Rising Cancer Cases in the UK: Causes, Research, and Prevention (Case Study)

How to combat critical health issue caused by cancer through lifestyle changes and increased awareness.

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TOPIC NO. 7 - Cancer Research UK Case Study

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Cancer is a critical issue that prevails for people all around the world. This disease has continued to be a rising concern for people of all age groups. Cancer is known to be caused by a sudden genetic mutation that is triggered by either genetic factors or it can be facilitated by external factors like food habits, lifestyle, exposure to radiation etc. Cancer can be of different types and they are identified from their location. Getting affected by cancer can be overwhelming and it can take quite a mental and physical toll throughout treatment. However, research is being carried out to find an optimal solution to combat the cases of cancer and cure it through painless measures.

Literature Review

Data presentation

Current Cancer situation in the UK

Different kinds of cancer prevail around the world. This cancer affects their respective organ vehemently and they can be spread throughout the body. It affects the lifestyle as well as the mental health of people. The prevalence of cancer varies from one country to another. Cancer is quite widespread around the UK. This situation is mostly triggered by a range of lifestyles of people (White et al. 2018). Substance abuse is also one of the major contributing factors.

Skin cancer: The aspect of skin cancer also varies by the role of gender. It has been found that since 1973 the death rate from melanoma. It is an advanced type of skin cancer that has risen in men by 219% (news.cancerresearchuk.org, 2022). It has been affected by the rapid decline in the weather conditions in the UK. Weather conditions and the incoming UV radiation is one of the major contributing factors to skin cancer. It is prevalent in the UK and across the world (Yudistira et al. 2020). It has been facilitated by tourist packers and substantially low ticket prices. Often people avail the trips to exotic locations around the tropical belt. These regions are known to have a high amount of exposure to sun rays (Mendes et al. 2018). People of the UK are not naturally habituated to this kind of heat and sun ray exposure. This condition not only affects their skin but also their normal cellular functions. It has been found that mostly the torso region of men is affected by skin cancer (news.cancerresearchuk.org, 2022). It is mostly facilitated by going shirtless to beaches.

Cancer Research UK Case Study

It has been estimated that the cases of cancer will only go up in the coming years due to different climatic and social situations. People being affected by cancer in 2030 are expected to double the number of people being affected by cancer in 2010 (statista.com, 2022). This situation is sure to impact the overall healthcare sector in the UK.

Smoking causes cancer: It cannot be emphasised enough how the social and environmental aspects are playing a pivotal role in the rising cases of cancer in the UK. It is estimated that around 6000 people who die every year due to lung cancer who have never smoked cigarettes (news.cancerresearchuk.org, 2022). Cancer is known to be a critical case that arises due to the aggression of diseases where the cells begin to expand abnormally and spread throughout different parts of the body. Around 684 males and 553.1 females per 100,000 people were diagnosed with cancer excluding cases of cancer (statista.com, 2022). This criticality of the situation tremendously affects the conditions of people suffering in the UK. It calls for general awareness for people in the UK who are not suffering from the situations of cancer or whose family emerges are not affected by cancer. It is important to take proper precautions. Liver cancer: Besides the aforementioned cases of cancer, liver cancer is one of the predominant types of cancer that prevails among the population of the UK (Williams et al. 2020). This situation is mostly facilitated by heavy drinking habits, especially during football nights and other festivities. This situation however is prevalent all around the world since alcohol abuse is one of the major reasons to cause liver cirrhosis and associated cancer.

Breast Cancer: It is one of the critical cases that adversely affect the women of the UK. This situation has been highly predominant recently all around the world.

Cancer Research UK Case Study

Breast cancer is one of the rising concerns for people all around the world. It has been vehemently affecting society. Female populations lying between the above age group of 50 are highly vulnerable to cases of breast cancer. In 2019, around 5790 cases of breast cancer were recorded among women lying between the age group of 65-69 years (statista.com, 2022). The rising cases of breast cancer are influenced mainly by lifestyle and dietary habits. The genetic factor also plays a pivotal role in this situation.

Current research on cancer in the UK

A substantial amount of research is being carried out in the context of cancer which is prevalent all around the UK. The rising cases of different types of cancer are alarming society overall (Crosby et al. 2020). The cancer research UK foundation has been working relentlessly to enhance the survival rate among cancer patients. Currently, 2 out of 4 people survive the battle with cancer. This foundation aims to derive the necessary results that would help 3 out of 4 people survive cases of cancer by 2034 (cancerresearchuk.org, 2022). The rising cases of cancer have been nothing but a concerning factor contributing to immense stress factor to the population of the UK. Smoking is the largest contributing factor to smoking in the UK (Zhou et al. 2021). However one of the major contributing factors that contribute to prevailing even in the case of young adults is obesity and eating disorders. It leads to 1 out of 20 cases of cancer cases in the UK (cancerresearchuk.org, 2022). Eating habits are highly influenced by current trends and products benign marketed to the targeted audiences. Consumption of junk food products has different harmful side effects for an individual.

Cancer in young adults: It not only impacts their bodily aspects on a functional level but affects their working at the cellular level as well. Enhancement of the level of cholesterol in the heart and vessels can inhibit proper oxygen flow to different organs of the body thereby leading to different diseases. Unhealthy and oily food products are rising the level of cancer cases among young adults significantly (D'Angelo et al. 2020). Besides this, smoking continues to remain the major contributor of causing lung cancer among people in the UK. Smoking also leads to terminal cases of throat and oral cancer.

Models and theories

Quantitative research

A quantitative research process has been taken into consideration that ponders on the data derived regarding the cancer research statistics. An approach of positivism has been utilised in the course of the quantitative research that has been undertaken in the course of this research. This approach solely focuses on enhancing knowledge management regarding numerical data and statistics of this research (Park et al. 2020). This aspect is carried out by following the numerical variables involved in the research. Reliable and accurate resources like journals and articles have been taken into consideration to collect necessary data. It has helped to input necessary data that has been beneficial for the course of this research. Mainly secondary methods have been focused upon in collecting data necessary for this study. Availability of data and commercial sources of information has been reliable sources in deriving information regarding the data and structure of the study.

Qualitative research

In the case of qualitative research in this course of study certain approach has been taken into consideration that deals with gathering and collecting data. It has been carried out through various important sources and conversations that have been carried out to understand the phenomena of the rising cases of cancer in the UK. Cancer is a concerning factor that has been prevalent among people. Cancer is knwon to impart an emotional scar on people who are battling through it and it also affects the close ones of the patients (Dobretsova and Derakshan, 2021). Therefore a qualitative research analysis helps in drawing conclusive evidence regarding the emotional connections encountered by people due to cancer. In this case, a secondary method has been taken into consideration for collecting necessary data from government websites and authentic journals and articles for this particular phenomenon (Ruggiano and Perry, 2019). This approach was undertaken for proper time management and effective utilisation of resources and necessary data required for the process. A secondary data collection method helps conduct proper research regarding the qualitative research process.


It has been observed through the events of research analysis that people suffering from cancer are vehemently affected by the events of cancer. It negatively impacts the emotional and mental health and social life of people (Cook et al. 2018). It has been found that the rising cases of different types of cancer are alarming to the population of the UK. Mostly the cases of cancer are driven by the lifestyle adopted by people in the UK. The rising cases of cancer in the male population is driven by their extensive exposure to the sun ray and their associated UV radiation (Craig et al. 2018). The tropical regions and beaches are favourable to the residents around and their biological conditions are built up around the region. The prolonged exposure to that intensity of sunlight and sunburns leads to serious cases of cancer.

Drinking has always a been concerning factor for the UK population. The UK has been noted to have spent over 7.8 billion British pounds on beer alone in 2021 (statista.com, 2022). The cases have been staggeringly high in both the cases of male and female populations all over England.

Consequently, it has imparted a negative impact on the cases of the population of England. It has been one of the major contributing factors in the rising canvases of liver cancer that prevail largely in society (Rutherford et al. 2021). Obesity has been a concerning factor among young adults who continues to consume oily junk foods and they get affected by different cardiovascular and digestion-oriented disease (Avgerinos et al. 2019). The cases are on the rise and have been affecting the young population of the UK. Obesity has been leading to adverse cases of stomach, pancreatic and colon cancer across all the demographic groups in the UK. Obesity is primarily facilitated by food habits and lifestyle.

Avid interaction with digital media has restricted the outdoor activities of children and the adult population of the UK. On top of it, the consumption of food products from fast food chains has led to a rise in obesity among people. Smoking still tops the chart being the leading cause of cancer (Smits et al. 2018). The cases of cancer caused by smoking have been rising steadily. The stress-induced lifestyle of adults has made them inclined to use cigarettes as a coping mechanism however it has been negatively impacting the overall health of the population. The usage of e-cigarettes and vape machines is also contributing to the rising cases of lung and throat cancer (Wilson et al. 2019). It is important that people play an active role in altering their lifestyle for their benefit. implementation of healthy measures for their dietary habits prolongs a healthy life.


Cancer is one of the serious issues that prevail in the UK and it has been rigorously affecting the population and their overall lifestyle. The leading cases of cancer in the UK are primarily the lifestyle habits of people of certain demographic sections of society. This situation can be mitigated by implementing improvisatory measures in daily habits of food and beverage consumption. Consumption of junk food and tobacco products are contributing significantly to the cases of cancer that have grasped society. General awareness regarding healthy living and food habits combined with thorough research and analysis would help in combating the staggering cases of cancer.



Avgerinos, K.I., Spyrou, N., Mantzoros, C.S. and Dalamaga, M., 2019. Obesity and cancer risk: Emerging biological mechanisms and perspectives. Metabolism, 92, pp.121-135.

Cook, S.A., Salmon, P., Hayes, G., Byrne, A. and Fisher, P.L., 2018. Predictors of emotional distress a year or more after diagnosis of cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Psycho?oncology, 27(3), pp.791-801.

Craig, S., Earnshaw, C.H. and Virós, A., 2018. Ultraviolet light and melanoma. The Journal of pathology, 244(5), pp.578-585.

Crosby, D., Lyons, N., Greenwood, E., Harrison, S., Hiom, S., Moffat, J., Quallo, T., Samuel, E. and Walker, I., 2020. A roadmap for the early detection and diagnosis of cancer. The Lancet Oncology, 21(11), pp.1397-1399.

D’Angelo, S., Motti, M.L. and Meccariello, R., 2020. ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, obesity and cancer. Nutrients, 12(9), p.2751

Dobretsova, A. and Derakshan, N., 2021. Cognitive function and emotional vulnerability in metastatic breast cancer: moderating effects of age and social support. Psycho?Oncology, 30(9), pp.1563-1571.

Mendes, M.M., Hart, K.H., Botelho, P.B. and Lanham?New, S.A., 2018. Vitamin D status in the tropics: is sunlight exposure the main determinant?.

Park, Y.S., Konge, L. and Artino, A.R., 2020. The positivism paradigm of research. Academic Medicine, 95(5), pp.690-694.

Ruggiano, N. and Perry, T.E., 2019. Conducting secondary analysis of qualitative data: Should we, can we, and how?. Qualitative Social Work, 18(1), pp.81-97.

Rutherford, M.J., Arnold, M., Bardot, A., Ferlay, J., De, P., Tervonen, H., Little, A., Bucher, O., St Jacques, N., Gavin, A. and Engholm, G., 2021. Comparison of liver cancer incidence and survival by subtypes across seven high?income countries. International Journal of Cancer, 149(12), pp.2020-2031.

Smits, S.E., McCutchan, G.M., Hanson, J.A. and Brain, K.E., 2018. Attitudes towards lung cancer screening in a population sample. Health Expectations, 21(6), pp.1150-1158.

White, A., Ironmonger, L., Steele, R.J., Ormiston-Smith, N., Crawford, C. and Seims, A., 2018. A review of sex-related differences in colorectal cancer incidence, screening uptake, routes to diagnosis, cancer stage and survival in the UK. BMC cancer, 18(1), pp.1-11.

Williams, R., Aithal, G., Alexander, G.J., Allison, M., Armstrong, I., Aspinall, R., Baker, A., Batterham, R., Brown, K., Burton, R. and Cramp, M.E., 2020. Unacceptable failures: the final report of the Lancet Commission into liver disease in the UK. The Lancet, 395(10219), pp.226-239.

Wilson, S., Partos, T., McNeill, A. and Brose, L.S., 2019. Harm perceptions of e?cigarettes and other nicotine products in a UK sample. Addiction, 114(5), pp.879-888.

Yudistira, N., Sumitro, S.B., Nahas, A. and Riama, N.F., 2020. UV light influences covid-19 activity through big data: trade offs between northern subtropical, tropical, and southern subtropical countries. medRxiv.

Zhou, W., Liu, G., Hung, R.J., Haycock, P.C., Aldrich, M.C., Andrew, A.S., Arnold, S.M., Bickeböller, H., Bojesen, S.E., Brennan, P. and Brunnström, H., 2021. Causal relationships between body mass index, smoking and lung cancer: univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization. International journal of cancer, 148(5), pp.1077-1086.


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