Leadership Functions for Motivating Employees & Delivering Results Assignment Sample

Leadership vs Management - Key Differences and Impact on Organizational Culture | Comparing leadership activities at Coca-Cola and Red Bull

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Introduction Leadership And Management In The Workplace (Unit-4) Assignment

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Leader and manager are often used interchangeably but they are not the same. managers focuses on mainly managerial functions which are planning, organizing, and coordinating resources to manage tasks and deliver results. A leader will encourage, motivate, and persuade the members of his team. It will lead to achievement of individual goals while working towards the larger objectives that are the organization's objectives. (Goleman, 2018). A manager accomplishes the organization or a mission by controlling, giving direction, planning, and maintaining coordination between employees of a company. Organizational leaders generally enable the decisions whereas managers habitually create decisions. The main difference between leaders and managers is a leader outline the business culture and effort integrity while managers primarily enact the surviving culture and also maintain the position (Dumitru et.al. 2015). Both leaders and managers have different roles in an organization and are very important in their position to effectively run a business.

The first part of the report discusses different management or leadership theories and principles along with their impact on organizational activities. It is also explained in the report how different leadership and management styles influence organizational culture. The soft and hard skills of leaders and managers are examined in the study with various examples of different leadership theories and their impact on business decision-making. The report also includes comparison among different organizations based on their management and leadership activities. At last, the study provides the importance of effective culture with the roles of managers and leaders within the organizational culture. To make this report easily understandable the company Coco Cola is considered as a case company for the report.

Hard vs. Soft skill

Hard skills are related to a particular job including technical skills, these skills are related to every position and at every level. Another way to say it is every position in each organization will need an exclusive hard skill set. For example, an accountant position requires the hard skill of how reconciling bank statements, whereas this skill is useless for a developer. Hard skills are the ability and capacity that let an employee handle specific job duties and responsibilities. Hard skills can be acquired through courses, on-the-job training, and vocational training. These skills are mainly related to the use of tools, software, and equipment in specific tasks related to the job.

Soft skills are general characteristics of a human being; it is related to the personality qualities of employees. Managers like to see some soft skills in all employees regardless of their position. These include skills of time management, teamwork, communication, creativity, critical thinking, decision-making, and stress management. Hard skills are necessary to perform the specific job but the employees who have soft skills will stand out. Soft skills are very important for the organizational success and growth of employees. These are difficult to learn but not impossible, they can be learned through education and volunteering.

Leadership and management theories and principles

Both leadership and management have distinct theories and principles at their level. Management theories are a pool of thoughts that acclaim general guidelines to know how to cope up with a business or an organization. If the company adopts sequential theories of management then an organization will be benefited from a boost in productivity, objectivity, collaboration, and easy decision-making for a leader. There are seven types of theories and principles of organizational leadership and management.

  1. Scientific management theory - that was introduced by Frederick Taylor. Note: Motivational strategy is a technique to promote the employee’s goal-related behaviour. Because human behaviour is very complex, a manager frequently needs to encourage their employees to give their hundred percent in the achievement of organizational objectives. Good motivation also includes redesigning jobs according to the needs and interests of employees to motivate them. This strategy is designed for the case company Coca-Cola to motivate employees in the organization's culture.
  1. Administrative management theory - is a principle of administration that was announced by Henri Fayol. The theory analyses five key functions to coordinate, control, forecast, command, and plan. Henry Fayol established principles that drew how managers should unify and cooperate with their groups (Edwards, 2018). The principles that Henry Fayol’s theory contains are initiative, equity, scalar chain, remuneration of personnel, unity of direction, discipline, division of work, authority and responsibility, unity of command, subordination of individual interest to general interests, centralization, order, stability of tenure, and spirit de corps.
  2. Bureaucratic management - . The bureaucratic management theory is developed by Max Weber, this theory concentrates on organizing organizations in the hierarchy thus there are perfect rules of authority (Sturdy et. al. 2016). This theory includes various principles such as a clear division of labor, chain of authority, stringent and constant rules and regulations, keeping rules and regulations of recruitment and promotion of employees, and division of individual and managerial assets of the company.
  3. Human relation theory - human relation theory was proposed by Elton Mayo, the main focus of this theory is on improving the relationship with human resources of the organization. Elton mayo suggested that an organization can improve its productivity by improving human relations. In this management theory, Elton Mayo experiments with the organization's working conditions including break times, lighting, ventilation, and duration of the workday. The experiments result showed that there is a performance improvement when employees feel valued.
  4. Systems leadership theory - This theory suggested that businesses are like the human body consisting of many parts that should work in synchronization so that the bigger system can work optimally. As per this theory, an organization's growth and accomplishments depend on various elements such as synergy, relations, and dependence between the organization's subsystems. This theory states employees are a key component of an organization and other vital components are workgroups, sections, and business units. According to systems leadership theory organization’s manager must assess patterns and actions in the internal environment of the organization to create the most appropriate leadership approach. The leaders also need to include programs where employees need to work in harmony for the achievement of common goals of the company.
  1. Contingency leadership theory - Fred Fiedler developed the contingency theory, this theory says that there is no best leadership approach and one approach cannot work for all organizations (Regier and Redish, 2015). Fiedler recommended that the leadership approach should depend upon the external and internal environment of the organization. This theory says that a leader should not be rigid in selecting and adapting different management strategies.
  2. Theory X and Y - This theory is developed by Douglas McGregor an American social psychologist. Douglas provided two theories based on two different styles of management, these theories are X theory (the authoritarian management style) and Y theory (the participative management style). Theory Y is used where employees are self-motivated, responsible, and committed to work (Hattangadi, 2015). Theory X is used where employees have a low passion for work so the manager takes all important decisions to the achievement of the organization's goals.

The above management and leadership theories have both negative and positive impacts on the organizations' activities. All these theories used different management styles which lead to changes in organizational behavior and culture. Taylor’s theory impacted every organization’s activities and it transformed the professional and individual dynamic of its human resource and supervisors. This traditional approach of management style was later on confronted by the commencement of the human relations theory which helped to promote improvement in organizational behavior.

one more immense impact on organizational activities was created by McGregor’s Theory X & Theory Y. These two theories are extremely different. Applying Theory X to the organization will result in strict rules for performing organizational activities. On the other hand application of Theory Y creates an environment where employees' behavior shows commitment to performing organizational activities.

Leadership theories and their impact on decision making

Leadership style refers to the managerial approach adopted by leaders to direct, motivate, and influence employees. There are mainly three types of leadership styles that are explained below:

Democratic Leadership – In this type of leadership style, leaders decide while considering suggestions received from followers. This leadership style includes delegation of authority to lower levels to utilize the talent and skills of lower-level employees in carrying out jobs. In this style, the end decision is taken by a manager with everyone's opinion counted (Terzi and Derin, 2016). This is one of the most effective leadership styles because it allows team members to have a voice.

In a democratic leadership style, decision-making is done by a manager with the involvement of team members. This style helps to take creative decisions with the engagement of team members. But establishing harmony between group members can be time taking and increase the costs of management decisions.

Autocratic Leadership – Autocratic leadership is contrary to the democratic leadership style. In this style, the leader does decisions making on behalf of the group with no suggestions or opinions from the members of the team. The only leader has responsibility and authority related to decision-making (Chukwusa, 2018). Team members have to support the decision taken by the leader. The autocratic leadership style is an old leadership style it can demotivate employees because many decisions would not be in the employees’ interests and result in employee turnover. on the other hand, autocratic leadership can be a successful approach where the leader is an expert and know every aspect of the decision. This style can also be useful where team members are not skilled and decision-making does not require team input.

Laissez-faire Leadership This leadership style is passive, the leader helps team members with the necessary information, tools, and other resources to perform tasks. This style is also called the hands-off style or 'let them be' style of leadership. In this style, the leader steps backside and lets group members work with no control and are liberated to plan, classify, deal with problems, make decisions, and complete the allotted projects. The laissez-faire leadership approach gives power to team members, who are self-motivated, creative, and skilled (Tosunoglu and Ekmekci, 2016). The level of freedom and independence provided to employees can motivate and uplift productivity in them.

The Coca-Cola Company follows different leadership styles in different departments in the organization. Coca-cola used autocratic leadership on the factory floor because there is a need to control and have specific procedures which are flowed by the employees. Coca-Cola Company follows a Laissez-faire leadership style in its north London organizational branch. Because their employees are meeting their Key Business Indicators the managers and the supervisors of the branch take this calm style for coordinating their business.

The importance of culture and the role leaders and managers

Organizational culture refers to the aggregate of expectations, values, and practices that direct and notifies the activities of all the employees in the organization. A culture includes leadership styles, a chain of communication, inside distributed information, and business celebrations. A good organizational culture has positive traits that result in improved efficiency in performance, whereas a dysfunctional organizational culture brings out merits that can hold back even the most thriving organizations (Al-Sada et. al. 2017).

Organizational culture and leadership are values that define an organization and how the organization's leadership implements the values. It describes the actions and activities an organization be expecting from its employees to create an optimistic environment to help a business grow. Organizational culture helps in clearly defining and communicating the organization's vision and mission so that all employees need to know the objectives to accomplish. Leaders explain to employees how to incorporate values that add to organizational culture . Leaders are also accountable for describing, training, and assessing the culture the organization wants to cultivate (Dinsdale, 2017). Ethical leadership help in creating a culture of trust, integrity, honesty, and fairness.

Organizational culture and leadership for the effective performance includes:

Values – organizational culture defines commonly shared values of the organization. Leaders are an inspiration to express expected behaviors from employees which align with the organization's core values. Effective culture is where leaders help employees to understand the actions to be taken for embracing values at the place of work. It's the responsibility of a manager to convert the vision of the business into real results.

Job Satisfaction – job satisfaction refers to meeting the needs of employees related to the job. Various factors influence job satisfaction but the most important factors are the quality of organizational culture and leadership style. Ethical leadership creates a culture that inspires and motivates the employees which will increase job satisfaction among them.

Recognition – An effective organizations cultural value contributed through the recognition, the job of the leader is to praise and appreciate hard work and good behavior. When leaders give rewards for positive behavior, it motivates employees and makes them feel confident. Leadership fosters a culture of appreciation. Quality leaders also persuade employees to recognize their co-workers for constructive contributions.

In the case of Coca-Cola, its culture consists of seven main principles that are leadership, enthusiasm, collaboration, integrity, diversity, excellence, and answerability (Maisoni et. al . 2019). Coca-Cola has diversity in its workplace culture, it consists of programs to pull, retain, and grow assorted talent. Coca-cola has received many awards related to effective organizational cultures such as the Bloomberg gender- equality index,2022, and America's best employer for diversity, Forbes, 2022.

Comparison of leadership and management activities in different organizations

As above mentioned concept of leadership and management activities in an organization, the Company should also keep eye on its competitor's management activities to gain a competitive advantage. For analyzing the leadership and management activities in a different organization, Red Bull and Coca-Cola Companies are undertaken to be compared. Red Bull was established in 1987 and headquartered in Austria. The company is dealing with its products in around 145 countries across the world. The company is currently operating globally and has a marketing team and CEO within each franchise. Red Bull managed to express the energy drink industry with a unique brand that infiltrate product into popular sports and culture. The marketing activities are handled by the Mateschitz manager, who mainly focuses on aggressive marketing through viral marketing, promotional events and activities, and sports sponsorship. The company has two types of organizational structures that are divisional and functional which make the company more flexible and adaptive to intend diverse economic circumstances for the leadership and management approaches. Each franchise has to independently manage the yearly budget and ensure that it is optimum use in the company's operations. HR team management is considered very strong at the global level of a company. As the hired employees are sent to regional headquarter for training and development events to make them professional in their work and achieve the company's objective effectively.

Whereas, Coca-Cola is a soft drink manufacturing company that was founded in 1886 with headquartered in The United States. The company is presently selling its products in more than 200 territories and countries. The company believes in two different leadership styles that are democratic and laissez-faire approach to leading different franchise across the world. Coca-Cola Company grouped its employees with similar skills, talent, and common work functions to effectively manage the human resource. Company's planning and strategy whether it is short-term or long-term planning both are formulated by the top managers only. Through periodic reviews, the company controls all its functions with a salesperson and managerial performance. The company's sales department plays target-based activity for selling products across the globe.

In the comparison of both the Coca-Cola and Red Bull company managerial activities, it is extracted that both companies are manufacturing companies of energy and soft drinks. But both have different activities related to planning, organizing, leading, controlling, and marketing. Red Bull allows it's each franchise CEO to develop their planning and execute strategies for it. However, Coca Cola short and long-term planning and strategies are developed only by the headquartered top managers. Red Bull uses an aggressive marketing strategy by continuously targeting sports people across the world. While coca-cola uses a marketing mix strategy to target all age group people, especially young people all over the globe. Both companies adopted different types of leadership and organizational structure in a business. Red Bull opted divisional and functional organizational structure that mainly signifies the autocratic with some consideration of the democratic style of leadership. Whereas, Coca-Cola opted for both democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles equally. Hence, it is concluded that both companies are performing well in the market with different leadership and management activities to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors.

Conclusion

From the above report, it can be concluded that leadership and management style has a great impact on the success of the organization. Leaders decide values, change tolerance, culture, and employee motivation. Leadership also shapes institutional strategies including effectiveness in execution. This report highlights how Different leadership styles are useful for creating a different organizational culture. Autocratic leadership can be used where employees are less skilled and need to be direct. The laissez-faire style is most suitable where employees need no supervision as they are experts in their field of work. Two organizations can have the same materialistic resources but they cannot have the same human resources, so this report discusses the importance of leadership and management in the accomplishment of organizational growth. The report also gives an understanding of management and leadership activities at the Coca-Cola Company. The success of the coca-cola company is major because it applies different leadership styles in different departments.

Referencing

Goleman, D., 2018. What makes a leader?. In Military Leadership (pp. 39-52). Routledge.

Dumitru, A., Motoi, A.G. and Budica, A.B., 2015. What kind of leader is a manager?. Annals of the University of Craiova for Journalism, Communication, and Management , 1 , pp.50-60.

Edwards, R., 2018. An elaboration of the administrative theory of the 14 principles of management by Henri Fayol. International journal for empirical education and research , 1 (1), pp.41-51.

Sturdy, A., Wright, C. and Wylie, N., 2016. Managers as consultants: The hybridity and tensions of neo-bureaucratic management. Organization , 23 (2), pp.184-205.

Hattangadi, V., 2015. Theory x & theory y. International Journal of Recent Research Aspects , 2 (4), pp.20-21.

Regier, P.S. and Redish, A.D., 2015. Contingency management and deliberative decision-making processes. Frontiers in Psychiatry , 6 , p.76.

Al-Sada, M., Al-Esmael, B. and Faisal, M.N., 2017. Influence of organizational culture and leadership style on employee satisfaction, commitment and motivation in the educational sector in Qatar. EuroMed Journal of Business .

Terzi, A.R. and Derin, R., 2016. Relation between Democratic Leadership and Organizational Cynicism. Journal of Education and Learning , 5 (3), pp.193-204.

Chukwusa, J., 2018. Autocratic leadership style: Obstacle to success in academic libraries. Library Philosophy and Practice , p.1.

Tosunoglu, H. and Ekmekci, O., 2016. Laissez-Faire leaders and organizations: How does Laissez-Faire leader erode the trust in organizations?. Journal of Economics Finance and Accounting , 3 (1).

Dinsdale, R., 2017. The Role of Leaders in Developing a Positive Culture. BU Journal of Graduate Studies in Education , 9 (1), pp.42-45.

Maisoni, H., Yasri, Y. and Abror, A., 2019, April. Effect of organizational culture, leadership and compensation on employee engagement in coca-cola amatil indonesia central sumatra. In 2nd Padang International Conference on Education, Economics, Business and Accounting (PICEEBA-2 2018) (pp. 553-561). Atlantis Press.

Part 2 :Motivational Strategies

Overview

  • Motivation theory is the study of factors that inspires an employee to follow a specific course of action to achieve the desired goal.
  • Motivational theories have many uses, including understanding the sociology and psychology behind performance.
  • By studying motivational theories management can find out what motivates employees to work more or care extra about the organization. In an organization, managers use these theories to improve employee retention rate, profits, employee satisfaction, and profits of the company.
  • A manager uses motivation theories intending to increase employee performance to help the organization in order to accomplish its mission and goals. By implying motivation theories, management includes offering rewards and incentives as well as addressing the needs of the employee to meet an objective of performance improvement.

Note: In this part of the presentation, a motivational strategy is developed which focuses on the enhancement of organizational effectiveness by including both intrinsic motivation as well as on extrinsic motivation.

Motivation theories

Incentive theory - The incentive theory recommends that employees are motivated by rewards and incentives with recognition in the workplace. The incentive may be a bonus, promotion, praise, opportunity, and increase in salary or paid vacation (Lazaroiu, 2015). The incentive can be used in the performance management of employees in the organization.

McClelland’s need theory McClelland's need theory of motivation provides three different needs that motivate employees. The three needs of this theory are the need for affiliation, the need for achievement, need for power (Rybnicek et. al. 2019). By understanding these needs managers can recognize the ability of employees to work in different situations. Managers need to analyze these needs to decide which reward may work finest for every employee.

Competence theory Competence motivation theory suggests that employees frequently want to engage in particular activities to show their skills, abilities, and intelligence. This theory says employees can be motivated by presenting their intellect in front of their colleagues.

Expectancy theory The expectancy theory proposes that employees may carry out certain behaviors if they believe those actions can lead to wanted results (Lloyd and Mertens, 2018). Management can apply the expectancy motivation theory in the workplace if it wants to improve employees’ productivity, and efficiency.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory This motivation theory suggests five levels of human needs in a hierarchical manner. These needs are physiological, safety, socialization, esteem, and self-actualization need. Physiological needs are basic survival needs of a person that includes food, water shelter, and cloth (Osemeke and Adegboyega, 2017). Safety need comes into the picture when physiological needs are fulfilled and now employees' need is a sense of job security. Socialization needs, Humans are social animals they strive to socialize, so the next need of employees is acceptance in the workplace feel a sense of belongingness.

Note: There are five motivation theories used by a different organization. A sense of competent feeling can increase the confidence of employees while performing tasks. By using Competence theory managers can manage the performance of employees and improve it by giving them specific tasks(Lazaroiu, 2015).. The incentive motivation theory also suggests that employees' performance can be improved by giving them rewards.

Performance improvement approaches

  • The financial performance is an approach of performance management of an organization refers to the generation of revenues by the primary mode of the organization's business. Financial performance can be known by the income statement, cash flow statement, and balance sheet of the organization (Kim al. 2017). Managers focus on profitability, liquidity, and solvency to improve their financial performance.
  • Market performance refers to the performance of an organization and its product in the marketplace. Market performance shows the final results of many policies such as the connection of selling price to costs, the effectiveness of production, liberalism in products, and the size of output, etc.
  • Managers try to improve Shareholder value; Shareholder value means the value of earnings shared with the stockholders in an organization. It shows an organization's ability to maintain and produce revenue over time. Increasing shareholder value is one of the key indicators of organizational performance.

Note: This is an effective reward system developed for organizations like coca cola so that it will motivate employees to perform efficiently and effectively. When employees give their best performance it will result in the achievement of organizational objectives and the growth of the business (Pambreni et. al 2019). Generally, Organizational performance refers to the capacity of an organization to realize optimum results. Organizational performance mainly concentrates on three main areas which are financial performance, market performance, and shareholder performance; these are the most valuable area to improve organizational performance.

Example of Organization’s performance approaches used by management

  1. Business process improvement: to improve organization performance managers can focus on making Business processes more effective and efficient. Business processes can be redesigned to improve business performance with the reallocation of assets between the processes (Vanwersch al. 2016). Managers try to improve particular business functions, to increase their contribution to the overall performance of the organization.
  2. Employees’ performance improvement Increasing the employees’ productivity is another approach to boost an organization’s effectiveness as a whole (Buckingham and Goodall, 2015).
  • Managers should focus on motivating their employees to increase their workforce performance. Organizations can give money as well as non-monetary incentives to increase the productivity of employees.
  • An organization can use monetary incentives likeprofit sharing, bonuses, stock options and warrants, commissions, wage incentives, extra allowances, and salary raises.
  • Non-monetary incentives are Non- cash rewards provided by managers to employees. Non monetary incentives can be flexible work hours, education and training programs, a pleasant organizational environment, and sponsored vacations
  1. Digital Adoption and Transformation – This is a way through which managers can improve organizational performance. The digital revolution is ongoing, organizations should adopt it otherwise they will fall behind their competitors. Digital transformation and its implementation can improve organizations' effectiveness by becoming extra innovative, more customer-focused, and more agile (Vrain al. 2022). Following are some ways by which digital transformation able to improve organizational performance
  • Including new tools and techniques can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of internal as well as external business processes.
  • Automation is a key part of digital transformation; it can add important productivity gains and reduce errors done by a human.
  • Data-driven technology provides a lot of advantages across a wide variety of activities performed in the organization.
  • Managers can use Digital technology to add new techniques of working, such as remote jobs and online partnerships.

Note: Improvement in organizational performance is only possible through a change in organizational culture and activities (Vrain et.al. 2022). There are a lot of ways to enhance a business’s performance; some of the examples are described as business process improvement, employees performance improvement and Digital Adoption and Transformation.

Management approaches and its role in performance improvement

Communication centre approach - This approach of management focuses more on the smooth flow of information in the organization. It includes accepting information, processing it, and distributing it throughout the organization (Bryson, 2017). Effective communication among employees at the workplace leads to the development of strong relationships between managers and employees. It helps in building a positive work culture and increases both staffs motivation and productivity

Systems Approach to Management: This approach to management considers an organization as a system. A system refers to the collection of interdependent and related elements. An organization is a system made up of several departments and each department is independent. In This approach, management focuses on improvement in the overall performance of the business by coordinating all organizational departments. Employees' performance is also a key consideration in the system approach to management.

Administrative Approach to Management :

In this approach, a manager uses a different managerial function to improve organizational performance. These functions are planning, organizing, staffing, motivating, leading, coordinating, and controlling. In this approach, the manager plays the role of disturbance handler and resource allocator to improve the performance of the workforce. As disturbance handlers managers solve all grievances of employees related to work and work environment (Altamony and Gharaibeh, 2017). A resource allocator manager distributes resources among various departments as well as between all employees in the organization.

Note: These approach of management helps in improving organizational performance as well as employees' performance. If managers adopt this approach then there will be clarity in the organization of what to do, how to do it, and when to do it. Managers try to coordinate between different people and align individual goals with the organizational goal (Begum and Momen, 2019). Further managers try to motivate employees by improving the connection between all departments.

Developing a motivational strategy

  1. Empowering employees- This motivational strategy empowers employees at Coca-cola by giving them authority, and autonomy to perform takes. Managers should show trust and encourage their employees because it will give them a sense of belongingness. This motivational strategy includes corporate intrapreneurship, which means encouraging employees to chase new ideas and providing them the power to work on those ideas.
  2. An effective reward system- Managers use rewards in their motivation strategy to highlight employee behavior that they want to see in the organization's environment. A reward is a positive value that may be monetary or non-monetary given to the employees for performing well (Mokhniuk and Yushchyshyna, 2018).
  3. Flexibility – Employees value their time because of family and other needs. Traditional fixed work hours may not work for many people so this strategy provides flexible work hours to the employees to satisfy their personal needs. This strategy includes telecommuting and job sharing in some areas of the organization. Telecommuting is a facility by which employees can spend a part of their work hours working from outside of the office. Job sharing refers to a full-time job shared by two employees, each employee works half work day.

Note: This motivation strategy provides two types of rewards for employees at coca-cola. These rewards are intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards. Extrinsic rewards provide extrinsic motivation to the employees, extrinsic motivation comes from outside factors and is given by another person such as a supervisor or manager. This motivation strategy includes Extrinsic rewards like pay bonuses, time off, promotions, challenging assignments, office resources( special cabin), verbal appreciation, and awards(Mokhniuk and Yushchyshyna, 2018).. Intrinsic rewards provide intrinsic motivation to the employees of an organization like Coca-cola. Intrinsic motivation is self-administered and employees get personal satisfaction from it. At Coca-cola intrinsic motivation in employees can come when they feel competent, have control over work, and have personal development.

Conclusion and Recommendations

  • All three approaches which are stated above are very useful in continuous improvement and performance.
  • Organizational performances as well as employee’s performance are key influencers of the success of a company.
  • The communication approach helps to establish an effective communication system in organization culture.
  • It helps in Building employees' morale and engagement.
  • It further builds a positive work environment which will help in improving productivity and performance.
  • The system approach and administrative approach also help in continuous improvement by improving coordination within the organization.

Note: All the above techniques will help in creating a positive organizational culture; this kind of culture facilitates participatory engagement and teamwork. It adds effectiveness and efficiency to the work performance of employees.

Referencing

Lazaroiu, G., 2015. Work motivation and organizational behavior. Contemp. Readings L. & Soc. Just. , 7 , p.66.

Rybnicek, R., Bergner, S. and Gutschelhofer, A., 2019. How individual needs influence motivation effects: a neuroscientific study on McClelland’s need theory. Review of Managerial Science , 13 (2), pp.443-482.

Osemeke, M. and Adegboyega, S., 2017. Critical Review and Comparism between Maslow, Herzberg and McClelland's Theory of Needs. Funai journal of accounting, business and finance , 1 (1), pp.161-173.

Lloyd, R. and Mertens, D., 2018. Expecting more out of expectancy theory: History urges inclusion of the social context. International Management Review , 14 (1), pp.28-43.

Vanwersch, R.J., Shahzad, K., Vanderfeesten, I., Vanhaecht, K., Grefen, P., Pintelon, L., Mendling, J., van Merode, G.G. and Reijers, H.A., 2016. A critical evaluation and framework of business process improvement methods. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 58(1), pp.43-53.

Buckingham, M. and Goodall, A., 2015. Reinventing performance management. Harvard Business Review , 93 (4), pp.40-50.

Pambreni, Y., Khatibi, A., Azam, S. and Tham, J.J.M.S.L., 2019. The influence of total quality management toward organization performance. Management Science Letters , 9 (9), pp.1397-1406.

Kim, K., Watkins, K.E. and Lu, Z.L., 2017. The impact of a learning organization on performance: Focusing on knowledge performance and financial performance. European Journal of Training and Development .

Vrain, E., Wilson, C., Kerr, L. and Wilson, M., 2022. Social influence in the adoption of digital consumer innovations for climate change. Energy Policy , 162 , p.112800.

Bryson, J., 2017. Effective library and information centre management. Routledge.

Begum, M.M. and Momen, M.N., 2019. Coordination and effective governance. Global encyclopedia of public administration, public policy, and governance , pp.1-6.

Altamony, H. and Gharaibeh, A., 2017. The role of academic researcher to Mintzberg’s managerial roles. International Journal of Business Management and Economic Research , 8 (2), pp.920-925.

Mokhniuk, A. and Yushchyshyna, L., 2018. The impact of monetary and non-monetary factors of motivation on employee productivity. Economic journal of Lesya Ukrainka Volyn National University , 1 (13), pp.94-101.

 

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