Problem Solving And Decision Making Assignment Sample

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Problem Solving And Decision Making

Introduction

Decision making is the act of choosing between two or more alternatives. In other words, it is making choice between the right and wrong. Decisions are the judgment that helps in choosing the right solution for the problem. Decisions are made when there is some problem. Decision making is an important skill for the business and life; people should be more focused while taking any decision in order to enhance its quality or to solve the problem effectively (Azadnia, et. al., 2015). NHS is an organizationofferinghealth and social care services to the citizens of the UK.Due to the dynamic environment or changing demand of the population, NHS is facing severalproblems and thereforeneedimmediate decision should be takento solve them effectively.To solve the problems of NHS efficient decision-making skills are required in a manager (Lewin, et. al., 2015).

Approaches to Decision making

Decisions are the thought process that helps in choosingalogicaloption from the availableoptions.The decision takenby an individual may be rational or creative. These are the different approaches to make a decision some of them are discussed below (Govindan, et. al., 2015):-

RationalApproach- It is a systematic approach that includes several steps which have to follow strictly in a particularorder.This approach will be beneficial for the problems that are well-defined in nature and all the alternatives solutions for the problems are available.This approach needs analytical information i.e. facts and figures to take appropriate decisions to solve the problems.

Creative Approach–This approach will help in solving the problem in a creative manner. There are no systematic stepsinvolvedin this approach but new steps are being made to find the solution for a particular problem. Creativity means developing new ideas, concept, and opinionsin order to solve the problems of an organization. This approach is being used to find the solutions for the not defined or complex problems that cannot be solved by the rational approach.

Techniques of Decision Making

Decisionsplayanimportant role inbusinessas well as in an individual's life. An individual should pay more attention while taking any decisions to solve any problem. There are several techniques that are used bymanagersto take appropriate decisions to solvetheproblems of an organization.Some of them are given below (Mardani, et. al.,2015):-

Nominalgroup thinks - This technique will involve all the membersof an organizationto take participation in the decision making process.By using this technique all the employees of an organizationcan express or share their innovative ideas or views to solve the problem through which an organization is suffering.The problems faced by the NHS can also be solved by using this technique as the organization is alsosuffering from the increased labor cost. Through this technique, the staffs of NHS will take actively participate in the decision-making process will improve theirperformance and build a strong team thatcontributes towards the organizational goal.

Delphi Technique–This is similar to the nominal groupthink in many ways as in this also ideas and views are taken by the employees of an organization.But the difference is the owner of the given idea is not disclosed to anyone in order to eliminate biases and obstacles associated with the interacting groups. This will also help in reducing the conflicts among the employees of an organization.NHSmay use this technique but it is not that helpfulto the organizationasthe problem that is faced by the organization are more complex and are moreover of the external in nature. This technique will help to solve moreover the internal problem then the external one.

Brainstorming–This technique is mostly used by the organization as this will help in evaluating numerous solutions for a problem by a discussion and group problem-solving. This is the most creative technique that will help in identifying the solutions for complex problems. NHS can use this technique in order to find creative ideas to solve the problems. Through this technique, the most creative ideas that aregiven by the employees of an organizationare noted down and then evaluatethem to choose a most effective solution for a problem.This is also similar to the nominal group think but in brainstormingthesolutions are frequently given by the employees and in the nominal group think they evaluate and take time to provide their ideas.

Forcefield analysis–This technique is being used that help an organization to increase their productivityand expand the business.This will help in analyzing the existing plan that is being used by an organizationand help in taking a decisionthat plan should be used continuously or not. According to this, NHS should analyze its existing plan to improve the qualityof the services it is providing which will help it to face the competitionfrom the private organization.Toexecute this technique an individual have to write down the positive factorsof a plan or the negative factorsofthe plan.After that analyzethe plan to be continued or any changes should be made in the plan (Janssen, et. al., 2017).

The problems faced by the NHS can be solved by using the different techniquesof decision making in several manners such as:-

  • NHS is facing the problems regarding its funds and to solve it brainstorming should be used to gather the innovative ideas from the experts and the employees of an organizationandimplement the most effective ideas among them.
  • Forcefieldanalysiswill help NHS to evaluate its existing policies and procedures which will guide the working of an organization.The quality of the services is declining constantly because the policies and procedures using by the organization are obsolete and cannot cope up with the changingdemand of the people.
  • Along with this, NHS should also monitor the performance of its employees which will help in improving the quality of the services of an organization and provides a competitive advantage in the market.

PMI ANALYSIS

PMI stands for Plus, Minus and Interesting. This analysis is the tool for brainstorming, decision-making and for thinking critically. With the help of all these perspectives, the PMI analysis encourages the examination of ideas, concepts and also the experiences. This concept was developed by Dr. Edward de Bono. The PMI strategy is helpful and beneficial in the following ways:-

  • To brainstorm the innovative ideas.
  • To take the decisions promptly by evaluating and analysing the advantages and its disadvantages.
  • To reflect upon the product and evaluate all the possible happenings after considering the facts.
  • To identify all its strengths and all the weaknesses for improving the future conditions of the organization.

The first step is to consider all the plus points that is all the positive things should be enumerated. The second step is to think of and count all the negative things or the minus points. The third step is to pool the interesting things and points, neither positive nor negative. The fourth and the last step is to make the final judgement, on the basis of the above positive, negative and the interesting points.

PMI CHART of NHS

  • Plus: Enhancing the efficient quality in providing or delivering the health care services to the people of the Country. The effective participation of all the employees in the important decision-making process, with the help of which their problems can also be resolved. The effective facilities are being provided by the company for proper diet and providing the proper nutrition to the various people and citizens of the economy. All the services are being provided by the company at the reasonable amount so that each and every person can afford and enjoy the offered health and care services to them.
  • Minus: Weak and ineffective policies, strategies and the procedures, as the operations and activities of the organization are not being guided properly. Improving the performances of employees to make them more efficient and skilled in order to compete in a great manner in the competitive market. Funding issues, because of which the effective operations cannot be carried out by the company.Delivering the least quality of services to its customers because of which the number of potential customers has been reduced and the image of Brand name and Goodwill has also been fallen up to a great extent.
  • Interesting: Interesting concepts, creative ways and rational approach can be implemented in order to seek out the effective solutions of the problems of employees. The above stated effective and innovative techniques can be used by NHS so as to develop and implement the effective and appropriate decisions for the overall organization. Interesting training programs and campaigns must be conducted in the organization so as to increase the confidence, communication and participation level of all the employees and hence enhancing the increased productivity in the company.

GRID ANALYSIS

It is the most effective and very useful technique for the process of decision making. When so many effective alternatives are available and various factors are to be considered, then this tool is the most beneficial. The first step is to identify and list out all the available options and the factors which are very important in the decision-making process. The second step is to identify the relative importance of all those factors which has been included in the decisions. All those factors are weighed and preferred according to their importance. Then, under the next step, every option is given the certain score on the basis of the importance of factors which are included under the decisions. The least preferred and scored out option can then be eliminated from the chosen options. In order to correctly give the overall weight to the decisions, each score will be multiplied with the values of that relative importance. And finally, all the weighted scores can then be added in the options, and that option must be selected which is the highest one.

Factors to be considered for GRID analysis:-

  • Enhance Quality
  • Effective Participation
  • Facility provided by NHS
  • Cost of Services
  • Strengths of Policies
  • Funds Available
  • Background Experience
  • Personal Values
  • Personal Expectations
  • Personal Interest

Factors

Background Experience

Personal Values

Personal Expectations

Personal Interest

Total

Weights

4

3

2

1

10

Enhance Quality

4

3

1

9

Effective Participation

3

3

2

0

8

Facility provided by NHS

3

1

1

1

6

Cost of Services

3

0

1

0

4

Strengths of Policies

4

2

2

1

9

Therefore, both the PMI analysis and the GRID analysis are very essential and beneficial in the process of decision making. They helps in choosing the most appropriate option among various alternatives and ensures in taking the most appropriate decisions for achieving the overall goals of the organization.

Develop a plan for implementing the solution

For implementing the solutions appropriately, it is very necessary for the company to formulate the plan so that they are able to apply the solutions effectively and efficiently.

Problem

Solution

Objective

Time duration (months)

Funding Issue: This is the major issue for the NHS as the government of the UK is not taking care of the company and not allot enough funds to the firm so that they operates their functions effectively and efficiently. Every organisation needs funds for their operations so it is the major issue for the company and it is very essential to solve the problem so that company can perform their functions.

The solution for the finance problem is that company can raise the funds from other sources and also raise funds from the private organisation. Finance problem is the major problem as NHS is not able to meeting the day to day demands (Habibi, et. al., 2014). So, company also complain for not allotting the funds and may also raise funds from other sources like take loans, borrow funds and from other sources. Another solution is that company may collaborate with private organisations or with other company so that they are able to solve the issue of the funds.

The main objective to solve the financial problem is that NHS is able to perform their day to day operations and also meeting the daily demand. Funds are very necessary in every organisation as all the operations and functions are done with the help of funds. So, the purpose of resolving this problem is that NHS is able to meet the daily requirements and also survive for longer period in the marketplace.

3 months

High competition: NHS is facing the high competition as all the customers and patients are shifting to other organisation which is A&E. so, the problem which NHS faced is high competition. When company face high competition then patients and customers are moving towards another company and it also impacts the goodwill and brand image of the company. It is necessary for the NHS to beat the competition by applying different kinds of strategy.

The solution for beating the high completion and achieves the competitive advantage over the rivals is that they should provide good quality of services, procedure and policies and also attend their patients properly so that they are satisfied with their services. The solution for beating the high competition is that NHS has to take care of the patients and also provides good quality of services. Another solution for this issue is that NHS has to monitor the performance of their staff members regularly so that the functions are performed well and effectively.

The main objective for solving the problem is that NHS is able to achieve the competitive advantage. It is very necessary for the company to beat the competition so that it will increase the goodwill and brand image of the company (Donohoe, et. al., 2012).

4 months

Poor quality of services: The NHS is facing the problem is that they are providing the poor quality of services to their customers which leads to declining customer base and also impacts the goodwill and brand image of the company.

The solution for this problem is that company has to monitor the performance of the employees and also develop the new strategy which increases the quality of services. NHS has to hire qualified and talented employees which are able to provide good quality of services.

The main objective and purpose of the solving this problem is that it increases the goodwill and brand image of the company and also helps in providing good quality of services to their patients.

2 months

Communicate the plan to stakeholders

It is very necessary for NHS to communicate the plan to their stakeholders so that they are able to implement the plan effectively and effectively and also allot the finance accordingly. For communicating the plan to stakeholders, NHS has to organize the meeting with stakeholders so that they easily understand the plan (Rawlinson, 2017). Company also organizes the conference with stakeholders and NHS also provides annual report. In meeting, company will tell the importance of the plan so that they agree with the decision and helps in implementing the plan effectively.

Name of Stakeholder

Information to be Shared

The Frequency of Meeting

Location of Meeting

Purpose of Meeting

Mode of Communication

WHO

WHAT

WHEN

WHERE

WHY

HOW

· Name of all the stakeholders of the company

· All the plans and policies of the company must be shared to the stakeholders so that they can arrange the amount of funds for implementing all the defined policies and strategies.

The meeting must be held thrice or mandatory twice in a month so that the effective communication must be retained in the overall organization.

The person by whom the meeting has been organized must decide the location for carrying out the meeting or else the on the basis of majority also the location can be identified and selected.

It is very essential to conduct the meetings on the regular time intervals so that all the major issues can be discussed and resolved and also the regular occurring of the problems can also be minimised.

It is better to share and communicate all the necessary information through the face to face procedure with the help of which the instant problems and the questions can be asked by the respective employees of the organization.

Map the Stakeholders

Identification of stakeholders can be very useful for the organisation identifying conflicts and gaps between different stakeholders. This would help in planning the reconciliation strategy. In addition to this, it ensures ongoing communication, monitoring, and changing engagement and attitude of the stakeholders. Stakeholder mapping comprises all the primary and secondary stakeholders of the company that can be shown around the name of the organization and hence creating the effective diagram.

Problem Solving And Decision Making

Problem Solving And Decision Making

Problem Solving And Decision Making

Appropriate monitoring and review techniques to ensure successful implementation of the solution

Nominal group think: In this technique, every individual can share their innovative ideas for the particular problem. This technique helps in solving the problem related quality of the services of NHS as employees are giving innovative ideas for improving the quality of services.

Delphi techniques: in this technique, the owner of given idea is not disclosed which results in no biasness and obstacles in the group. This technique helps in solving the problem of high competition. This helps in implementing the solution successfully (Gallagher, 2013).

Brainstorming: This technique provides several solutions to particular problem so it helps in solving the problem related to the funds and for beating the high competition.

Force field analysis: This technique used for maximizing the productivity and for expanding the business. So for implementing the solution successfully, force field analysis techniques help in solving the problem of poor quality of services and also help in beating the competition with private organisations.

Conclusion

From the above report, it is concluded that different kinds of techniques helps in analysing the solution of the different kinds of the problems. This report discussed about the several techniques such as nominal group think, Delphi technique, brainstorming and force field analysis for solving the different kinds of problems which are faced by the NHS. Report also explained the plan which is formulated for implementing the solution and it also included the monitoring and review of the techniques for ensuring that is successfully implementation of the solutions.

References

  • Azadnia, A.H., Saman, M.Z.M. and Wong, K.Y., 2015. Sustainable supplier selection and order lot-sizing: an integrated multi-objective decision-making process.  International Journal of Production Research,  53(2), pp.383-408.
  • Donohoe, H., Stellefson, M. and Tennant, B., 2012. Advantages and limitations of the e-Delphi technique: Implications for health education researchers.  American Journal of Health Education,  43(1), pp.38-46.
  • Gallagher, S., 2013.  Brainstorming: Views and interviews on the mind. Andrews UK Limited.
  • Govindan, K., Rajendran, S., Sarkis, J. and Murugesan, P., 2015. Multi criteria decision making approaches for green supplier evaluation and selection: a literature review.  Journal of Cleaner Production,  98, pp.66-83.
  • Habibi, A., Sarafrazi, A. and Izadyar, S., 2014. Delphi technique theoretical framework in qualitative research.  The International Journal of Engineering and Science,  3(4), pp.8-13.
  • Janssen, M., van der Voort, H. and Wahyudi, A., 2017. Factors influencing big data decision-making quality.  Journal of Business Research,  70, pp.338-345.
  • Lewin, S., Glenton, C., Munthe-Kaas, H., Carlsen, B., Colvin, C.J., Gülmezoglu, M., Noyes, J., Booth, A., Garside, R. and Rashidian, A., 2015. Using qualitative evidence in decision making for health and social interventions: an approach to assess confidence in findings from qualitative evidence syntheses (GRADE-CERQual).  PLoS Medicine,  12(10), p.e1001895.
  • Mardani, A., Jusoh, A., MD Nor, K., Khalifah, Z., Zakwan, N. and Valipour, A., 2015. Multiple criteria decision-making techniques and their applications–a review of the literature from 2000 to 2014.  Economic Research-EkonomskaIstraživanja,  28(1), pp.516-571.
  • Rawlinson, J.G., 2017.  Creative thinking and brainstorming. Routledge
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