Understanding The World Of Tourism Assignment Sample

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Introduction Of Understanding The World Of Tourism Assignment

Tourism refers to a phenomenon representing a county's social, economic, and cultural environment. It entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal, business, or professional purposes. It is one of the developing industries which has an influence worldwide (Sharpley, and Telfer, 2017). This is an essential source of employment and revenue for a place. It is used to omit discrimination between people. Tourists visit new sites and get to understand different cultures, religions, civilizations, and the country's locals. The motivations of this sector have to be clarified. It is a primary source of revenue for various countries like India, Hawaii, Brazil, Greece, France, etc. In this essay, tourism development will be discussed as to how it affects the country's economy (Sharpley, 2020). The two theories which complement the tourism industry are to be explained in this part. Effective statistics and references will differentiate the impact of tourism and various types of tourists. At last, the essay will be concluded after the analysis of the theories.

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Contemporary Tourism and Its Development

Contemporary tourism is an approach to target the international market and its emphasis is the study of tourism. It considers issues like pro-poor tourism, market saturation, destination saturation, and ethics(Pencarelli, 2020). This is used to merge development and economy which is implemented in a country. This development includes demographic change in people. There are three different kinds of development in tourism- investment promotion, business and product, and circuit and route. This affects the global economy very much. It generates employment and also represents the remarkable things of the place. In long term, this component increases the GDP and signifies the destination of Tourism development. The investment promotion operates the business to its success.

There are a total of six stages in tourism development. Those are involvement, consolidation, stagnation, development, decline, and exploration. The first stage is involvement, which means the interaction between the host and guests. This explains how change can happen and share each other's thoughts. Local entrepreneurs rely on the importance of tourism in their business. How does this impact their economic growth? With the help of increased numbers of visitors, business holders can interact with them and make their revenue out of them. The second part is consolidating. This stage creates a large-scale advertisement of the industry. Here a development can face a huge change. This occurs because the growing number of tourists encourages the stakeholders and locals to upgrade their infrastructure. The next stage is stagnation, in this little chance of future development of tourism takes shape. For the scope of further expansion, this element helps a lot in the evolution of tourism. A well-established image is created for the expansion of the industry. A repeat visit is the main key factor for the development. It can emphasize the structure of a place and implement the activities and attractive spots. The exploration stage is vital and it is a significant element of the upgradation. This is a remote look for adventurous tourists who will be happy to attend the activities. It is the start of development. The visitors are welcomed by the locals and it became their source of earnings. At this stage of development, tourists are coming during the peak periods, enhancing the population size in the place. Many outsider agencies help them to communicate and make a smooth journey. The last stage is decline. In this stage, an analysis explains the development of tourism and it concludes the total upgradation period.

Travel Motivation

Travel motivation refers to people’s mental state in which they want as a tourist. It can be considered a significant component of tourist behavior. There are four classes according to tourist motivation, those are - physical, cultural, and interpersonal and the last one is status and prestige. It supports the perception of a person and helped them to find the reason to choose the purpose of travel and destination. The Physical includes those persons who prefer sports, rest, and other related activities which are connected with health. Cultural are the people who are desired to know about the cultures and history of the place(Ateljevic, 2020.). Interpersonal consists of people who are finding opportunities to meet other people via a vacation. The last one is status and prestige; this concerns ego and personal development. This group mostly prefers business or work-related vacations (Fakfare, 2021).

In 1979, Crompton made a conceptual list of motivational factors which influences the tourists’ push and pull framework. The push factors refer to encouraging people to leave and the pull factors try to attract migrants to a new place. Examples of pull factors are employment opportunities, higher income, better working experience, educational opportunities, higher level standards, religious freedom, and political freedom. This is generally grouped into five categories. The first one is economic migration, which is a particular career path, this drives a person to their employment. The next one is social migration, which emphasizes the opportunity to be closer to family or close ones. The political enhances the scope of political unrest. Environmental concludes the safer area with a low scale of disruptions. Push factors describe the reasons that individuals might emigrate from their homes, including poverty, lack of social mobility, violence, or persecution(Crompton, 2021). On the other hand, Pull factors describe the reasons that an individual might settle in a particular country. Compton's effect is important because demonstrates that light cannot be explained purely as a rarity.

A psychographic framework of tourist behavior is called Plog’s theory. This allows a conceptual transformation in tourism development. This helped to classify the personality of a tourist into five types, those are - psycho-centric, near psycho-centric, mid-centric, near-all-centric, and allocentric(Swain). In this theory, every type has been explained clearly. The term allocentric refers to tourists who are called ventures. This individual enjoys interacting with new people from different cultures(Piuchan, 2018.). They prefer to adventure in a huge variety of activities and explore more. They have some characteristics which specified them. This kind of person is intellectually curious. Also, they can be considered a quick decision maker. Allocentric people have a unique type of self-confidence and personal energy. Mid-centric is a combination of all centric and pshycocentric. Such types of tourists are in the middle part of the theory. Pshycocentric people are the kind of tourists who are not in that favor of exploration and are nonadventurous. The term explains the self-inhibited characteristics of a person. They are quite dependable and nondemanding. The other two types are combinations of the major ones. This model has provided the foundations for many other studies throughout the past four decades and has helped tourism industry stakeholders to better comprehend and manage their tourism provision (Lazoura, et al, 2021).

Maslow's five-level hierarchy needs theory explains travel behavior broadly. This affects tourism innovatively and simplifies the needs of a traveller. The motivation which is proposed by Masclow has attempted five basic needs, which are physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow's model enables us to think more creatively and strategically as practitioners. It helps us and our clients understand career development plans, practices, goals, and experiences. It empowers us with the knowledge needed to identify interests, skill sets, strengths, and values. The needs of theory identify the internal factors that can influence the individual’s behavior. These are based on situations where people get motivated by unfulfilled needs. The physiological needs required things to survive like air, food, water, shelter, etc. Safety needs provide a personal sense of security and it occurs in well-being characteristics. Another major need is social needs which are identity belonging and acceptance. It is very important for individuals they will not to feel isolated or alone in a different place (Piuchan, 2018). Interacting with people and accepting new things can remove the threat of being depressive in a person’s nature. Friendship, family, and other intimacies help this need to be fulfilled. Esteem needs are portrayed as a person’s self-esteem and respect. This need is very significant yet crucial for every person. They want to be in an atmosphere where they do not feel neglected or disliked. This is a highly personal need (Bilousova, et al, 2021).

Conclusion

To conclude this essay, it is important to say that Tourism has developed in various sectors and it has encouraged a country's economic growth to emphasis. Apart from this it also helped to enhance the tourism culture and it will help to evaluate equality among people. Contemporary tourism has expanded the business of locals and it helped to enhance the structure of the world. Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, or other purposes. After all this, the three theories have explained the tourist needs and behaviors and the need which theory needs in life as well as in travel. The importance of tourists and different types of tourists make the development easier. The environmental change has modified the old culture of tourism. The main reason for expansion is the daily life needs of visitors. And nowadays the needs of a visitor saturate and change after every revolution.

References

  • Sharpley, R. and Telfer, D.J. eds., 2017. Tourism and development: Concepts and issues.
  • Buckley, R., 2021. Tourism and environment. Annual review of environment and resources, 36, pp.397-416.
  • Buckley, R., 2021. Tourism and environment. Annual review of environment and resources, 36, pp.397-416.
  • Sharpley, R., 2020. Tourism, sustainable development, and the theoretical divide: 20 years on. Journal of sustainable tourism, 28(11), pp.1932-1946.
  • Pencarelli, T., 2020. The digital revolution in the travel and tourism industry. Information Technology & Tourism, 22(3), pp.455-476.
  • Athletic, I., 2020. Transforming the (tourism) world for good and (re) generating the potential ‘new normal. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), pp.467-475.
  • Piuchan, M., 2018. Plog's and Butler's models: A critical review of Psychographic Tourist typology and the Tourist Area Life Cycle. Turizam, 22(3), pp.95-106.
  • Swain, S.K., Paper 01: Tourism and Hospitality: Concept, Component, Status, and Trends Module 32: Stanley Plog’s Psychographic Model (Doctoral dissertation, Utkal University).
  • Lazoura, J., Athanasios, L., Harris, G. and Dimitrios, M., 2021. Examining Tourist Needs Through Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the Role of Hotel Animation. JOURNAL OF TOURISM RESEARCH V. 26 June 2021, p.229.
  • Bilousova, A., Borodavka, V. and Nurkevych, K., 2021. The theoretical basis of the system of staff motivation at the enterprises of social and cultural service and tourism. ????????? ? ??????, (2 (81)), pp.64-72.
  • Crompton, H., Bernacki, M. and Greene, J.A., 2020. Psychological foundations of emerging technologies for teaching and learning in higher education. Current Opinion in Psychology, 36, pp.101-105.
  • Fakfare, P., Talawanich, S. and Wattanacharoensil, W., 2020. Scale development and validation on domestic tourists’ motivation: the case of second-tier tourism destinations. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 25(5), pp.489-504.
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