. and Land, C., 2021. Theory and politics in organization. Ephemera: Theory and Politics in Organization, 21(4).

Chopra, K., 2019. Indian shopper motivation to use artificial intelligence: Generating Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation using grounded theory approach. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management.

Chun, D., Zhang, Z., Cohen, E., Florea, L. and Genc, O.F., 2021. Long-term orientation and the passage of time: Is it time to revisit Hofstede’s cultural dimensions?. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 21(2), pp.353-371.

Fernandes, A.A.R., 2018. The effect of organization culture and technology on motivation, knowledge asset and knowledge management. International journal of Law and Management.

Fitria, G.N., 2021. Organization Culture Moderates the Effect of Management Accounting System, Sustainable Leadership and Environmental Strategy on Business Performance. International Journal of Contemporary Accounting, 3(1), pp.45-60.

Horváth, D. and Szabó, R.Z., 2019. Driving forces and barriers of Industry 4.0: Do multinational and small and medium-sized companies have equal opportunities?. Technological forecasting and social change, 146, pp.119-132.

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Islam, M.S., Tseng, M.L. and Karia, N., 2019. Assessment of corporate culture in sustainability performance using a hierarchical framework and interdependence relations. Journal of cleaner production, 217, pp.676-690.

Jain, S.S. and Jain, S.P., 2018. Power distance belief and preference for transparency. Journal of Business Research, 89, pp.135-142.

Kartono, R., Indrianti, Y. and Hartono, H., 2020. Managerial Efforts in Building Organization Behaviour (Study of Entrepreneurs in Indonesia). Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 28.

Rehman, S., Sehar, S. and Afzal, M., 2019. Performance Appraisal; Application of Victor Vroom Expectancy Theory. Saudi Journal of Nursing and Health Care, 2(12), pp.431-434.

Rybnicek, R., Bergner, S. and Gutschelhofer, A., 2019. How individual needs influence motivation effects: a neuroscientific study on McClelland’s need theory. Review of Managerial Science, 13(2), pp.443-482.

Ta'rifin, A., 2018. Motivation and Management: Flexibility of the implementation of motivation theories in pesantren context. HIKMATUNA, 4(1), pp.145-168.

Tran, Q.T., 2020. Uncertainty avoidance culture, cash holdings and financial crisis. Business Review.

Ulrich-Schad, J.D. and Duncan, C.M., 2018. People and places left behind: Work, culture and politics in the rural United States. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 45(1), pp.59-79.

Yang, H., 2019. On Hofstede’s two cultural dimensions: Individualism-collectivism and power distance. In 2019 9th International Conference on Education and Social Science (ICESS 2019)’da sunulan sözlü bildiri.

Zainuddin, M., Yasin, I.M., Arif, I. and Abdul Hamid, A.B., 2018, December. Alternative Cross-Cultural Theories: Why Still Hofstede?. In Proceedings of International Conference on Economics, Management and Social Study (pp. 4-6).

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