A Future Of Hpp Juices: Sustainable Food And Beverage Assignment Sample

Exploring the Future of HPP Juices: Sustainable Beverage Production and Market Growth

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1. Introduction Of The Future Of Hpp Juices Sustainable Food And Beverage

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1.1 Introduction Of Case Study HPP Which Is "High-Pressure Processing" Of Making Juices Or Beverages

The research study is based on the HPP which is "High-pressure processing" of making juices or beverages. The focus of the study is to discuss the sustainability of preparing beverages and juices in the world today. The research includes the process of sustainable packaging and the demand of customers for fresh juices. The research includes the background of the chosen topic "A future of HPP juices: Sustainable Food and Beverage" for a better understanding of the processes involved and demand as well as sales in the market. The aim and objectives of the research will be highlighted. Research questions will be developed based on the objectives of the research study. The rationale will be discussed to enlighten the rate of demand and the advantages of HPP of beverages or juices. The research introduction is concisely explained in the summary section for a brief understanding of the process of HPP juices.

1.2 Background

HPP juices are a sustainable method of processing for the preparation of juices. The preparation of fresh juices is a recent trend in the beverage and food industries today. The trend has seen an uprising in the beverage industry because of the increasing demand customers for fresh juices (Barba et al. 2020). HPP is the process which includes the process of high-pressure for the preparation of juices. HPP is the process which involves extending the shelf life by killing 99.99 per cent of harmful microorganisms present in vegetables and fruits. Vegetables as well as fruits contain various microorganisms which include both beneficial and harmful bacteria.

The earlier innovation of thermal processing for the preparation includes the process of high-temperature treatment for making juices or beverages (Asaithambi et al. 2019). This would sometimes result in the killing of certain beneficial microorganisms as well thereby decreasing the nutritional value of the beverages. The introduction of high-pressure processing of preparing juices has resulted in the retention of the nutritional value of juices and other beverages. HPP not only includes the sustainable process of making juices but also a sustainable packaging process to increase the shelf life of juices.

1.3 Aim

The aim of the research study is to highlight the future prospect of HPP juices in the sustainable process of making beverages in the industry of food and beverages.

1.4 Objective

  • To identify the process of HPP involved in the making of juices sustainably.
  • To identify the benefits of HPP juices and their impact on the nutritional value of juices.
  • To identify the rate of demand for sustainably prepared juices among consumers in the market.
  • To identify the increase of sales of HPP juices in the industry of beverage and food in the global market.

1.5 Research Questions

RQ 1. What is the process involved in the sustainable making of HPP juices?

RQ 2. How have the benefits of HPP juices impacted the nutritional value of juices?

RQ 3. Why has the preparation of sustainable juices affected the rate of demand of customers in the market?

RQ 4. When has the sales of HPP juices been observed to be increasing in the global market of the beverage and food industry?

1.6 Rationale

The production of HPP juices has become trending in the present-day world because of the increasing demand of customers worldwide. The global demand for sustainable juices has increased over the years. The earlier method of high-temperature treatment for the preparation of beverages has been observed to lose a certain amount of nutritional value at the time of preparation of juices (Huang et al. 2017). The thermal treatment of juices has resulted in the killing of many health-beneficial microorganisms thereby decreasing the nutrient content of the juices. The juices so prepared today are packaged sustainably to increase the shelf life as well as prevent microorganism contamination at the preservation.

The graph has depicted the rate of the growing market of HPP beverages in the industry of beverage and food. The graph has shown a trending growth of the global market by the year 2021 and has also revealed the predictive growth of HPP juices in the global market by the year 2026 (Barba et al. 2020). The growth graph has revealed the increasing demand of customers for sustainably prepared juices through the process of HPP due to the unique attribution of these juices in the context of "nutritional quality, freshness and flavour". Global growth has been observed to be nearly 30 per cent which accounts for 390 million litres (Roobab et al. 2021). This shows that the demand for fresh beverages among consumers has increased worldwide.

The record has revealed the increasing market growth of HPP juices in the global market. The results have revealed that sales have increased due to the increasing demand of consumers worldwide (Balasubramaniam, 2021). The worldwide demand has elevated due to its sustainably making process of juices and retention ability of nutrients with the usage of innovative techniques of high-pressure. Unlike the thermal treatment of preparing beverages, the nutritional values are retained because in the thermal treatment the high temperature kills not only the microorganisms but also destroys the compounds of nutrients present in fruits and vegetables (Sahu and Panda, 2018). Therefore, increasing the trending growth of utilising the HPP process of making juices is seen and required in industry.

1.7 Significance

The significance of the research study is to reveal the benefits of preparing juices with the process of HPP. The HPP process is a sustainable process of making juices that have been recently adopted by the beverage and food industry (Woldemariam and Emire, 2019). This research has highlighted the growing demand of consumers in addition to the growth of the sales market of HPP juices. The study has significantly revealed the future scope of the HPP juice-making process and shown positive results in the long run. The beverage industry has therefore successfully implemented the innovative HPP technology for an increased shelf life of juices (Song et al. 2022). The study has also significantly increased the benefits of the nutritional value of the HPP-treated juices.

1.8 Summary

The research has revealed the HPP process of making juices in the world today. It is an innovative technology of packaged juice preparation adopted by the beverage and food industry in the present-day world. The growth of the market of HPP technology and juices prepared has been observed to increase over the years. This rate of growth has impacted the growth of demand for consumers in the global market. The future scope of the HPP technology is observed to increase over the years thereby resulting in the introduction of innovation in the beverage industry.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

HPP is crucially important for developing the quality of pomegranate juice and helping to preserve its anthocyanin element. The present thesis paper focuses on the impact of HPP technique on developing the sustainability of the food and beverage industry. The In this study, concept of HPP and its nutritional benefits has been discussed along with the reason why it’s comparatively better than heat treatment. Additionally, factors that influenced HPP procedure for processed fruit juice has been identified. In the recent industry, HPP is a widely used food and fruit preservation technique that kills different microorganisms that are responsible for spoiling food.

2.2 Concept of HPP and its benefits

HPP “High-Pressure Processing” is commonly known as “cold pasteurization “or “high-pressure pascalization” widely used for the preservation of beverages and food mainly for maintaining food safety and enhanced its shelf life. According to Balakrishna et al. (2020), HPP generally involves with subjecting fruits and foods and inactivation of microorganisms under high hydrostatic pressures with 100–600 MPa. This novel non-thermal process effectively helps for reducing pathogenic spoilage and increase food quality. In the same way, as referred to by Govaris and Pexara (2021), HPP works on the inactivation of a number of food borne viruses such as HAV, HuAdV, HuNoV, and HAstV under high temperature and pressure. This high-pressure technique has been applied uniformly under hydrostatic pressure for the elimination of microorganisms. In this technique, it is required to maintain temperature for processed food and pomegranate juice development under a “20 degrees Celsius”. This is considered as cold technique where the entire procedure need to maintain under “300–600MPa”.

HPP has commercial benefits mainly in the “food processing industry” in lowering emissions, cutting waste, and developing shelf-life capabilities. As referred to by Yuan et al. (2022), pomegranate fruit juice effectively helps to enhance antioxidant levels which are commercially beneficial. Due to a large number of commercial benefits, HPP is widely used in for pasteurisation process. HPP has a number of advantages in developing sustainable food and beverage industry. HPP has developed the shelf-life of crustacean food and pomegranate juice which can be stored for long period. This “cold pasteurization “technique enhances food safety by nutrition development of food products. This works on destroying different pathogens such as Salmonella, Norovirus, Vibrio and Listeria which are present in milk and other products which support for maintaining food safety. It is considered as cost effective process that applied in “food processing industry” to increase spoilage of microorganisms. On the other hand, Ma et al. (2019), utilisation HPP is not directly effect on the aroma, colour or antioxidant level for producing pomegranate fruit. However this is a pasteurisation process which actively maintain antioxidant element for producing pomegranate juice.

Along with pomegranate juice, mulberry juice, green asparagus juice and blueberry juice are produced. Such cold pasteurisation process has positive impact developing food products. According to Le Chatelier’s principle”, during this process, pressure is required to increase by the accompanying phenomenon. As stated by Stefanini et al. (2022), HPP is beneficial for reducing the volume of food waste and delivers an opportunity for new market. It delivers safe food and ready-to-eat food by maintaining food safety. The principle of HPP works on loc acidic platform. On the other hand, as opined by Nonglait et al. (2021), as per the “Isostatic principle” application of lower pressure develop thye process quality for making such food products. Running of HPP with 400–600 MPa decrease safe food microorganisms and minimise their growth, such as Listeria spp. and Vibrio sp.

2.3 Factors affecting HPP for proceeding fruit juice

Application of HPP helps in the activation of the growth of microorganisms by depending on multiple factors such as process temperature, pressure magnitude, time holding, intrinsic properties of beverage and juice, decompression and compression rates. According to Podolak et al. (2020), during the application of HPP, treatment time and pressure level have increased. With the help of “high hydrostatic pressure” by delivering z and D values, E.coli has been applied for manufacturing apple juice under 150 to 350 MPa. In this case, 55.0 D-value and 126 z-values has been maintained. In case of cold pasteurization, the reduction rate of population of E coli. In cashew apple juice has done for 1.5 min with 200 to 450 MPa. Multiple factors are affecting the development of food products such as magnitude pressure and holding time. On the other hand, Usaga et al. (2021), 400 to 600MPa are required for the application of HPP for developing pomegranate juice. In addition, controlling pressure during HPP application is crucial for better life span. Moreover, it helps to complete the entire operation within 3 to 7 minutes. It has high benefits for nutritional development in food and beverage industry.

Fruit juice has been spoilage due to osmophilic micro flora and acid tolerance proliferation. In addition spoilage of fruit juice has enhanced infections caused by “food-born microbes”. According to Govaris and Pexara (2021), HPP treatment has been applied for the pasteurisation olf apple juice mainly for increasing its microbial stability for 28 days under refrigeration. Some cold process factors such as packaging materials, water activity, sample size and shape and these are the crucial for the industry of food processing. Streptomyces griseus griseus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris are major bacterial species responsible for the spoilage of apple juice. The growth of these thermophilic bacteria can be regulated by the HPP preservation technique.

2.4 Impact of HPP for improving processed apple juice

Treatment of HPP work in a better way for retaining colour better than thermal treatment., Impact of HPP under 3 min with 600 MPa evaluate the nutritional development of apple juice. Moreover the quality and the colors have become unchanged with standardized thermal treatment (P 85degree Celcius). According to Liberatore et al. (2021), the aromatic profile of apple juice can be maintained by HPP by preserving the volatile compound in comparison with the untreated matrix. With the help of stabilization, treatment is collectively influenced by multiple quality features such as “titratable acidity, viscosity, PH, volatile profile, and colourimetric parameters. A. acidoterrestris is significantly grown at room temperature able to regerminate and spoil the juice containing “off-flavour compounds”. Bacteria are considered as main spoilage microorganism and the growth of such bacteria through thermal pasteurisation. In other way, as referred to by Szczepa?ska et al. (2021), HPP treatment is applied for the development of dynamic turbidity and viscosity. Measuring the “pressure tolerance parameters” the range of pH keeps from 3.42 to 3.63 mainly for commercial purpose.

  1. coli is used for commercial purposes or pasteurizing apple juice as it is considered a pressure tolerance pathogen. The normal PH of delicious Apple juice varies from”3.48-3.69” however by it increases 4.5 after spoilage. As opined by Mahnot et al. (2022),” high-pressure processed” at 600 MPA is useful for pathogenic reduction and applicable for milder parameters beneficial for maintaining cost and saving energy in the apple juice industry. In the same way, as referred to by Balakrishna et al. (2020), microbial quality has been stored with the help of 600 MPa and heat treatment that indicates high-quality juice preservation. In contrast, Roobab et al. (2021), HPP is used for commercial processing of apple juice at 5-degree Celsius with 4.5 PH and has an effect for inoculated pathogenic concerns. At 5 degree Celsius, apple juice is placed in PET bottles 120 mL HPP-compliant. In case of verification, the fresh apple juice is placed for treatment for 1 minute under 550 MPa. In the case of 490 MPa, the preference for apple juice production is high. However, the treatment time need to maintain no longer than 110s. Water is used for filling the vessels and delivering isostaic pressure with lower food mass.

2.5 Commercial production of pomegranate juice using HPP

Application of HPP has intensive benefits in the old processing industry as it improves nutritional content without changing its colure, texture and aroma. The reason for utilizations is deduction of FFA content, minimal processing, health promoting compounds, inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes. Decompression time is an important factor for the application of HPP as it helps to maintain nutritional components among food products. As opined by Pinto et al. (2020), the utilization of HPP for a long time is responsible for lower antioxidant level and vitamin C and causes accidents. Application of HPP has done for 3 to 5 minutes which has a positive and nutritional impact on food products. Process temperature is another factor that needs for managing nutritional amounts within food products. While applying HPP, the temperature need to maintained above 100°C” and below 0°C. This treatment needs to be given for short period otherwise it has an adverse impact on health. However, the temperature does not have any impact on making or packing food (Foodauthority.nsw.gov.au, 2022). Product pH is another influencing factor has variety under different pasteurization processes however HPP has apply for lower acidic level. Products having are pH under 5.0 effective for a shelf-life extension. 6000 bars pressure has been utilizing on the specific food however it has none or very minimal impact on its antioxidant level. In the same way, as stated by Cubeddu et al. (2021), such commercial products are developed among 3.02 and 4.21 pH and the required time 2.1 minutes.

2.7 Theoretical Framework

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

The primary goal of HACCP is building critical limits, verification procedures, and corrective actions. It is a management system regarding food safety. In addition, it helps to address the regulation of chemical and biological components. As referred to by Gehring and Kirkpatrick (2021), HACCP is a systematic approach which introduces a preventive programme and takes corrective action for controlling hazard-related food safety. Implementation of HACCP principles associated with risk related safety and health of food. In the case of controlling biological hazards, “Traditional heat pasteurization “has been implemented for protecting and ensuring hygiene to minimize the population of health. As stated by Cubeddu et al. (2021), PLA is used instead of PET for producing apple juice in the HPP technique. Theory of HACCP effective for addressing biological hazard which has positive impact to improve food quality.

Multi theory model of health behaviour change

MTM (Multi theory model) is considered as parsimonious theory that delivers support for maintaining human health. This theory supports improving of health behaviour by emotional transformation, and behavioural change. On the other way, HPP works on developing chemical transformation along with biological behaviour. According to Sharma et al. (2021), the MTM model delivers support for changing health behaviours by exploring food safety and reducing health hazards. HPP supports to maintain nutritional element in food without changing its texture, colour and odour. Moreover, it helps to reduce food waste through the preservation of food.

2.8 Literature Gap

HPP is crucial for decreasing the spoiling flora of microbe’s influences for maintaining a high quality of flora. Moreover, it is crucial as it enables to the preservation of the nutritional value and natural flavours of multiple raw ingredients. As stated by Balakrishna et al. (2020), HPP involves with inactivation of microbes under “high hydrostatic pressures”. Additionally, it is also observed that Podolsk et al. (2020) state that maintaining pressure level and treatment time are essential elements for the development of food products. Bacteria are the prime spoilage factor for apple juice. The identified literature gap is impact of HPP in chemical components and measures the growth of HPP in the food and beverage industry.

2.9 Summary

It can be concluded that HPP has commercial benefits as it improves the antioxidant level of pomegranate juice. A number of vessels are used for maintaining variation which works lower is pressure level. The demand for HPP has increases as it helps to maintain balance among quality, safety, regulatory compliance and processing efficiency. Enhancing the quality of food products HPP has high cost effectiveness as it considered as lower risk of food spoilage. Producing long-lasting juice with a cold pasteurization process helps to store sterilized food without changing texture, colour and nutritional element.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1 Introductions

Identification of appropriate methods for the development of the study is needed in a thesis development process. Based on selected methods, the whole study has been developed by analysis of collection methods for the development of appropriate research. The identification of appropriate philosophical approaches helps to improve the quality of research for selected topics. The whole study has been developed based on the secondary data relevant to the HPP process and the impacts of the present process on spoilage. Based on the selected methods of the present research, an appropriate analysis of present research topics is identified.

3.2 Research philosophy

Research has been developed with a philosophical belief which is relevant to the phenomenon and is based on the research concept. “Positivistic, interpretivism, pragmatism, and realism” are identified as the most common research philosophies which are used for the research process (Pandey and Pandey, 2021). As the present study is developed based on a secondary qualitative research process, the realism research philosophy is selected as the appropriate philosophy for the development of research. The concept of realism philosophy is an analysis of independent truths about a selected topic and the analysis of objects or elements, which are relevant to the research topic (Cr, 2020). Therefore, based on the present belief, data has been collected for the application of HPP on apple juice and its impact on microorganisms.


The use of selected philosophy has been appropriate for the analysis of a real topic, which is based on the analysis of practical data from existing literature. The selected philosophy is appropriate for both qualitative and quantitative studies as those areas provide flexibility to the research topic. On the other hand, positivism may not be appropriate for present research as those are focusing on unrealistic or extremely complex data (Fu et al. 2020). Therefore, analysis of those factors shows that the use of realism philosophy is appropriate for the development of the present research.

3.3 Research Approach

Appropriate identification of procedure relevant to the collection, analysis and interpretation of the resources has been stated as a research approach. In the development of the present thesis, the inductive approach has been selected as this is appropriate for the development of qualitative studies (Mishra and Alok, 2022). In addition, the identified approach is known as a systematic process for data analysis, which is mentioned as qualitative data of the research process. Based on the specific objectives of the research process, data are systematically analysed for the HPP process application for apple juice.


The use of an inductive research approach has been appropriate for the identification of procedures which are used for qualitative study. On the other hand, the deductive approach is developed for scientific investigation by testing the hypothesis, which is not appropriate for the present secondary study. In the secondary research process analysis of objectives is based on the data which are gathered and restructured in the summary format (Zhang, 2022). Therefore, inductive thinking has been appropriate for qualitative research for analysis of the presence of microorganisms in juice due to spoilage.

3.4 Research design

Various types of research designs are identified, which are followed during the analysis of data and development of the whole study. In secondary research, design is identified as the summarisation of the research findings and the development of an appropriate research process (Mohajan, 2018). The overall strategies has applied and followed during collection. Measurement and interpretation of the data relevant to the HPP process and prevention of spoilage has managed. “Correlational, Causal-Comparative/ Quasi-Experimental, Descriptive and Experimental Research” are some common research designs used in the qualitative analysis process (D?wigo? and D?wigo?-Barosz, 2018). The use of “Causal-Comparative” may be appropriate for the analysis of relations between applications of HPP on the prevention of spoilage.


The use of identified research design helps to complete the research process in an effective way for the analysis of data which are collected in a secondary process. The use of a “Causal-Comparative” research design gives advantages to secondary research as it manipulates relationships between various variables (Usaga et al. 2021). In addition, the risk of bias is also present in such research design, which may be mitigated with appropriate data collection processes. Additionally, the use of descriptive research analysis is not able to establish relationships between variables. Therefore, the use of the selected design has been appropriate for the analysis of HPP and apple juice production.

3.5 Data collection

One research or thesis developed based on the quality and accuracy of the data which are collected from authentic sources. There are three types of data collection processes present such as primary, secondary and mixed (Artés-Hernández et al. 2021). In the development of the present research, a secondary data collection process has been selected where the use of an appropriate database helps to collect relevant data related to the HPP process and the presence of microorganisms. “Google scholar, PubMed and ProQuest” are used as a database from where the relevant articles on the impacts of HPP on preventing spoilage in apple juice are selected. Large options are identified during the data collection process where keywords such as "HPP process", "spoilage and microorganism", and “application of HPP on apple juice” are used (Fu et al. 2020). A total of 8 articles selected after the application of the manual screening process are appropriate for research.


The use of the secondary data from the existing literature helps to use appropriate data collection processes as it helps to complete the study in a short period of time. On the other hand, the risk of bias is much higher in the primary data collection process and along with this is a time-consuming process as present topic experience is needed. Therefore, based on the present aspect, the use of secondary data helps to complete the whole study in an effective way with low cost and less time.

3.6 Data analysis

The thesis has been developed with secondary qualitative data which is relevant to the present research topic. As the secondary data collection process is followed, therefore, the “thematic data analysis” process is followed for the appropriate interpretation of the data (Mishra and Alok, 2022). The qualitative data analysis process is developed with a present analysis process where data are described for interpretation of the research findings. A total of 4 themes have been developed based on the objectives of the research topic, which helps to complete the research in an appropriate way. During the development of the thematic analysis, six steps are followed, such as “Familiarization, coding, Generating themes, reviewing themes, and Defining and naming themes and Writing up” (Devezer et al. 2021). Based on those steps, the thesis has analysed relevant articles related to microorganisms in the spoilage of apple juice. The use of thematic analysis gives various advantages to the development of research in an appropriate way.

3.7 Timeline

The whole thesis was completed in 3 months, starting in the first week of October and was completed by the last week of December. The developed timeline helps to understand the way in which the research has been conducted.

3.8 Ethical considerations

Research has been developed based on some principles which are followed for appropriate research design and practices. “Confidentiality and anonymity, and conflict of interest and informed consent” need to be considered ethical issues and management of such issues help to reduce risk factors (Usaga et al. 2021). The management of ethical issues with appropriate support of the legislation helps to improve the quality of research. “The Data Protection Act 2018, UK” is followed, which is considered as the implementation of GDPR and those principles are followed in appropriate research development (Gov.uk, 2022). Implementation of those principles during data collection of the present report increased the quality of data and reduced the risk of bias. Permission needed to be taken from the authorities from where the data has been collected from online databases and libraries. The data has been completed in an appropriate way by a collection of authentic data from the appropriate area.

3.9 Summary

The present section of the thesis has identified appropriate methods which are followed for authentic data and the appropriate selection of data collection process. The use of an inductive approach helps to complete the study with an appropriate analysis of the process, which is appropriate for data collection. Based on the secondary data, the research has been completed, which helps to analyse the HPP process and its impacts on microorganisms causing spoilage in apple juice. The appropriate research philosophy is selected, which helps to complete the research based on appropriate beliefs for the research topic and data analysis. The timeline of the whole study has been identified, which helps to complete the whole research in the targeted time. Appropriate following of the data protection act helps to complete the research with low basis risk factors.

Chapter 4: Data findings and analysis

4.1 Introduction

The appropriate result or research finding section in a research paper is found to be important as it describes the appropriate achievement of the targeted aims and objectives. Apart from that, its immediate goal is to utilise the collected data to answer the targeted research questions assumed in the respective introduction part.

The respective portion of the result findings and data analysis will properly indicate the appropriate analysis of previously conducted research papers on the same topic. The respective part will indicate the appropriate and effective employment of secondary qualitative research methods in the appropriate finding of previous research outcomes of eight distinct previous research works. Apart from that, an appropriate thematic analysis will be conducted to effectively analyse consequences and result findings by creating effective and suitable themes.

4.2 Research findings

The respective part of the result chapter involves eight effective previous primary research works and the respective potion will indicate the results and data findings of those research papers.

Authors Name Aim Research Type Method used Research findings
Buerman et al., 2020 The main aim of the study was to demarcate the overall effect of respective pH and aw distinct on HPP apple juice to control fungal contamination during its shelf life. Primary research study The primary research method and statistical analysis approach had been employed to conduct the research work. The respective research findings have indicated that the respective alterations of pH and aw aspects acquire a positive impact on the successful prevention of microbial and fungal spoilage of HPP apple juice.
Usaga et al., 2021 The research aimed to successfully evaluate the potential of higher pressure processing of apple juice for overcoming different microbial spoilages. Cross-sectional study The potent primary research methodology and respective statistical analysis approaches had been utilised to investigate the research work. The potential research findings indicate that the aspect of the higher pressure processing approach has the effective potency to irradicate and overcome the development of different potent microbial spoilage.
Podolak et al., 2020 The main purpose of the respective research article was to investigate and examine the potential factors that affect high-pressure processing (HPP) in different juices and Beverages in the prevention of microbial spoilage. Primary research study The primary research method and statistical analysis have been used to conduct the research work effectively. The research findings determined that the respective potency of the HPP approach primarily depends on the projected pressure and the provided time, which in turn, affect the overall effectiveness in overcoming different microbial spoilage.
Wibowo et al., 2019 The aim of the respective research study was to approximate the overall impact of “low-oxygen pre-treatment” associated with PEF, HPP and traditional thermal processing on the rate attributes of shadowy apple juice, assembled at respective pilot scales. Cross-sectional study Primary research methods and statistical quality analysis have been employed to conduct the respective research. Potential research findings indicated that there are positive and dense impacts of such quality attributes on the respective HPP approach of apple juices and beverages.
Song et al. 2022 The aim of the article is to identify the quality of apple juices of HPP and the effect on the inactivation of microorganisms. Primary research study Number of sample is 75. This is a primary research article. The article has revealed the method of inactivating the effects of enzymes with the use of HPP. It has also depicted the retention of the quality of juices. Through HPP.
Marsza?ek et al. 2019 The aim of the article is to identify the effects of HPP on the inactivation of enzymes at the time of refrigeration of apple juices. Primary research study Primary research article and statistical analysis has been preformed. The article has depicted the use of HPP for the successful refrigeration of apple juices along with the prevention of microbial growth and enzyme inactivation
Buerman et al. 2021 The aim of the article is to depict the effectiveness of HPP juices of apples to prevent the growth of fungi. Cross-sectional study Numerical analysis has been considered. The article has highlighted the efficacy of HPP as a preventive measure of fungal growth in apple juice at the time of storage.
Petrus et al. 2020 The aim of the article is to reveal the effectiveness of HPP in association with dimethyl dicarbonate for inactivating food-borne pathogens. Cross-sectional study Samples has been collected which has been analysed using statistical measures. The article has mentioned the efficacy of HPP processing in combination with the use of dimethyl dicarbonate to induce the inactivation of pathogens like yeast and/or bacteria.

The above table depicts the overall discussion of different research findings that have been collected from previously conducted research papers on a similar topic.

4.3 Analysis of the research

The respective part of chapter four will indicate an effective thematic analysis of the previous research paper’s data findings by creating appropriate and suitable themes.

Theme 1: HPP approach is a potential and effective approach which helps in increasing apple and other fruit juice sustainability and approving longer shelf life

Several previously conducted research articles and journals have successfully indicated that the respective HPP procedure has been obtained to be an effective and appropriate approach to maintaining longer shelf life and the overall quality of different fruit juices and beverages. A previous research work conducted by Fam et al. (2021) has indicated that the respective HPP approach acquires effective and appropriate pressure processing aspects in the processing of fruit juices. The respective pressure approach helps in the better maintenance and control of the overall sustainability and greater period shelf life of the potential fruit juices and beverages. Apart from that, another research study conducted by Podolak et al. (2020), determined that the respective HPP procedure does not employ any type of heat treatment, therefore, no nutritive value, especially vitamin content is not lost during the entire procedure. Additionally, other research studies conducted by Wibowo et al. (2019) and Abdulla Al Hammadi (2021) have supported the prospects of the previously-mentioned research articles. The respective studies indicate that there are several potential factors that directly impact the overall potency of the HPP procedure in overcoming different kinds of microbial spoilage. Therefore, the respective procedure facilitates the respective incidence of longer sustainability and greater shelf life of juices and beverages.

Theme 2: HPP procedure helps in retaining the maximum amount of nutritive value in apples and other fruit juices and beverages

Several previous research works have determined that the respective HPP procedure acquires potency in the successful retention of the greatest nutritive value in different fruit juices and beverages. An effective study conducted by Kersh et al. (2022), had indicated that the respective HPP process involves calculated pressure approaches and not heat treated. Therefore, heat-susceptible vitamins such as Vitamin C do not lose during the respective procedure. Additionally, research work conducted by Usaga et al. (2021), indicated that the respective HPP procedure employs effective treatments, which in turn, help in the overall improvement of the nutritional quality of juices and beverages. Another study conducted by Huang et al., (2020) has supported the statement and indicated that the HPP approach improves the overall quality of nutritive aspects in different fruit juices and beverages. The respective research study determined that the respective HPP approach minimises the frequent utilisation of different class 2 preservatives, which are harmful to human consumption. Therefore, as opined by Buerman et al. (2020), the respective approach facilitates more employment of natural substances and fruit pulps and extracted juices in the preparation of fruit juices and beverages. Henceforth, the HPP process improves the overall quality and nutritive value of different fruit juices and beverages.

Theme 3: Rate of consumer demand for sustainable juices in the market

The consumer demand for juices has increased over time in the global market due to their sustainable process of producing juices. The demand is found to be increasing over time due to the high-quality apple juices being produced (Song et al. 2022). The juices being produced have enhanced the quality and reduced the formation of fungal growth. The fungal growth in apple juices requires to be reduced by the process of “HPP (High-pressured processing)”. The process of HPP includes the reduction of bacterial attack in juices thereby increasing the shelf life of juices (Marsza?ek et al. 2019). The juices so produced have therefore experienced high demands due to the increased freshness of juices. Apple juices have gained a high demand in the global market to improve the health and safety of consumers. The safety of the consumption of HPP apple juices has been enhanced with the prevention of microbial growth especially yeast and bacteria (Buerman et al. 2021).

The introduction of HPP has resulted in the reduced formation of fungal structures in juices and also reduced attacks of bacteria. It has been observed that the storage of fresh and unprocessed juices is highly perishable and easily prone to bacterial attacks (Petrus et al. 2020). The harmful microorganisms are inactivated or destroyed at the time of processing the juices. The juices so formed retain their nutritional values contrary to the thermally treated juices. Apple juices so produced retain the food value required for the healthy well-being of consumers across the world (Song et al. 2022). The quality of the juices is retained through the process of HPP in association with dimethyl dicarbonate to prevent the growth of fungi in apple juices. Therefore it has been observed that the demand for HPP-treated apple juices has grown among consumers globally.

Theme 4: Global sale of HPP juices in the beverage industry

The global sales of juices have been treated through “HPP (High-pressured processing)” technology in recent years. Global sale has increased due to the increasing global demand for fresh and nutritional juices being produced and stored (Marsza?ek et al. 2019). The demand, as well as sales, has elevated because of the high retention of nutritional values. The nutritional values have been found to be retained in the juices which have increased the demand for the juices (Buerman et al. 2021). The juices have conserved nutritional content and increased in demand in the market around the globe. Global sales have increased due to high shelf life and retention of food values. Increased food value and reduced growth microbes in juices will result in the nutritional retention of juices (Petrus et al. 2020). Consumers have demanded nutrition, as well as freshness in HPP-treated juices, which are observed to be more in comparison to thermally-treated apple juices.

The spoilage of juices is controlled and also microbial attacks like bacteria are reduced in these juices. It has also been observed that HPP juices enhanced shelf life and can be easily stored in refrigerators or any other cold storage for longer periods (Petrus et al. 2020). This characteristic of the long storage of HPP juices in addition to the increased retention capacity of nutritional contents has resulted in high demands and sales. Global sales have therefore increased due to the presence of highly valued nutrients in the HPP processed juices (Buerman et al. 2021). HPP-processed juices have seen increasing demand and sales among consumers over the world, thereby increasing the overall market sales of the beverage industry. Therefore it is evident that increasing demand for HPP juices has resulted in increasing global sales of HPP juices.

4.4 Summary

The above information has revealed that the HPP processing of apple juices has resulted in the prevention of the growth of microorganisms as well as spoilage of apple juices. The preventive measure has resulted in the reduced growth of yeast as well as bacteria in the juices that are stored and refrigerated for longer periods. The shelf of apple juices has been increased through HPP processes thereby reducing fungal growth and bacterial attacks. The afore-selected eight articles have revealed the prevention measures for reducing microbial attacks in apple juices. The process involved in HPP to inactivate the enzymatic actions of bacteria and/or yeast in refrigerated apple juices. The inclusion of dimethyl dicarbonate in addition to HPP has resulted in the faster prevention of fungal growth while storing and producing apple juices. Therefore it can be concluded that HPP is found to be highly effective in preventing spoilage as well as actions of the enzymes of bacteria or yeast in apple juices.

Chapter 5: Discussion

5.1 Introduction

Discussion chapter consists of the research findings based on which conclusion can be drawn. HPP is mainly applicable to preserve both liquid and solid food and this is subjected to transmitting the product in a particular medium. This non-thermal method is beneficial for drastically minimizing the microbe's colony's flora. This helps to maintain a higher quality of the product's shelf life. This chapter introduces a clear discussion based on the identified theme. Moreover, this chapter has focused on the selected article and developed a debate as per the author's viewpoint. Moreover, this highlights the process to increase food sustainability with the process of HPP.

5.2 Discussion

In this part of the research, the total discussion has been made based on the analysis and to meet the research objectives are followed. "High-pressure processing" ("HPP") is regarded as the most significant non-thermal process utilised for the preservation of foods. Results highlight that individual conversion of aw aspects and pH develop an optimistic influence on the prosperous precluding of fungal and microbial decay of "HPP" apple juice. On the other hand, (Nabi, 2021) explained that "HPP" is a practical and sustainable approach to the production of food. Nevertheless, in spite of the capacity of "HPP" to decrease food borne microorganisms and improve nutritive grades and shelf energy, the increased specified prices restrict its usage in industries of food processing. "HPP" reacts to the needs of customers for more elevated sensorial and rate features following taste, comprehensive storehouse, highly nourishing, nutritional, and eco-friendly refining. So that it can be explained that "HPP" delivers less demolition rather than warm processing. It even improves the energy effectiveness and efficiency of water in food and beverages and generates no harmful emissions of gas. HPP is presently one of the beneficial processes to conserve and preserve food which helps to increase the shelf-life of fruit juice. In the present day, the global food industry faces multiple issues and losses in fruit cutting and sorting. It is essential to enhance the product's shelf-life of fresh vegetables and cut fruits. Food borne pathogens are mostly grown on rotten and cut fruits which deteriorate health. In this case, HPP helps to minimize the growth of this macromolecule in those vegetables and fruits. In the food industry, HPP is mostly useful for microbial and enzymatic inactivation to increase the shelf life of fruits. Conserving the sensory and nutritional quality of vegetables and fresh fruits, which have positive impact on food sustainability. According to Al-Tayyar et al. (2020), multiple layers of coating have been utilized for cutting vegetables and fresh fruits which includes protein, carbohydrates and lipids. Gums are considered bio-control as they contain carbohydrate polymers (polysaccharides) to acquire such renewable sources. The formulated edible coating has been observed as the edible coating has been acquired to minimize the respiration rate for enhancing permeability. Nanoemulsion has an antimicrobial character which provides physical sustainability. HPP is benefitted non-thermal processes which support increased sensory quality of food and fruit juice in the global food and beverage industry.

"High-pressure processing" act as thermal pasteurization and an alternative process widely used for beverage production. This is applicable for extending the shelf-life of juices. Moreover, this is active for making "fresh-like" products by maintaining all nutritional properties. Sensory changes have been associated with fruit juice production as per consumer preference and consumer choice. Along with thermal pasteurisation and HPP, the orange juice can be stored until 11 weeks and apple juice can be stored for 12 weeks under 4 and 25-degree Celsius respectively. As referred to by Song et al. (2022), storage conditions and treatment conditions play a significant role in controlling the sensory quality of both apple and orange juice. Higher levels of sensory quality increase consumers' perception which supports the higher future development of HPP in the global food industry. Within the entire period, cold storage is effective for consumers demanding product quality by conserving its aroma, intensity and flavor.

The results also depict that the element of the more increased pressure refining process has sufficient strength to eliminate and confound the outcome of various powerful microbial decay. It can be observed from the research study “HPP" can deactivate microorganisms' decay and enzymes in beverages and food by instantly dispatching hydrostatic force at a fairly gentle refining temperature. "HPP" cannot just complete the exact effect of sterilization but even keep the nutrients also biologically functional components concerning fruit juice to the most significant period. Sterilization of "HPP" is a process of non-thermal sterilization, as well as it has been informed that it held an exceptional capacity to maintain flavour in fruit juice (Wu et al., 2021). In the case of novel food processing, the non-thermal process has been associated with "traditional food processes” for maintaining organic components, food nutrients, stability and product quality. As opined by Arshad et al. (2022), based on the pilot scale, HPP technology has higher power for energy consumption and optimization per liter. However, the HPP process is comparatively costlier than the traditional process however this has the least effect on the environment. HPP has been applied for avoiding cross-contamination before and after processing and food packaging. With the help of high pressure, HPP is widely applicable for enhancing food processing sustainability. However, this process showed positive results for minimizing microbial spoilage under the nutritional value. Moreover, this process is able to meet all necessary needs for leveling processed food sustainability. While enhancing the shelf-life, this product is nutritionally suitable for maintaining consumer health.

It can be seen from the result that, the "HPP" procedure mainly relies on the cast pressure along with the supplied period, which in favour, simulates the widespread significance in confounding various spoilage of microbes. It also can examine and analyse the possible elements that impact "HPP" in various juices and Drinks in the process of prevention regarding microbial spoilage. The research study by Rodriguez-Sanchez and Sellers-Rubio, (2020) depicts that within the industry of beverages, a factor of sustainability can be regarded as a method to determine companies or developments to complete a few market component needs. In particular, multiple corporations claim environmentally or socially friendly directions when creating and dealing with drinks, incorporating sustainability within the communication system to support their label and position in the market.

As per customer demand, it is required to maintain flavour and aroma after preparing processed food. In the case of preparing Pineapple juice, non-thermal pasteurisation (HPP) prefers to conserve the phenolic, amino compounds for enhancing product susceptibility by reducing microbial spoilage. As stated by Asaithambi et al. (2021), the HPP process has been ensuring microbial safety within the fruit juice which supports retaining a large amount of nutritive value. However, in this case, shelf-life has varied from 14 days to 6 months. The inactivation process through spoilage enzyme is required for larger intensity within the fruit juice. Moreover with the help of the "non-thermal pasteurisation" process and potentiality of juice and enzymatic stability has been maintained. In this study, this type of high-pressurized preservation technique has been employed to inactivate food borne pathogens. Inactivation of spoilage microorganisms present in vegetables and fresh foods is lowering beneficial for human health within the pressure range of 100–800 MPa. This has been recognized to spoilage years, bacteria, under pressure 200–680 MPa. According to Shaik and Chakraborty (2022), this process provides the inability to maintain the nutritional value and natural flavors. Moreover, it is also recognized for flavor retention and food safety by minimizing the chances of microbial contamination.

The non-thermal pasteurization process is widely useful for consumed nutritional value and refreshing attribution. With the help of "Physic-chemical parameters", the number of minerals, bimolecular, and phenol compounds are identified within apple juice. This technique has been applied in the last decades as pasteurization and high-pressure treatment to increase "shelf-life extension", food supply, and food safety. It minimizes the chances of food contamination by avoiding mycotoxin and pesticides. The primary aim of HPP technology is to manufacture multiple fruit juices at room temperature during room temperature at 600 MPa. As stated by Pallarés et al. (2021), this is an eco-friendly process that has been employed for conserving nutritional value through the food preservation process. The commercial application for HPP is to gain "health-related compounds" to improve food attribution of health by enhancing bioavailability. The HPP treatment is applied on the molecules having "low molecular weight" such as minerals, and vitamins which have a negative impact on covalent bonds. However, in the case of "non-covalent interaction", the hydrogen bond has been modified into the tertiary bond. As referred to by Patil Pandurang et al. (2020), present days, customers prefer fresh and safe food which contains high-quality nutrients. In addition, the pasteurisation of bioactive products within vegetables and fruits has been evaluated for the retention of macro and micronutrients. Developing the application of HPP techniques supports upscaling the product quality which has high benefits for consumers' health.

It can be discussed from the result that there are optimistic and overgrown impacts of such rate details on the individual system of "HPP" of drinks and apple juices. A research study shows that juice drinks, fruit juice, and nectar presentation describe the fastest-developing places in the international drink enterprise (Vilas-Boas et al., 2022). The beverage enterprise is confronting multiple oppositions for further product actions as a reaction to customers’ requirements in buying distinguished derivatives with elevated nutritious and bioactive importance and neat tags, along with being secure. Fruit juice consumption is an integral food entity inside the international market, and a technique to retain an abundance of degsraded fruits in manufacturing.

The application of HPP supports delivering value for measuring food safety which allows product disruption and supports sustainable growth. Organisations mainly adopt this treatment for maintaining their market position within the global market. According to Putnik et al. (2020), the demand for processed food which is nutritionally rich along with high quality is extensively increased. Moreover, this non-thermal process leads to high profitability by maintaining customers' needs and meeting their satisfaction. The industrial application of HPP leads to few amounts of nutritional loss under low temperatures. This is commonly known as the hurdle approach which acts against the activity of foodborne pathogens. Moreover, this non-thermal technique reduces the impact of sensory attributes and improves nutritional value. Food quality has been documented as an immune-boosting technique by maintaining the activity of multiple bioactive compounds. Pasteurised vegetables and fruit juice presently have a "fast-growing market" as per customer demand. HPP supports this "cold-pressed juice industry” for enhancing product sustainability. As referred to by Lopes et al. (2022), FV products (fruits and vegetables) have high demand due to their bioactive compounds and support to contain "high moisture content". Fresh vegetables and fruits and considered a "storehouse" of multiple bioactive compounds which can be retained by high-pressure technique (HPP).

Organisation gain benefits through HPP as its product attribution restore product taste and nutritional value. Additionally, the environmental benefits of this processed food are to ensure environmental degradation emissions of greenhouse gases and gathering of waste packaging. As stated by Amsasekar et al. (2022), HPP has high industrial acceptance as it follows the principle of high-pressure processing such as Le Chatelier's principle, and Pascal's law for conducting a non-thermal pasteurization process. Commercial application and customer demand rates have increased due to its sustainable support and minimizing the fungal growth formation. It is able to meet global demand as it supports improving customers' health and safety. The consumption of apple juice through HPP out struck the microbial growth mostly for bacteria and yeast. Due to the inactivation of fungi, pathogens and bacterial growth, the fungal structure has been breaking down and reducing the chances of bacterial attack.

The fourth theme discusses the “Global sale of HPP juices in the beverage industry”. In recent years, "HPP (High-pressured processing)" technology has been used to treat the global sales of juices. Due to the rising global demand for freshly made and nutritionally dense juices, sales have expanded globally (Cubeddu et al. 2021). The great retention of nutritional benefits has increased both demand and sales. Juice demand has surged as a result of the discovery that juices retain their nutritious worth (Vilas-Boas et al., 2022). The juices' nutritious value has been preserved, and their demand has grown in markets all over the world. Because food values are preserved and have a long shelf life, global sales have expanded. Juices will retain their nutritious value as a result of an increase in food value and a decrease in microbial development.

In HPP-treated juices, which are seen to cost more than thermally treated apple juices, consumers have sought nutrition as well as freshness. Juice deterioration is kept under control, and bacterial infections are downplayed in these juices (Vilas-Boas et al., 2022). Additionally, it has been found that HPP juices have a longer shelf life and are simple to keep for extended periods of time in refrigerators or other cold storage (Usaga et al. 2021). Due to the long shelf life of HPP juices and the improved nutritional content retention capability, there is a significant demand for and sales of these products. Because the HPP processed juices include highly sought-after nutrients, sales have surged globally.

The goal of the research study is to illustrate the benefits of making HPP juice. The HPP process, a sustainable way to make juices, has lately gained support from the beverage and food industries. Both the growing client demand and the growing HPP juice sales market have been made clear by this study (Balasubramaniam, 2021). The study has proven long-term benefits and considerably illuminated the possibilities of the HPP juice production technique. In order to increase the shelf life of juices, the beverage industry has successfully adopted cutting-edge HPP technology (Usaga et al., 2021). As a result of the study, the benefits of the nutritional value of the juices treated with HPP have substantially increased.

Juices that have undergone HPP processing have increased in popularity and demand among customers all over the world, which has helped the beverage industry's overall market sales. Therefore, it is clear that rising global sales of HPP juices have followed rising global demand for HPP juices (Vilas-Boas et al. 2022). Juice fungal structure formation and bacterial invasion have both decreased as a result of HPP injection. Fresh, untreated juices are known to be extremely perishable and vulnerable to bacterial contamination when stored (Usaga et al., 2021). When the juices are processed, the dangerous microbes are either rendered inactive or eliminated. Unlike juices that have been thermally processed, these juices maintain their nutritious value.

Apple juices made in this manner maintain the nutritional value needed for consumers' overall health and well-being. To stop fungi from growing in apple juice, HPP is used in conjunction with dimethyl dicarbonate to maintain the quality of the liquids (Vilas-Boas et al., 2022). As a result, it has been noted that people all over the world are becoming more interested in apple juices that have been HPP-treated. According to the relevant studies, a number of potential factors may have a direct impact on how effective the HPP technique is at combating various forms of microbial deterioration. Therefore, the specific method makes it possible for juices and beverages to be more sustainable and to last longer on the market.

5.3 Summary

This chapter summarises the findings which have been observed through the analysis of 8 articles. HPP is a potential method which retains the nutritional value of the juices and beverages. The apple juice which is obtained through HPP helps to retain the required food value mainly for maintaining customers' well-being and health. In addition, the juice quality which is obtained from HPP contains dimethyl dicarbonate to regulate fungal growth in apples and other juices. It can be summarized that for retaining equal quality of nutritional value, the customer demand for HPP has been emerging globally. Additionally, this chapter also focused on a higher percentage of sales of HPP juices by retaining large amounts of nutritive value. As per the discussion, it can be stated that the commercial application of HPP is to extend of shelf life of apple and other fruit juice.

Chapter 6: Conclusion

6.1 Basic Conclusion

The dissertation summarises the concept of HPP, which is based on "High-pressure processing." This is a method for producing juices or other drinks. The discussion on the sustainability of making “beverages and juices” in the modern world is the research’s main objective. Customers' demand for fresh juices and the technique of sustainable packaging are both included in the study. HPP plays a critical role in maintaining the anthocyanin component of pomegranate juice and improving its quality. The current research paper focuses on how the HPP approach has helped the “food and beverage industry” become more sustainable. The idea of “HPP and its nutritional” advantages, as well as why it is superior to heat treatment, have been covered in this paper.

The “HPP process for processed fruit juice” was also influenced by a number of other elements which have been found. In the modern industry, "HPP" is a diversely utilized method of food, beverages, fruit and juice preservation that eliminates a variety of germs that cause food to decay. The beverage, fruit, juice and food industries today have adopted this cutting-edge method of packed juice processing. Over time, it has been seen that the market for “HPP technology and prepared juices” is expanding. The increase in customer demand in the global market has been impacted this pace of expansion. Over time, it has been observed that the HPP technology's potential applications will expand, bringing about “innovation in the beverage sector”.

6.2 Linking with Objectives

Linking with Objective 1:"To identify the process of HPP involved in the making of juices sustainably"

“High-Pressure Processing”, also referred to as "cold pasteurization" or "high-pressure radicalisation," is a frequently used method of preserving food and drinks with the primary goals of preserving food security, safety and lengthening shelf-life. In broad, HPP entails placing fruits, foods, and microbes under “high hydrostatic pressures of 100 to 600 MPa” in order to inactivate them. This innovative non-thermal technique significantly lowers pathogenic spoilage and improves food quality. Similar to this, HPP uses “high temperatures and pressure” to inactivate a number of food-borne viruses, including “HAV, HuAdV, HuNoV, and HAstV”. This high-pressure method has been used consistently under “hydrostatic pressure” to get rid of microbes.

Linking with Objective 2:“To identify the benefits of HPP juices and their impact on the nutritional value of juices”

Specifically in the "food processing business," HPP has financial advantages by reducing emissions, reducing waste, and enhancing shelf-life capabilities. “Pomegranate juice” effectively raises “antioxidant levels”, which is advantageous for business. Due to the numerous financial advantages, HPP is frequently employed in the pasteurization process. The development of a “sustainable food and beverage business” provides many benefits for HPP. Pomegranate juice and crustacean food have established long-lasting shelf lives because of “HPP”. Through the nutrient growth of food items, this "cold pasteurization" technology improves food safety. This operates on eradicating foreign pathogens and bacteria such as “Salmonella, Norovirus, Vibrio and Listeria” that are “present in milk” along with other products to support maintaining food safety.

Linking with Objective 3:“To identify the rate of demand for sustainably prepared juices among consumers in the market”.

The technique known as HPP incorporates the high-pressure method of juicing preparation. The HPP procedure extends the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables by eliminating “99.99%” of the dangerous germs that are present. Fruits and vegetables both contain a variety of microorganisms, including both good and bad germs. This could occasionally lead to the death of some advantageous microbes as well, lowering the nutritional content of the drinks. Juices and other beverages' nutritional value have been preserved “as a result” of the development of “high-pressure processing."

Linking with Objective 4: “To identify the increase of sales of HPP juices in the industry of beverage and food in the global market”

Due to rising consumer demand across the globe, the manufacture of “HPP juices” has become fashionable in the modern world. Over time, there has been an upsurge in demand for “sustainable juices” worldwide. When making juices, it has been noticed that the former approach of “high-temperature treatment” for beverage preparation loses some nutritional content. Juices that have undergone heat processing have fewer nutrients in them since many beneficial bacteria have been killed. These days' juices are made and packed responsibly for lengthen their shelf lives and avoid microbial contamination during preservation.

6.3 Limitation

For the maintenance of high-quality flora, HPP is essential for reducing the “influence of microbes” that ruins the flora. Additionally, it is essential for preserving “the nutritional value” and authentic flavours of various raw foods (Kermani et al., 2022). Microbes are rendered inactive by HPP when subjected to "high hydrostatic pressures." Additionally, it has been found that sustaining treatment times and pressure levels are crucial for the growth of “food products” (Pallarés et al., 2022). The main cause of apple juice deterioration is bacteria. The influence of “HPP on chemical components” and it is growing in the “food and beverage industry” is the recognized limitation in this research study.

6.4 Future of Research Scope

The purpose of this dissertation is to demonstrate the advantages of HPP juice preparation. The “beverage and food industries” have recently embraced the HPP process, a sustainable method of producing juices. This study has brought to light both the expanding customer demand and the expanding HPP juice sales market (Artés-Hernández et al. 2021). The research has greatly illuminated the potential of the “HPP juice” production process and demonstrated long-term gains. As a result, the beverage industry has successfully applied the novel HPP technology to extend the shelf life of juices (Kersh et al., 2022). The advantages of “the nutritional value of the juices” treated with HPP have also greatly risen as a result of the study.


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Song, Q., Rune, C.J.B., Thybo, A.K., Clausen, M.P., Orlien, V. and Giacalone, D., 2022. Sensory quality and consumer perception of high pressure processed orange juice and apple juice. LWT, p.114303.

Marsza?ek, K., Szczepa?ska, J., Starzonek, S., Wo?niak, ?., Trych, U., Sk?pska, S., Rzoska, S., Saraiva, J.A., Lorenzo, J.M. and Barba, F.J., 2019. Enzyme inactivation and evaluation of physicochemical properties, sugar and phenolic profile changes in cloudy apple juices after high pressure processing, and subsequent refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 42(4), p.e13034.

Buerman, E.C., Worobo, R.W. and Padilla-Zakour, O.I., 2021. High pressure processing of heat and pressure resistant fungi as affected by pH, water activity, sulfites, and dimethyl dicarbonate in a diluted apple juice concentrate. Food Control, 120, p.107551.

Petrus, R.R., Churey, J.J., Humiston, G.A., Cheng, R.M. and Worobo, R.W., 2020. The combined effect of high pressure processing and dimethyl dicarbonate to inactivate foodborne pathogens in apple juice. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 51(2), pp.779-785.

Other journals

Abdulla Al Hammadi, A., 2021. Effect of high-pressure processing on quality and shelf life of green fresh juice produced from a blend of fruit and vegetable.

Al-Tayyar, N.A., Youssef, A.M. and Al-Hindi, R.R., 2020. Edible coatings and antimicrobial nanoemulsions for enhancing shelf life and reducing foodborne pathogens of fruits and vegetables: A review. Sustainable Materials and Technologies, 26, p.e00215.

Amsasekar, A., Mor, R.S., Kishore, A., Singh, A. and Sid, S., 2022. Impact of high pressure processing on microbiological, nutritional and sensory properties of food: A review. Nutrition & Food Science.

Arshad, R.N., Abdul-Malek, Z., Roobab, U., Ranjha, M.M.A.N., Jambrak, A.R., Qureshi, M.I., Khan, N., Lorenzo, J.M. and Aadil, R.M., 2022. Nonthermal food processing: A step towards a circular economy to meet the sustainable development goals. Food Chemistry: X, 16, p.100516.

Artés-Hernández, F., Castillejo, N., Martínez-Zamora, L. and Martínez-Hernández, G.B., 2021. Phytochemical fortification in fruit and vegetable beverages with green technologies. Foods, 10(11), p.2534.

Asaithambi, N., Singh, S.K. and Singha, P., 2021. Current status of non-thermal processing of probiotic foods: A review. Journal of Food Engineering, 303, p.110567.

Balasubramaniam, V.M., 2021. Process development of high pressure-based technologies for food: research advances and future perspectives. Current Opinion in Food Science, 42, pp.270-277.

Cubeddu, A., Fava, P., Pulvirenti, A., Haghighi, H. and Licciardello, F., 2021. Suitability Assessment of PLA Bottles for High-Pressure Processing of Apple Juice. Foods, 10(2), p.295.

Fam, S.N., Khosravi-Darani, K., Massoud, R. and Massoud, A., 2021. High-pressure processing in food. Biointerface Res. Appl. Chem, 11, pp.11553-11561.

Huang, H.W., Hsu, C.P. and Wang, C.Y., 2020. Healthy expectations of high hydrostatic pressure treatment in food processing industry. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 28(1), pp.1-13.

Kermani, N.A., Holm, F.M. and Elmegaard, B., 2022. A systematic review of electrification technologies for the Danish food and beverage industry. In 35th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems. ECOS.

Kersh, D.M.E., Hammad, G., Donia, M.S. and Farag, M.A., 2022. A Comprehensive Review on Grape Juice Beverage in Context to Its Processing and Composition with Future Perspectives to Maximize Its Value. Food and Bioprocess Technology, pp.1-23.

Kersh, D.M.E., Hammad, G., Donia, M.S. and Farag, M.A., 2022. A Comprehensive Review on Grape Juice Beverage in Context to Its Processing and Composition with Future Perspectives to Maximize Its Value. Food and Bioprocess Technology, pp.1-23.

Lopes, S.L., Fragoso, R. and Duarte, E.D.A., 2022. Cold-pressed fruit and vegetable juice pomaces: decision making about their suitability for anaerobic digestion. Sustainable Energy & Fuels, 6(10), pp.2542-2552.

Nabi, B.G., Mukhtar, K., Arshad, R.N., Radicetti, E., Tedeschi, P., Shahbaz, M.U., Walayat, N., Nawaz, A., Inam-Ur-Raheem, M. and Aadil, R.M., 2021. High-pressure processing for sustainable food supply. Sustainability, 13(24), p.13908.

Pallarés, N., Sebastià, A., Martínez-Lucas, V., González-Angulo, M., Barba, F.J., Berrada, H. and Ferrer, E., 2021. High pressure processing impact on alternariol and aflatoxins of grape juice and fruit juice-milk based beverages. Molecules, 26(12), p.3769.

Pallarés, N., Sebastià, A., Martínez-Lucas, V., Queirós, R., Barba, F.J., Berrada, H. and Ferrer, E., 2022. High-Pressure Processing Impact on Emerging Mycotoxins (ENNA, ENNA1, ENNB, ENNB1) Mitigation in Different Juice and Juice-Milk Matrices. Foods, 11(2), p.190.

Patil Pandurang, N., Al_hudaiwi, K., Al-Rashdi, Z. and Al-Essai, A., 2020. Physico-chemical evaluation of four different apple juice samples and comparison in their nutritional values.

Putnik, P., Pavli?, B., Šoji?, B., Zavadlav, S., Žuntar, I., Kao, L., Kitoni?, D. and Kova?evi?, D.B., 2020. Innovative hurdle technologies for the preservation of functional fruit juices. Foods, 9(6), p.699.

Rodriguez-Sanchez, C. and Sellers-Rubio, R., 2020. Sustainability in the beverage industry: a research agenda from the demand side. Sustainability, 13(1), p.186.

Shaik, L. and Chakraborty, S., 2022. Nonthermal pasteurization of pineapple juice: A review on the potential of achieving microbial safety and enzymatic stability. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 21(6), pp.4716-4737.

Song, Q., Rune, C.J.B., Thybo, A.K., Clausen, M.P., Orlien, V. and Giacalone, D., 2022. Sensory quality and consumer perception of high pressure processed orange juice and apple juice. LWT, p.114303.

Usaga, J., Acosta, Ó., Churey, J.J., Padilla-Zakour, O.I. and Worobo, R.W., 2021. Evaluation of high-pressure processing (HPP) inactivation of Escherichia coli O157: H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in acid and acidified juices and beverages. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 339, p.109034.

Vilas-Boas, A.A., Magalhães, D., Campos, D.A., Porretta, S., Dellapina, G., Poli, G., Istanbullu, Y., Demir, S., San Martín, Á.M., García-Gómez, P. and Mohammed, R.S., 2022. Innovative Processing Technologies to Develop a New Segment of Functional Citrus-Based Beverages: Current and Future Trends. Foods, 11(23), p.3859.

Vilas-Boas, A.A., Magalhães, D., Campos, D.A., Porretta, S., Dellapina, G., Poli, G., Istanbullu, Y., Demir, S., San Martín, Á.M., García-Gómez, P. and Mohammed, R.S., 2022. Innovative Processing Technologies to Develop a New Segment of Functional Citrus-Based Beverages: Current and Future Trends. Foods, 11(23), p.3859.

Wu, W., Xiao, G., Yu, Y., Xu, Y., Wu, J., Peng, J. and Li, L., 2021. Effects of high pressure and thermal processing on quality properties and volatile compounds of pineapple fruit juice. Food Control, 130, p.108293.


Gov.uk, 2022. The Data Protection Act. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/data-protection#:~:text=The%20Data%20Protection%20Act%202018%20is%20the%20UK's%20implementation%20of,used%20fairly%2C%20lawfully%20and%20transparently [Accessed on: 24 December 2022]

Foodauthority.nsw.gov.au (2022). HIGH PRESSURE PROCESSING (HPP). Available at: https://www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/sites/default/files/_Documents/industry/high_pressure_processing.pdf [Accessed on: 15.12.22]


Barba, F.J., Tonello-Samson, C., Puértolas, E. and Lavilla, M. eds., 2020. Present and Future of High-Pressure Processing: A Tool for Developing Innovative, Sustainable, Safe and Healthy Foods. Elsevier.

Pandey, P. and Pandey, M.M., 2021. Research methodology tools and techniques. Bridge Center.

Cr, K., 2020. Research methodology methods and techniques.

Mishra, S.B. and Alok, S., 2022. Handbook of research methodology.

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