Unit 4 - Understand How to Administer Medication Safely Assignment sample

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Understand how to administer medication safely

Discussion of the Organisational Background

Tesco Plc is the major retailer in the United Kingdom and is among the world’s top three retailers. They operate 3700 shops worldwide and employ about 470,000 people. Tesco Plc was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen and the name Tesco first appeared in the shop in Edgware in 1929. As the firm grew, it used its innovations in a variety of other businesses.Tesco was started by Jack Cohen, Tesco developed its first in-house brand, Tesco Tea, in 1924. The names are derived from the initials of TE Stockwell, a collaborator in the tea supply business, and the CO abbreviation for Jack Cohen’s surname. Tesco is a brand that has fundamentally altered the way it conducts business in every aspect of the organization (Awadariand Kanwal, 2019). As a result of this development, they have expanded their business, which includes loyalty management. Tesco has reacted to critics by measurable growth in sales through Clubcard, leveraging the relevant data it generates to enhance how it operates its company.

Differentiation of Cultural Tendencies of the Two Countries

Hofstede Cultural Model:

Hofstede Cultural Dimension

United Kingdom

Japan

Power distance Index (PDI)

.

At 35, the United Kingdom is ranked lower on the PDI (Beugelsdijk, Kostovaand Roth, 2017).

Japan, with an intermediate score of 54, is a society on the verge of becoming hierarchical (Asai, 2021). Japanese are always aware of their social hierarchy and respond appropriately.

Individualismvs collectivism (IDV)

Certainly, Japanese culture exhibits many of the traits of a collectivistic society.

With an Individualist score of 89, The British are an extremely private and individualistic people.

Japan receives a score of 46 on the Individualism scale.

Masculinityvs Feminity (MAS)

The United Kingdom, with a population of 66, is a Masculine society - highly competitive and driven.

At 95 per cent Masculine, Japan is one of the world’s “most Masculine societies” (Retherfordand Omuro,2019).

Uncertainty avoidance(UAI)

At 35, the UK has a low Uncertainty Avoidance score (Heand Filimonau, 2020).

At 92 Japan is among the world’s most averse to uncertainty.

“Long term orientation versus short term normative orientation (LTO)”

The UK ranks 51 in it.

Japan ranks 88th in terms of Long Term Orientation (Wanet al., 2018).

Indulgenceversus restraint(IVR)

A score of 69 shows that the British culture is Indulgent (Kristjánsdóttiret al., 2020).

With a score of 42, Japan has a culture of restraint.

Trompenaars model of national culture:

Dimensions of Trompenaars model

United Kingdom

Japan

Universalism versus particularism.

The United Kingdom is linked to Universalism.

Particularism prevails in Japan (Thiele, 2018)

Individualism versus communitarianism.

Individualism prevails in the UK.

Communitarianism is present in Japan

Specific versus diffuse.

The UK has the dimension of Specific (Heand Filimonau, 2020)

Japan has the dimension of Specific in it

Neutral versus emotional.

The United Kingdom is Neutral

Japan is linked with Neutral

Achievement versus ascription.

Achievement is found in the UK

Ascription is the dimension Japan holds (Toma, Marinescu and Toh?nean, 2018)

Sequential time versus synchronous time.

Sequential Time prevails in the UK

Synchronous Time is the dimension associated with Japan

Internal direction versus outer direction.

Internal direction rules in the UK (Jumayev, 2021)

outer direction is found in Japan

Illustration of “Workplace Values”, “"Attitudes” and “Communication Styles”in the Two Countries in the Venture

The United Kingdom faced issues with the Japanese method such as:

  • Obsessive about little details
  • Always arrive at meetings with a response in mind.
  • Decision-making is extremely sluggish as a result of obsessive attention to detail.
  • Once they have reached a conclusion, they are not willing to revise it ((Omura, Stoneand Levett?Jones, 2018)
  • Obsessed with their jobs to the exclusion of their personal life
  • When they say ‘yes,’ they do not always mean ‘yes.’

Japan’s issues with the UK’s approach are-

  • Severe lack of focus on detail No preparation for meetings, making it impossible to arrive at a conclusion
  • Make hasty judgments based on scant information
  • Make snap decisions but then reverse them just as fast
  • Prioritize their personal lives over their career and the firm (Angouri, 2018)
  • When they say ‘no,’ they mean ‘no.’

The British people are outgoing and sociable, their communication method is an odd combination of direct and indirect communication in relation to statistics, figures, and policy, for example, while feedback, delegation to colleagues, and general contact are filled with indirect ‘suggestions’ and nuances that frequently confound (Braithwaiteet al., 2017). The British people’s emphasis on civility appears to be the source of these perplexing nuances. Another element of British culture that may be unnerving to visitors to the UK is that individuals usually embrace change and are unafraid of making errors. They are constantly willing to ‘give things a try,’ certain that if it does not work out, they can go on. On the other hand, Japanese corporate culture is built on consensus. Consensus is emphasized as the major method of decision-making in bigger Japanese enterprises as well as other organizations and services like the government.

Decisions are viewed as a culmination of all inputs. As a result, a manager or leader’s job is frequently that of a facilitator of consensus formation.Hierarchy is critical in the Japanese workplace. The leader is required to meet with each participant of the decision-making committee individually (Watanabeet al.,2018). Consultation and input from senior members are critical.Keeping up with communication is critical for sustaining all types of business ties in Japan. Japanese society’s collectivist elements pervade the corporate culture. Individuals frequently view themselves as the group’s or company’s representative. Relationship building and maintenance are fundamental to Japanese corporate culture. The majority of people expect and seek long-term relationships.

Assessment and Explanation of the Way of National Culture Influencing the“Actions” and “Behaviours” of the Organisation and the Consequence of the Venture

Tesco exited the Japanese market in 2011 after only nine years. The grocery behemoth stated that Japan was a tough nation to deal in owing to high prices and unmet customer needs. According to Brannen, Mughanand Moore, (2020), Tsurakame (Tesco’s Japanese name) has a 1% market share in Japan’s grocery industry. Tesco horribly failed in Japan since they did not appear to take cultural differences between the UK and Japan into account properly.

The reason for the failure is that “Japan’s culture” is considerably dissimilar from that of the “United Kingdom”. The country is home to several “family-owned” and “long-established grocery” businesses that assist as a community centre and are highly regarded for their personal touch. Another cultural omission is the fact that Japanese shoppers value high-quality items and exceptional service. Due to the scale of Tesco shops, it was nearly hard to provide exceptional customer care to every shopper (Rosnizamet al., 2020). While Japanese consumers like purchasing western items from the United States and Europe, it is critical to display them in a creative manner that appeals to the Japanese psyche. Tesco’s British business model omitted to compete with Japan’s department and food stores. The general populace of Japan places a high premium on the quality and freshness of food. Department store food corridors began providing high-priced yet great nutrition products, while marketplaces continued to provide low-priced basic food items. Despite the fact that discount stores were gradually including fresh food items to entice more client visits, they were considered as being on the lower end of the market alongside convenience stores. Japanese consumers are extremely demanding and finicky, and they should be provided with a diverse selection of products and delicacies. Japanese consumers also value the freshness of their delivery, and they are likely to make their purchase from a hypermarket, such as Tesco.

Comparison of the Two Actual Culture and the Ideal Culture

To clarify this, ideal culture is viewed as the norms that a company wants to maintain or adopt. It’s the system of values that a company wants to maintain. It’s the standards they ideally want, using one of our terms. It’s just what society wants to be. Simply stated. Sadly, society, like people do, does not always live up to its high objectives and ambitions despite its best attempts. Real culture comes into play here (Lühr, Bosch-Rekveldt and Radujkovic, 2020). Real culture may simply be described evolutionarily as the actual behaviours of a civilization. How a culture really is. What actually goes on in daily life is the genuine norms of a society.

Implementation of Organisational Culture Inventory (OCI) and its Impact toMeasure the Failure or Success of a Venture

The “Organizational Culture Inventory” (OCI) is a popular assessment utilised to assess corporate organisational culture. It results in a clear assessment of the corporate culture of Tesco. This company culture defines the behaviours of employees in the organisation and their behaviours. An OCI extends beyond the culture of corporation; it concerns cultural aspects that pertain to all types of organisations. An OCI not only measures the features of the organisational culture; however, also establishes a working culture that is intimately linked to all employee and management comportments and performance (Khanet al., 2020). The OIC allows an organisational culture to be assessed statistically, making it simpler to explain and comprehend abstract facts. It defines the culture of the business in terms of what is necessary to fulfil expectations. Based on surveys, OCI is performed.Organizational culture inventory offers information on the behaviours of employees and managers, which drives and shapes current cultures. Shared standards of conduct, which workers and managers feel will fulfil expectations, will be apparent. It guarantees that it is obvious which relative standards in the organisation are constructive, passive, aggressive and defensive. The OCI framework identified, on the other hand, the ideal culture, which is most suited to achieve the goals of the company.

Conclusion

In a nutshell it can be said that though Tesco took bold step to emerge its business to expand in the domain of Japan but as illustrated and discussed thoroughly in the essay examined above, it could be said that due to the cultural differences Tesco horribly failed. Japan’s culture is highly opposed to that of United Kingdom, and as Tesco originated in the British domain and are intertwined with the British culture, it failed in taking into account all the diverse and different dimensions of culture that Japan is linked with. This paved the path of Tesco’s failure into Japan. This essay in its preceding sections extensively discussedTesco’s expansion into Japan, in part one the Hofstede and Trompenaars model of culture were censoriously reviewed. In part two of the vivid contrasts between the two nations’ cultural trends, workplace principles, attitudes, and communication techniques were scrutinized. Along with these the considerable effect of cultural norms on the results of specific cross-border commercial transactions and adoption of “organizational culture inventory (OCI)” with its influence on determining venture’s failure or success will be assessed.

References

Angouri, J., 2018. Culture, discourse, and the workplace. Routledge.

Asai, A., 2021. How Foreigners Experience Japan: Beyond Hofstede’s Model. Intercultural communication review19, pp.19-31.

Awadari, A.C. and Kanwal, S., 2019. Employee participation in organizational change: A case of Tesco PLC. International Journal of Financial, Accounting, and Management1(2), pp.91-99.

Beugelsdijk, S., Kostova, T. and Roth, K., 2017. An overview of Hofstede-inspired country-level culture research in international business since 2006. Journal of International Business Studies48(1), pp.30-47.

Braithwaite, J., Herkes, J., Ludlow, K., Testa, L. and Lamprell, G., 2017. Association between organisational and workplace cultures, and patient outcomes: systematic review. BMJ open7(11), p.e017708.

Brannen, M.Y., Mughan, T. and Moore, F., 2020. The creative use of insider ethnography as a means for organizational self investigation: The “Essence of Tesco” project. In The Routledge companion to anthropology and business (pp. 132-154). Routledge.

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Jackson, T., 2020. The legacy of Geert Hofstede.

Jumayev, U., 2021. INTERCULTURAL DIFFERENCE PARAMETERS: HOFSTEDE AND TROMPENAARS THEORIES. ????? ??????? ?????????? (buxdu. uz)3(3).

Khan, W.A., Hassan, R.A., Arshad, M.Z., Arshad, M.A., Kashif, U., Aslam, F. and Wafa, S.A., 2020. The effect of entrepreneurial orientation and organisational culture on firm performance: The mediating role of innovation. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change13(3), pp.652-677.

Kristjánsdóttir, H., Guðlaugsson, Þ.Ö., Guðmundsdóttir, S. and Aðalsteinsson, G.D., 2020. Cultural and geographical distance: Effects on UK exports. Applied Economics Letters27(4), pp.275-279.

Lühr, G.J., Bosch-Rekveldt, M.G. and Radujkovic, M., 2020. Key stakeholders’ perspectives on the ideal partnering culture in construction projects. Frontiers of Engineering Management, pp.1-14.

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Rosnizam, M.R.A.B., Kee, D.M.H., Akhir, M.E.H.B.M., Shahqira, M., Yusoff, M.A.H.B.M., Budiman, R.S. and Alajmi, A.M., 2020. Market Opportunities and Challenges: A Case Study of Tesco. Journal of the Community Development in Asia (JCDA)3(2), pp.18-27.

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