Unit 50: Offender Management Assignment Sample

Theories of Punishment and Sentencing in UK Offender Management

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LO1: Explore the nature of offender management

P1 Discuss theories of punishment and the purpose of sentencing

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Various different psychological hypotheses showcase the reasons for domestic violence. The most well-known hypotheses all recognize the maltreatment of force also, control by the victimizers, albeit the role of force as well as control differs by hypothetical direction. Considering the domestic violence within family there are mainly three psychodynamic theories which are discussed in detail below:

Object Relations Theory

Attachment Theory

Violence as Trauma

The object relations hypothesis recommends that people are persuaded from their earliest youth by the requirement for critical associations with others; “others" are alluded to as "objects" inside the object’s relations hypothesis (Nolan, 2013).

The connection hypothesis elucidates that kid exploitation brings about uncertain in addition to restless connections, which can be avoidant, conflicted, or muddled (Nolan, 2013).

The hypothesis of domestic abuse as a trauma recommends that survivors of exploitation process

this experience as a horrible mishap, similar to the reaction of people

who experience the ill effects of post-awful pressure disorder (Nolan, 2013).

Now considering the the foundation for protective as well as community sentences, bearing in mind domestic violence offences its main objective is to give punishment to the criminal this might include sending the abuser in jail, making them work without any pay for the society. Its aim is also focussed towards reducing the domestic abuse by safeguarding the criminal from doing additional abuse as well as persuading others from doing the same kind of abuse (Tonry, 2006).

P2 Investigate a range of organisations involved in offender management

Offender management is usually concerned on in what manner the abuser time in prison beneath the command within the society is administered. The main aim of the offender administration is to try to assimilate people in order that they are less probably to commit the same abuse in the upcoming time (Maguire, 2016). Usually there are various kinds of companies who are engaged in offender management for example both government as well as non-government organizations.

There is a dedicate organization for managing offender management within UK which us knowns as the National Offender Management Service. They are usually responsible for looking after the prising functions in England. The organization additionally administers probation conveyance in Britain as well as Wales by means of the Public Probation Administration in addition to local area restoration organizations. Inside Britain and Wales National Offender Management Service are liable for:

  • The functioning of jail and probation administrations
  • The recovery administrations for detainees leaving jail
  • Ensuring support is accessible to stop individuals from insulting others once more
  • Contract overseeing private area penitentiaries and administrations, for example, the detainee escort administration and electronic labelling (Service,National Offender Management, 2022).

NOMS in Wales has been made to ensure all associations conveying administrations including detainees in Wales work intently together. They work with the Welsh Regime to guarantee that what they convey is in accordance with the arrangements the Welsh Government makes for individuals of Wales (Service,National Offender Management, 2022).

M1 Assess examples of partnership working to manage offenders

Domestic violence is the most well-known type of viciousness against ladies and young ladies. In Britain and Wales, 2.3 million individuals are known to have encountered it in one year, 1.6 million of them ladies. The Coronavirus pandemic made homegrown maltreatment increasingly pose a threat in the public's ethics. Alliances moving forward to deal with domestic abuse are currently emphatically implanted in the manner by which neighbourhoods in Britain and Wales approach local area security. The Crime and Disorder Act (1998) characterizes the centre gathering of organizations engaged with these associations as well as their capabilities and job at the nearby level ( Policing,College of, 2022). Also, particularly within UK some of the governments and non-government agencies which work altogether to fight against domestic violence are the local police and local agencies too. They work in accordance to get hold of the culprit who is doing the abuse and make him sentenced for several year. They also help the victims by sending them to restoration centre and also help them by serving food and other household necessities (Berry, 2018). In addition to this particularly in case of child and women abuse the companies in partnership with various agencies help them by taking them to centre where they learn different things about life and also help the in learning to fight against any sort of domestic abuse. So, overall, from the discussion it can be said that the main motive of both form of organization is to decrease the domestic abuse and make awareness on how to deal with the domestic violence in families.

D1 Critically evaluate the effectiveness of offender management in the community

With such an elevated extent of UK domestic abuse being perpetrated by similar arrangements of guilty parties, particularly during the Covid-19 pandemic time, the Home Office presented the Coordinated Wrongdoer board for the purpose of decreasing re-offending in the UK. By joining the endeavours of the police force, probation administrations, and non-legal associations, wrongdoers get a more concentrated recovery treatment and backing system. The progress of the undertaking depends principally on the capacity of the accomplice associations to co-work and offer the applicable data flawlessly. This might be accomplished ?rstly by guaranteeing that all gatherings included share a similar vision for the task, close by a common perspective of which job they each play in arriving at given targets (Hadfield, 2020). There must likewise be lucidity in what obligations are held by each body, with clear cycles set up to guarantee assignments allude to the right offices and additional people. Also, considering the effectivity of the offender management within the UK community it can said to be as one of the best practices started the UK government to fight against domestic abuse due to which the abuser is getting punishment on time and people are also getting the power to raise their voice against any sort of domestic abuse in the community (Hagan, 2020).

LO2 Investigate the management of offenders in the community

P3 Illustrate the community sentences that can be imposed by a court

Community sentences are the punishments given by the community of the offender and the victim. The community can mean their religious community, social community, familial community or even their neighborhood. These sentences are the community’s way of emphasizing on the fact that such actions will not be tolerated within the community and the offender will be punished for his deeds. Such sentences are often imposed by the court so that the offender can be psychologically punished through this public humiliation within his community. These sentences can be of two types, one id custodial punishments which are obviously enforced by the law and the second type is non-custodial punishment which s enforced by the community bondage, these punishments include:

  • Fines and compensation to the family of the victim or the victim as a solo entity.
  • Regularly reporting to a designated person of the community, this can be a religious leader or the oldest member who is the head of the community.
  • Public apology to the victim and her family
  • Curfew of returning home, failing to maintain the deadline might cause the inducement of fines or extension of the punishment period.
  • Designated hours of unpaid work(Kemshell and Wood 2013).

P4 Investigate the organizations that are involved in the community management of offenders

There are many types of organizations that are rigorously involved within community management of offenders. These organizations are mostly community driven and hence are not very famous or high profiled. They are involved in the supervision of the sentences and punishments that the community members a lot to the offenders. However, there are certain kinds of offenders for whom rehabilitation and programs are essential. These offenders are mentally and physically dangerous for the people around them and the community organizations such as welfare commission and NGOs are not equipped for capable enough to take care of them.

However, many such welfare communities organize programs so that the offenders can stay within the community to serve their sentence or punishments. These programs include;

  • Drug Interventions Program (DIP)
  • Proli?c and other Priority Offender (PPO)
  • Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA)

These programs are designed especially for mentally ill or violent offenders who have the tendency to flee away or hurt others when they feel vulnerable and cornered which is the purpose of the community sentence(Kemshell 2014).

M2 Analyze the role of organizations managing offenders in the community

The organization is a living entity with a mind of its own. The organization is extremely structured and mostly hierarchical in nature and hence the head of the community appoints the members who are responsible for each task that the community receives. In the case of offender management, the hierarchical structure of the community organizations is proven to be extremely helpful, the younger or middle-aged people are seen to be almost of the age of the victim and they can help comforting the victim. The other members have their responsibilities divided in various categories, these include the reporting of the offender, allocating him tasks for the day, taking follow ups, counselling the offender regarding the development of his behavior and so on. The community feeling and the atmosphere of such organizations allow a psychological sense of humiliation that ultimately turns into guilt mostly. The organization of programs for violent offenders and the promising acts to indulging the offender to not recreate what he had done before. All these aspects allow the offender to move towards betterment and motivate his emotions towards a concrete goal of rectifying himself rather than turning revengeful which is seen in many cases(Holtfreter, K. and Wattanaporn, K.A., 2014.).

LO3 Explore the custodial management of offenders

P5 Discuss the purpose of imprisonment

Imprisonment is the action of holding or deterring the people or offenders who have been claimed to be dangerous for the society by the law. These people are confined within a cell so that they do not harm another person, or simply to snatch away the rights of freedom of the offender as a punishment of the deeds that he has done. There have been many debates regarding the purpose of imprisonment, in fact the purpose of imprisonment in different countries is different as well. However, there are three main reasons or purposes that are considered to be accepted by all. The first is for the purpose of detaining or deterring a socially harmful person from roaming free especially when he has a previous record of violence. The second purpose is the element of punishment, as a result of the offender inflicting physical or mental violence on the victim, the law of the state takes away his right of freedom. The third purpose which is one of the primary purposes in many prisons across the world is the purpose of remand(Coates, S., 2016). The prison allows the offender to mull or reflect over the deeds that he has done and understand the intensity or decree or harm and pain that he has caused to another person and potentially a family member. This very reflection or realization leads to the rectification of the actions of the offender.

P6 Research the types of prison and custodial sentence.

Types of Prison

Custodial Sentences

Men

Prison for Men

Category A

These prisons are for high security prisoners who are potentially dangerous and are a flight risk.

Category B

These prisoners do not require the maximum amount of security but they are still a potential flight risk.

Category C

These prisoners cannot be trusted in open conditions but are still unlikely to escape

Category D or open prison

This prison is for approved prisoners who are not a flight risk and are neither harmful for the society. They are not even regular offenders but might have indulged in crime due to a heat.

Women

Prison for Women

Restricted Status

This category of the prison is like that of Category A for male prisoners.

Closed

This prison for the women for is not a flight risk but still need to kept under surveillance as handling them can be difficult.

Semi Open

This was introduced in 2021, this is the hoe for prisoners who are unlikely to escape but still cannot be trusted in open prisons.

Open

This is the same as category D of the men’s prison or the open prison.

Children

Prison for children (Below 18 )

Young Offender Institutions (YOIs)

This prison is for prisoners who are between the age of 15-17 and are not considered vulnerable or dangerous to the society.

Secure Training Centers (STCs)

The environment of this institution focusses more on the aspect of reamendments like educational support or training in vocational activities. This is the home for offender aged between 12-14.

Secure Children's Homes (SCHs)

This prison also focuses mostly on the education and vocational training welfare of the child offenders. The age that they look after is between 10-12(Wooldredge, J., 2020).

M3 Assess the importance of sentence planning

Sentence planning is referred to as a curriculum that the offender receives at the prison. This curriculum has a detailed list of the work of the offender at the jail along with a few aims and objectives that they need to fulfill like learning a new hobby such as music, painting, or craft, if the offender has any special talent like teaching or playing any musical instrument then can even assume the role of a teacher and teach the same to the other fellow inmates of the prison. The sentence planning is conducted by four people who include the offender himself/herself along with the offender Manager (Probation

Officer), an Offender Supervisor and 2 personal Officers. The sentence planning is a part of the remand process that is taken by many prisons whose aim is to not only punish the offender but to rectify the mental state in which he or she committed the crime and help them become better people. A sentence planning helps the offender to indulge in activities that take their mind away from the crime that they have committed and allow them to indulge in a ‘normal life’ in the prison. However, the prison itself holds itself accountable for making the offender reflect on his/her actions. The sentence planning allows the offender to reflect and themselves and witness their potential and the fact that they could have done so much more. This psychological realization helps the offender to rectify themselves.

D2 Critically evaluate the management of offenders in custody and the effectiveness of offender management

Offenders are managed in different ways in the custodial period. Broadly speaking, the intensity of the crime and the personality of the offender determine the kind of treatment and management that they receive at the custody. Some offenders are hardly let out of their cell or their designated lane and even if they are, they are mostly handcuffed and accompanied by armed officers. These prisoners are extremely dangerous and have high flight risks. However, some prisoners are left within the prison grounds without much supervision. They are the tame ones; they are more inclined towards rectifying themselves and learning new things in the prison. They are treated with very casually and generally with no extra safety precautions. These offenders are analyzed from time to time and any kind of change in their behavior is seen with the gravest of concern and is immediately informed to the higher authorities of the prison. However, the effectiveness of the management also depends somewhat on the reception power of the offenders. The offenders can only be guided and somewhat made to do tasks however the generation of interest comes from within(Morris and Morris 2013).

LO4 Review the effectiveness of offender management

P7 Interpret data on reoffending after community and custodial sentences

The Recidivism rates of UK was about 24 percent in the months of July to September 2020 in the offender cohort. This represents a total of 1.6 percent decrease in the rates from the same quarter from 2019. This is also the lowest recorded rate of recidivism. However, over the years (2010-2020) the rates have fluctuated between 24.4 percent and 31.8 percent in UK. The rate of reoffending in adults have been 23.9 percent. This shows a decrease of 1.7 percent from the same quarter of the last year. However, this rate has been seen fluctuating between 23.9-30.6 percent. The reoffending rates of juvenile criminals have been 32.8 percent, this has seen a decrease of .2 percent from the same quarter of the last year. Hence the rates of reoffending have seen considerably low especially in the year 2020. According to the statistics of 2021, there have been little to no chances, however as the lockdown released its clutches from the society, there was a substantial rise in the complaints of victims (especially women) against physical violent and domestic violence against their partners(.Joseph, N. and Benefield, N., 2012)

M4 Analyze data and case studies and make inferences about the effectiveness of offender management

The aspect of reoffending and the rates associated with it have seen a substantial decline in the year 2020. However, many sociologists claim that this is because of the lockdown situation. People were locked in their houses and the social plethora was not prudent enough to commit crimes. This theory was further supported when after the opening of the lockdown situation there was a boom in the complaints of domestic violence against women. A trend that was supported in Tik Tok during the lockdown was women making hand gestures to non-verbally communicate the abuse they are encountering at their homes; this soon became a global phenomenon(Canton, R. and Hancock, D., 2013). A study showed that about 67 percent of the women who had plead for help in their social media has pre-accused partners who had been complained against or convicted for domestic violence. Hence, this shows that the aspect of offender management in UK is not so stable. Minor chances in routine of the offender and trigger similar violent thoughts in their minds and lead them to repeat the same offence again. Hence the management does not show signs of being foolproof.

References

Policing,College of, 2022. Partnership working and multi-agency responses/mechanisms. [Online]
Available at: https://www.college.police.uk/app/major-investigation-and-public-protection/domestic-abuse/partnership-working-and-multi-agency-responsesmechanisms
[Accessed 09 December 2022].

Berry, G., 2018. The effectiveness of partnership working in a crime and disorder context, s.l.: Cabinet Office Strategy Unit.

Hadfield, E., 2020. A systematic review into the effectiveness of Integrated Offender Management. Sage Journal, 21(5).

Hagan, A. O., 2020. Offender management: a review of approaches, benefits and challenges, s.l.: Department of Science and Technology Nottingham Trent University.

Maguire, M., 2016. Offender management in and after prison: The end of ‘end to end’?. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 17(2).

Nolan, M. E. H.-., 2013. Theoretical Basis for Family Violence , s.l.: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Service,National Offender Management, 2022. About us. [Online]
Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/national-offender-management-service/about
[Accessed 08 December 2022].

Tonry, M., 2006. Purposes and Functions of Sentencing , s.l.: University of Minnesota Law School.

Canton, R. and Hancock, D., 2013. Dictionary of probation and offender management. Willan.

Coates, S., 2016. Unlocking potential: A review of education in prison.

Holtfreter, K. and Wattanaporn, K.A., 2014. The transition from prison to community initiative: An examination of gender responsiveness for female offender reentry. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 41(1), pp.41-57.

Joseph, N. and Benefield, N., 2012. A joint offender personality disorder pathway strategy: An outline summary. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 22(3), pp.210-217.

Kemshall, H. and Wood, J., 2013. High-risk offenders and public protection. Handbook of probation, pp.403-419.

Kemshall, H., 2014. Public Protection: What Works in the Safe Management of Sexual Offenders?. PAUL SENIOR, p.103.

Morris, T. and Morris, P., 2013. Pentonville: A sociological study of an English prison. Routledge.

Wooldredge, J., 2020. Prison culture, management, and in-prison violence. Annual Review of Criminology, 3, pp.165-188.

 

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