Orientation for Success in Higher Education Essay Sample

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Introduction of Orientation for Success in Higher Education Essay

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This report is based on the model of reflection. The Gibbs model has been used to explain reflective learning. Basic information on the Gibbs model is provided in the report and explains the Gibbs reflective cycle and its six steps have been described. The Gibbs reflective cycle consists of 6 steps, in which the incident is described, emotions are recognized, the situation is examined and individual learning is also examined and conclusions are drawn and then a final action plan is prepared in that cycle. After that, the nature of feedback and feed-forward has been explained in the report. What is the use of feedback and feed-forward in the Gibbs model of reflection? Information about how both are used in the Gibbs model has been provided in the report. Information on how feed-forward and feedback are used to inform and improve situations is also given.

Importance of reflection approach in business and management discipline

Reflective learning deals with the internal method of assessing capabilities and seeking opportunities for improvement to build essential skills in business and management discipline (French et al., 2015). In the context of their very own knowledge and thinking, the learner develops and explains information, allowing for transformations in basic viewpoints.

Model of reflection

Gibbs Model of reflection: In 1988, Graham Gibbs introduced the Reflective Process as a model for comprehending occurrences. It investigates the underlying thoughts, and its circular nature lends itself to recurrent interactions. The Gibbs reflective process is a popular concept that includes an examination of a person's thoughts and how they have shaped the situation, as well as an examination of the event. (Moallem and Webb, 2016). This framework includes a more detailed description of every phase, as well as leading questions, are asked yourself and an idea of how it would appear in a reflection (Wareing et al., 2017). The Gibbs method will provide a full, systematic assessment during every level; however, unlike other techniques, it will not support multiple in-depth inquiry.

The Gibbs reflective process has six stages:

  1. Give a detailed account of the incident.
  2. Recognize the feelings evoked by the situation.
  3. Find out the cause.
  4. Evaluate what each person gained.
  5. Finally, think about other options that might have been accessible.
  6. Make a strategy of operation.

The Gibbs reflective process is amongst the best models across employees. Instructors can also use it to become a little more aware of their routines, notice incorrect activity, and come up with innovative possible responses.(Wareing, 2017).

This method can be used to help you work through a complicated matter. This can be a one-time incident or a circumstance that continues on a regular basis, such as meetings with coworkers.(Latta et al, 2018). Though Gibbs advocated using it in repeating situations, the statements and notions can also be used in one-time situations. If completed using stand-alone encounters, the planning process may become more comprehensive and examine how consumers might utilise the discoveries in the future.(Moallem and Webb, 2016).

For each stage of the plan, a set of interesting inquiries is provided. And no need to answer that one, and then they can also assist you in determining what elements would be included in that stage. Alternate solution directions may prove to be more effective for one another and.

Nature of feedback and feedforward

Although feedback focuses on a recipient's actual performance, feed-forward looks ahead to future situations and offers recommendations on how to improve. Assessment could have a meaningful effect on student learning when feedback and feedforward are paired. Feedback is the information about a learner's performance about educational objectives or results in (Brooks et al., 2019). It should strive to boost learners' knowledge. By linking energy and engagement with a result, feedback continues to focus the learner's efforts toward achieving a goal. Feedforward facilitates the elaboration and exchange of crucial new knowledge on elements to individual and organisational thriving, as well as good sentiments, connection, and supportiveness (Latta et al, 2018).

Gibbs Model of reflection on feedback

In its description of the Gibbs Model of reflection on the feedback process, it finds out what the present situation, what happened, what people do and what is the outcome of the situation. In the feedback process, it is ascertained what kind of feelings and thoughts came from the present situation experience and how they impact the learner experience. The evaluation part of the feedback process will evaluate which policies will work and which not, based on the existing situation, make every attempt to be as objective and honest as possible. To move ahead of the reflection, concentrate on both the positive and negative aspects of the situation(Alemdag et al., 2020). In the analysis step, chances are that the current situation should be chosen and focused on the important details. And the correct meaning should be extracted from the detailed information and try to correct the current situation. In the conclusion part, what changes should be made and what improvements should be made in the action plan keeping in mind the information of the current situation (Latta et al, 2018). And finally, an action plan is prepared considering all the detailed information about the current situation.

Gibbs Model of reflection on feedforward

In the Gibbs model of reflection on feedforward, strategies are designed for the situation which is arising in future at the first step of the Gibbs model of reflection. In the second step, to think about the things related to the different situations that may come in the future and make some plans with the help of the past experiences. And in the third step, plans are evaluated to avoid the future situation (Crane et al., 2019). And in the next step analyse which plan will be right for which situation. Keep some improvement and change the plan for the situation in the conclusion step. Lastly, making an action plan for future situations.

How feedback and feedforward inform and improve future situation

Learners collect notifications on how they're performing in relation to their learning objectives, allowing them to maximise their potential, identify flaws or inaccuracies, and take the appropriate action. Tutors, colleagues, consultants, bosses, equipment, or identity can all provide valuable feedback. Whereas feedback focuses on a person's actual performance and may only describe the grade provided, feed-forward forecasts future work and offers recommendations for enhancing(Moallem et al., 2016). Examination that includes the gathering of feedback and feedforward will have a good impact on learning. Feedforward could only be effective if it is supplied quickly, that is, whenever meaningful data is accessible. Greater exams are usually set near the conclusion of the course, period, or quarter, reducing students' ability to put what they've learned into practice (French et al., 2015). Feedback should be delivered on a regular basis and contain only minor amounts of content material to be beneficial. One piece of precise criticism on an extended composition or planning phase after ten months of follow - up is improbable to boost understanding from across the entire course(Brooks et al., 2019).

Learners are typically passive consumers of criticism, feeling that it is the tutor's role to provide feedback to individuals, rather than understanding the need of interacting with peers and discussion about the knowledge in order to enhance emotional development. (French et al., 2015). Students should receive preciseness and targeted feedback and assessment as part of their learning. It is used to help students define instructional outcomes and reflect on what they've learned so far. During providing feedback, teachers serve as mentors and coaches. Participants gather feedback on how they're performing in relation to their educational objectives, allowing them to maximise their potential, identify any gaps or ambiguities, and take necessary action(Alemdag et al., 2020). Although feedback focuses on an individual's recent standing and it may basically describe the grade provided, feed-forward looks ahead to upcoming projects and deals with situations suggestions to enhance. (Brooks et al., 2019). Evaluations that include components of feedback and feedforward will have a constructive impact on schooling. Learners are encouraged to take action as a result of meaningful recommendations. Despite seeing feedback as a final product, the more straightforward technique sees it as a continual discussion and a routine(Brooks et al., 2019).


The conclusion of this report is how the model of reflection can handle the situations and bring any improvement in them so that the action plan can be prepared properly. This report explains the Gibbs model, which helps to understand how action plans can be prepared to handle situations and to understand the situation properly. With the help of feedback and feed-forward, information has been obtained regarding how to prepare action plans for upcoming situations and pressing situations. The step-a-situation of the reflective cycle of the Gibbs model can be correctly understood and the correct action plan drawn for the future as well as for the present state. The report also provides information on how an action plan can be prepared by applying the feedback and feed-forward learning process to the Gibbs model. The report also includes information on how the feedback and feed-forward learning process helps to inform and improve the situations.


Alemdag, M., Kacar, F. and Kilinc, S., 2020. Design of a class-F power amplifier with GaN device model and reflection data. IETE Journal of Research, pp.1-7.

Brooks, C., Carroll, A., Gillies, R.M. and Hattie, J., 2019. A matrix of feedback for learning. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 44(4), pp.14-32.

Crane, M.F., Searle, B.J., Kangas, M. and Nwiran, Y., 2019. How resilience is strengthened by exposure to stressors: The systematic self-reflection model of resilience strengthening. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 32(1), pp.1-17.

French, J.C., Colbert, C.Y., Pien, L.C., Dannefer, E.F. and Taylor, C.A., 2015. Targeted feedback in the milestones era: utilization of the ask-tell-ask feedback model to promote reflection and self-assessment. Journal of Surgical Education, 72(6), pp.e274-e279.

Latta, M., Kruger, T.M., Payne, L., Weaver, L. and VanSickle, J.L., 2018. Approaching critical service-learning: A model for reflection on positionality and possibility. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 22(2), pp.31-55.

Moallem, M. and Webb, A., 2016. Feedback and feed-forward for promoting problem-based learning in online learning environments. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 13(2), pp.1-41

Wareing, M., 2017. Me, my, more, must: a values-based model of reflection. Reflective Practice, 18(2), pp.268-279.

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