Research Methods For Healthcare Professionals Assignment Sample

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Research Methods For Healthcare Professionals Assignment

Task 1: Research Proposal

Context of the Research

The research will be conducted on the effects of COVID-19 and its policies in the United Kingdom on the healthcare of the citizens. As stated by Calnan, 2020 the research will be contented with the impacts of the pandemic on the health and services adopted by the government of the United Kingdom. The regulations adopted and their beneficial aspects at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic will be the main content of the research that is to be conducted. The research context also includes the social health impact of the pandemic and the regulations to be framed. Flynn et al. 2020 have stated that the ethical aspects of the research will also be important content to safeguard the data or information gathered. The consideration of research to be followed will be considered an important step towards the prevention of data breaching.

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Aim

The main aim of the research will be to discuss and highlight the impact of the pandemic of COVID-19 on the policies as well as regulations of healthcare in the United Kingdom. It will also discuss the effectiveness of healthcare regulations and policies on the social health of the United Kingdom.

Research Deliverables

The research conducted will deliver information related to the COVID-19 impact and its effects on the regulations and policies implemented by the UK government. As stated by Calnan, 2020 the deliverables of the research conducted will reveal the policies adopted and the benefits on social health. The research will also deliver information from the conducted surveys on the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact from the governmental websites (Gov.uk, 2022). The data collected will also reveal the social impacts of COVID-19 on the population of the United Kingdom.

Methods

The method that will be applied in the research for collecting the data is secondary qualitative data. The research will be conducted by selecting seven articles on the chosen topic which is “Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on the Healthcare Policies and Regulations of the UK". As stated by Cairney, 2021, a, the articles chosen will be used to discuss the topic elaborately and reveal the findings. The articles will be studied thoroughly and analysed for obtaining valid data for the research. The data analysis will be performed to increase the relevance of the data that are to be gathered. Cairney, 2021, b, has stated that the methods of data collection will be qualitative and the findings will be analysed thoroughly. Therefore, the process of collecting data will be done by comprehensively selecting the articles.

Expected Findings

The findings that are expected from the research conducted are the COVID-19 health issues and their impact. The policies or regulations that has been implemented and guided by the UK government are discussed. The results of social impact are based on the information obtained from the health regulations and surveys (Flynn et al. 2020). The data findings will also include the social measures and preventions taken by the people of the United Kingdom. The governmental surveys will disclose the mortality rate during the COVID-19 pandemic (Gov.uk, 2022). The findings will also include the number of active cases recorded annually and the prevention measures to be taken to stop the spreading of COVID-19. The rate of the population being affected on the basis of age will also include the findings of the research.

Task 2: Research Critique

A research critique is being performed to reveal the provisions that have been contributed by the research in relation to the social and health of the population. The philosophies of the research are provided to reveal the nature and knowledge of the research conducted. Research ethics have been followed to prevent the breaching of data and follow the data privacy policy. The findings of the research will be summarized in the critique of the research. The analysis of the data collected will be revealed from the selected article on COVID-19 and its impact.

Research focus and background

Research studies obtain various vital information and findings about the behaviour of a person, the risk factors that a person with a disorder may bear, and the current trends in the progress of a disease or disorder (Bernard et al., 2020). The outbreak of Covid-19 globally seriously challenged the system of the healthcare system and the social care system. Specifically, in the UK, the system of public health faced a serious crisis in the early stages of the pandemic. There were gaps in the horizon of knowledge and there was a serious space in the capability of the system. Thereafter, the contribution of research to health and social provision has been thus, depicted to be a current feature where more efficient and effective response nationwide to Covid-19 and also the flexibility of interventions and alertness to encompass resources beyond the conventional remission of public health. Some of them are extracted from the sections of security and intelligence (Bernard et al., 2020). The issues rose by the natives, and the army personnel about health urgencies establish precautions and cautions when working in settings with hazy boundaries. The contribution of the research also incorporates questions regarding the metrics and the social metrics where the answers provided should be actionable and executive (Lamb et al., 2021).

Research Aim and philosophies

After emphasizing the factors, constructing diagnoses along with the concerns while researching for interventions on a population with primary care resources depict signs of philosophies in healthcare and social care provisions. Incorporation of the three factors biological, social, and behavioural perspectives are getting insufficient when reviewing a health crisis (Lamb et al., 2021). The philosophies of this research prepare a bridge to cover the gaps among the change in behaviour of the health, if there is any social change in the case of social care provision, and also about biological immunity (Drake et al., 2021). These gaps were bridged by taking into account two general principles:

  • precision
  • variation

These principles did make an impact on the healthcare provisions as well as on the nation's health through biological determinants, sociological determinants, and finally behavioural determinants. Therefore, there is an integration of all the above determinants to provide a foundation and accommodate the substructures from the already proposed theories, models, or any other concepts (Drake et al., 2021). Lamb et al., 2021 has opined that the emphasis of philosophies of the research has primarily focused on the holistic integration of the natural and dynamic perspectives to posit that when faced with a crisis such as Covid-19, a novel wave of disease, the nation thus needs a holistic approach when making provisions for healthcare policies.

Methodological approaches to Research

The different approaches taken by the researchers to delineate the impact of Covid-19 on healthcare regulations and policies are the perspectives of the interconnectedness of the factors like demography, and factors like society and the occupational trend (Hall et al., 2021). Moreover, to depict a more detailed approach, there were other important profile determinants like:

  • Clinical
  • Domestic Health
  • Global Health
  • Infrastructure
  • Demography
  • Economy
  • Political
  • Biological
  • Behavioural

These determinant profiles give a detailed analysis of the approaches taken under this research to study and analyze these profiles on a national level and thus, these analyses are then detailed to explore how the people would react, what kind of consequences would be followed after taking the particular measures, the current risk factors, and finally, the effects and consequences of these on the enforcement measures on the healthcare policies and regulations (Hall et al., 2021). Moreover, the viable effect on global safety and its collaterals. This would in turn implicate the Covid-19 policies and regulations formulated for the health and social care provisions. Additional methodological precision mainly standardized interviews would thus, help in a better comprehension of risk and the mitigation needed to be addressed in the policies (Varsavsky et al., 2021).

Ethical Aspects of the Research

In the UK, the pandemic wave has gravely impacted the health security predicament. The risk mitigation at the time of the pandemic without a properly structured policy to support an efficient response to the crisis upheaval has brought to light the necessity of proper and structured healthcare regulations to be implemented in case of pandemic risks (Fritz et al., 2020). The synergy between specific disciplines and other areas is important when dealing with an outbreak response in the field of public health, however, the emphasis is on the employing of narrowed-down regulations and policies in a threatening situation on more orthodox models instead of some eminent structured and chained responses. Moreover, the ethical aspects of the research cover factors like confidentiality and the role of the experimenter or the researcher who is researching at a community level, engaging with the participants when collecting data (Fritz et al., 2020). Thereafter, they learn personal details about the participants which might be spilled out or the data-related personal details might be spilled out. Henceforth, these information leakages were thus taken care of, while researching a national level with the healthcare and social care communities.

Research Data Collection

The type of research conducted was the Grounded Theory method and Historical Model method to frame the new research questions and hypothesis. These types of qualitative methods have been employed to extract the sources of the data and the sections of the population that are to be worked on (Sheridan et al., 2021). The sources of the data for this research have been collected and derived from sections of the country like healthcare, political system, and economic systems. The data was collected from the clinical population, political organizations, and economic organizations like the “NHS, Bank of England”, and other census data. The data was collected through secondary qualitative data where data was collected based on already existing data but the research question was differing from the original and already worked-out research question (Billings et al., 2021). In the face of the pandemic, the responses to the outbreak crisis were new and potential emergency mitigation. Therefore, the sources of data have been collected from these sections of the population and thus, the data were based on the existing data but in a new facet to delineate the new outcomes and impact on the regulations and policies for the healthcare system post-Covid-19 pandemic (Aughterson et al., 2021).

Data Analysis Approaches and samples

The analysis of the data collected will be performed to confirm the validity and relevance of the data and the research. As stated by Bowsher et al. 2020 the analysis of the data has been conducted by analyzing the measures taken to improve the health infrastructure domestically and economic impacts. The clinical measures taken by the healthcare systems of the UK have been analyzed in view of the benefits of social health. The social impact has been analysed to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the policies that have been adopted by the government of the UK. Wyatt et al. 2021 have stated that the analysis of the data has been performed based on the public reaction towards the regulations of the UK on COVID-19. The rate of the population who are willing to abide by the policies or regulations has been analysed to show the success rate of the government measures.

The government policies and their impact on the economy of the United Kingdom have been analysed to show the impacts of COVID-19 on the economy. As stated by Moynihan et al. 2021 the data collected from the articles has been analysed thoroughly to reveal the risk factors of the adopted measures. The analysis of the data has been therefore performed on the data collected and saved in the archive in the context of COVID-19 impact on the healthcare provisions of the government of the UK.

Findings

The data collected has shown the impacts and the adversity of the pandemic of COVID-19 on the population of the United Kingdom. The policies and regulations that have been enacted by the government of the United Kingdom are implemented for the proper healthcare services to the citizens (Cairney, 2021, a). The policies and how it has become beneficial to social health and the comprehensive measures to mitigate the adversities of the pandemic. The mortality rate due to the COVID-19 pandemic has been found to be increasing daily in the UK. The research has focused on the policies or regulations of healthcare and the social impact in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. As stated by Montel et al. 2020 the articles that have been selected for the research will show the health status of the population of the UK and the measures taken to control the spread of the disease. The information regarding the COVID-19 pandemic along with the social health impact and government health regulations of the UK are available on websites (Williams et al. 2020).

Conclusion and Recommendation

The research conducted on COVID-19 has been related to the practices adopted by the people of the United Kingdom. The practices adopted by the UK population to control the spreading of the viral disease were isolation and social distancing. The isolation of the affected person or population has been found to be beneficial in controlling the widespread spreading of COVID-19 (Chen and Wang, 2021). The practice of social distancing has resulted in the non-contact of people to control the effects of the viral disease. The research so conducted has also revealed the positive impacts of isolation and social distancing practices. Pilbeam et al. 2022 have stated that the practices of wearing masks, using sanitisers and other safety etiquette have shown a positive impact on controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. The practice of social etiquette for the safety of the people has shown reduced rates of mortality over time. The research so conducted has also revealed the data related to the mortality rate and the benefits of the safety measures taken by the people of the UK (Li et al. 2021).

Strength, limitation and practical application

The research has resulted in the revealing of the practices adopted by the population of the United Kingdom to control the widespread the ill-effects of COVID-19. The COVID-19 impacts on the social and economical health of the country have been discussed in the research (Everest et al. 2022). The practices adopted like social distancing and isolation along with wearing masks have added to the preventive measures for COVID-19 widespread. The government of the United Kingdom has implemented social and clinical measures for the prevention of spreading diseases. The decision-making procedures of the UK government have also included the enactment of regulations and policies for social healthcare (Poudel et al. 2021). The decision to immunise the population of the United Kingdom has been found to be beneficial for the upgradation of social health.

The above information can be summarised that highlighting COVID-19 and its impacts on social health. The impact on the health risks related to the ill effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in society. The healthcare preventive measures taken by the government of the UK has to be revealed through the research. The impact of the regulations and policies implemented by the UK government on social health can be seen in the development of people. COVID-19 impacts the health of the economy of the country to reveal the financial infrastructure of the country. The mortality rate that has been found to increase during the pandemic and the clinical measures taken to improve the treatment to reduce the death rate has to be revealed. The immunisation measures taken by the government of the UK for preventing the widespread and maintain the safety of the population are to be highlighted. The social health and the control measures taken by the government of the United Kingdom in the context of COVID-19 will be highlighted.

References

Journals

Task 1

Cairney, P., 2021., a, The UK government’s COVID-19 policy: assessing evidence-informed policy analysis in real time. British Politics, 16(1), pp.90-116.

Cairney, P., 2021., b, The UK government’s COVID-19 policy: What does “guided by the science” mean in practice?. Frontiers in Political Science, 3, p.624068.

Calnan, M., 2020. Health policy and controlling Covid-19 in England: sociological insights. Emerald Open Research, 2.

Flynn, D., Moloney, E., Bhattarai, N., Scott, J., Breckons, M., Avery, L. and Moy, N., 2020. COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. Health Policy and Technology, 9(4), pp.673-691.

Task 2

Selected article:

Bowsher, G., Bernard, R. and Sullivan, R., 2020. A health intelligence framework for pandemic response: lessons from the UK experience of COVID-19. Health security, 18(6), pp.435-443.

Others

Aughterson, H., McKinlay, A.R., Fancourt, D. and Burton, A., 2021. Psychosocial impact on frontline health and social care professionals in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative interview study. BMJ open, 11(2), p.e047353.

Billings, J., Abou Seif, N., Hegarty, S., Ondruskova, T., Soulios, E., Bloomfield, M. and Greene, T., 2021. What support do frontline workers want? A qualitative study of health and social care workers’ experiences and views of psychosocial support during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS One, 16(9), p.e0256454.

Chen, D.T.H. and Wang, Y.J., 2021. Inequality-related health and social factors and their impact on well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: Findings from a national survey in the UK. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(3), p.1014.

Drake, T.M., Riad, A.M., Fairfield, C.J., Egan, C., Knight, S.R., Pius, R., Hardwick, H.E., Norman, L., Shaw, C.A., McLean, K.A. and Thompson, A.R., 2021. Characterisation of in-hospital complications associated with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK: a prospective, multicentre cohort study. The Lancet, 398(10296), pp.223-237.

Everest, G., Marshall, L., Fraser, C. and Briggs, A., 2022. Addressing the leading risk factors for ill health. online]. The Health Foundation. Accessed, 1.

Fritz, Z., Huxtable, R., Ives, J., Paton, A., Slowther, A.M., and Wilkinson, D., 2020. Ethical road map through the covid-19 pandemic. Bmj, 369.

Hall, J., Gaved, M. and Sargent, J., 2021. Participatory research approaches in times of Covid-19: a narrative literature review. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 20, p.16094069211010087.

Lamb, D., Gnanapragasam, S., Greenberg, N., Bhundia, R., Carr, E., Hotopf, M., Razavi, R., Raine, R., Cross, S., Dewar, A. and Docherty, M., 2021. Psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on 4378 UK healthcare workers and ancillary staff: initial baseline data from a cohort study collected during the first wave of the pandemic. Occupational and environmental medicine, 78(11), pp.801-808.

Li, F., Luo, S., Mu, W., Li, Y., Ye, L., Zheng, X., Xu, B., Ding, Y., Ling, P., Zhou, M. and Chen, X., 2021. Effects of sources of social support and resilience on the mental health of different age groups during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC psychiatry, 21(1), pp.1-14.

Montel, L., Kapilashrami, A., Coleman, M.P. and Allemani, C., 2020. The Right to Health in Times of Pandemic: What Can We Learn from the UK’s Response to the COVID-19 Outbreak?. Health and Human Rights, 22(2), p.227.

Moynihan, R., Sanders, S., Michaleff, Z.A., Scott, A.M., Clark, J., To, E.J., Jones, M., Kitchener, E., Fox, M., Johansson, M. and Lang, E., 2021. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on utilisation of healthcare services: a systematic review. BMJ open, 11(3), p.e045343.

Pilbeam, C., Tonkin-Crine, S., Martindale, A.M., Atkinson, P., Mableson, H., Lant, S., Solomon, T., Sheard, S. and Gobat, N., 2022. How do healthcare workers ‘do’guidelines? Exploring how policy decisions impacted UK healthcare workers during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative Health Research, p.10497323211067772.

Poudel, A.N., Zhu, S., Cooper, N., Roderick, P., Alwan, N., Tarrant, C., Ziauddeen, N. and Yao, G.L., 2021. Impact of Covid-19 on health-related quality of life of patients: A structured review. PLoS One, 16(10), p.e0259164.

Sheridan Rains, L., Johnson, S., Barnett, P., Steare, T., Needle, J.J., Carr, S., Lever Taylor, B., Bentivegna, F., Edbrooke-Childs, J., Scott, H.R. and Rees, J., 2021. Early impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health care and people with mental health conditions: framework synthesis of international experiences and responses. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 56(1), pp.13-24.

Varsavsky, T., Graham, M.S., Canas, L.S., Ganesh, S., Pujol, J.C., Sudre, C.H., Murray, B., Modat, M., Cardoso, M.J., Astley, C.M. and Drew, D.A., 2021. Detecting COVID-19 infection hotspots in England using large-scale self-reported data from a mobile application: a prospective, observational study. The Lancet Public Health, 6(1), pp.e21-e29.

Williams, S.N., Armitage, C.J., Tampe, T. and Dienes, K., 2020. Public perceptions and experiences of social distancing and social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic: A UK-based focus group study. BMJ open, 10(7), p.e039334.

Wyatt, D., Faulkner-Gurstein, R., Cowan, H. and Wolfe, C.D., 2021. Impacts of COVID-19 on clinical research in the UK: A multi-method qualitative case study. PloS one, 16(8), p.e0256871.

Website

Gov.uk, 2022, Research and analysis: Direct and indirect health impacts of COVID-19 in England: emerging Omicron impacts, Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/direct-and-indirect-health-impacts-of-covid-19-in-england-emerging-omicron-impacts/direct-and-indirect-health-impacts-of-covid-19-in-england-emerging-omicron-impacts#:~:text=The%20COVID%2D19%20pandemic%20has,contributed%20to%20declines%20in%20activity. [Accessed on: 02 December 2022]

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