Adult With Learning Disabilities And Support Services Assignment Sample

The challenges and support services for adults with learning disabilities transitioning to adulthood.

  • 54000+ Project Delivered
  • 500+ Experts 24x7 Online Help
  • No AI Generated Content
GET 35% OFF + EXTRA 10% OFF
- +
35% Off
£ 6.69
Estimated Cost
£ 4.35
25 Pages 6357Words

Introduction Of Adult With Learning Disabilities And Support Services Assignment

The particular learning issues related with learning disability (LD) frequently persevere from youth and immaturity into adulthood. Indeed, according to current definitions of LD given by “Learning Disabilities Association of Canada (LDAC)” learning disabilities are lifelong. Moreover, recent longitudinal studies demonstrate, for instance, that specific reading difficulties that were initially identified at the age of 10 persist at the age of 16 and at the age of 23 (Aro et al. 2019). Scholarly issues distinguished in youngsters with LD might slow down achievement levels in school and decrease professional choices in adulthood. But LDs have an impact on more than just academic outcomes: Recent research indicates that children and adolescents with LD have higher levels of internalizing problems (Depression and anxiety) and lower levels of emotional well-being than children and adolescents without LD. Although the social and psychological effects of LD in childhood may persist into adulthood, the connections between LD and anxiety and depression are poorly understood.

Need expert guidance for your assignments? Look no further than New Assignment Help. Our assignment help online in the UK is designed to meet the unique requirements of students across various disciplines. Utilize our Free Sample to hone your skills and ace your academic tasks.

Share of disability in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2020/21

Figure 1: Share of disability in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2020/21

(Source: Stewart, 2023)

As shown in above image the “proportion of people in the UK who are disabled in 2020/21*, broken down by gender and age. It is abundantly clear that the proportion of people with disabilities rises with age. 61% of women and 56% of men in the age group of 80 and older had a disability” (Stewart, 2023).

Background

Learning disabilities are the most common neurological disabilities that mainly affect information processing. Supporting services and learning disabilities are the critical framework for better lives that assure care and support to adults with disabilities. According to research, it found that 1.04 million people have learning disabilities in England aged 15 to 64 (Camm-Crosbie et al. 2019). Learning disabilities aim to address adult services. On the other hand, visions of the learning disabilities and support services framework are inclusion, equal access, planning and support, safeguarding, and sustainable models for support and progression. These six interrelated elements can support people to achieve better lives and opportunities. 

Support for adults with learning disabilities also builds in different ways and firstly understanding the disability and its effects then panning for intervention and personalised care. On the other hand, the establishment of better support to extend their disabilities encourages community involvement (Shalaby and Agyapong, 2020). Community involvement makes their confidence and skills which promotes social interaction and stimulates creativity. Learning and adopting is the last way to support adults with learning disabilities. 

Learning disabilities service provides support and multidisciplinary services which are behaviour therapy, and speech and language therapy. Different supportive services are involved with learning disabilities that are disclosure barring services checks, education and skills checks, residential care services, personal support services etc. Apart from this study, supportive services are arranged for adults with learning disabilities that are planning and delivering services, services in the community, specialised support, and housing (Pillay et al. 2021). Community services can be structured to provide support to adults and advocacy. Community services also cover the main function of learning disabilities and provide short-term assessment and intervention. 

On the other hand, specialised support mostly changes behaviour and communication skills and also provides social support that makes sure of the treatment. Adults with learning disabilities challenges can be close to their friends as well as family and social care providers also provide a range of housing. As per this understanding, social workers and support providers access educational services and activities, income-generating opportunities and skills training programmes that help to build support as well as reduce learning disabilities (Lord et al. 2020). On the other hand, support for inclusion training increases awareness activities at the community level to reduce disabilities. Access essentials is another important service that focused on their needs and recognitions human dignity to build a right person. 

Number of services also involved in the local offer providers such as services for parents, careers and families to help at home supports. Financial advice and information services that provide number of funding schemes. Communication and autism team that reduces interaction issues and learning disabilities in adults. On the other hand, education and healthcare plan, short breaks and information support also reduces these challenges in adults and build better life skills (Mackelprang et al. 2021). Based on this study, typical strategies can help to reduce learning disabilities and use audio texts, colour coding, graphical information and reading out loud strategies help to reduce these challenges in adults.

Rationale

Problem statement

Discrimination and bias continue to be pervasive in many aspects of life, preventing many people with LD from fully participating in society (Aro et al. 2019). Prior notions regarding how adults with LD should and may live their lives have been replaced by the integration of adults with LD into mainstream society, improved health outcomes, the development of transferable skills that are useful in the workforce, leisure activities, and further education (Ward et al. 2019). However, progress has been sluggish, and many individuals still face difficulties obtaining support and care services. Consequently, this study has chosen to investigate the obstacles adults with LD face and the factors that make it easier for them to access care and support services.

In addition, with the appropriate approach, the transition from institutional living to a more inclusive model in which adults with LD live independently in the community is a significant step toward integration, opportunity, freedom, and autonomy (Gleason et al. 2021). Because everyone is different and has different needs, there is no one right way to do things in practice. Instead, support should be tailored to each person's needs with individual budgets, also known as personal budgets, individualized support, or self-directed aid (Aro et al. 2019). In accordance with the principles of personalization that have served as the foundation for recent social work laws, the person-cantered approach (PCA) places an emphasis on the significance of placing the service user (SU) at the centre of their care and support process in order to better address their needs in the community.

Aim

Main aim of this research paper is to find out different problems faced by adults with learning disabilities as well as support system.

Objectives

Specific objective of this research paper include;

  • To find out different barriers faced by adults with learning disabilities and support system
  • To evaluate different facilitators that aid adults with LD to access support services

Research questions

R1: “What are the barriers that adults with LD encounter when accessing support services?”

R2: “What are the facilitators that aid adults with LD to access support services?”

Literature Review

Introduction

The research topic "Adults with Learning Disabilities and Support Services" explores the challenges faced by adults with learning disabilities as they transition into adulthood and the support services available to them. Learning disabilities affect a person's ability to acquire, process, and retain information, and can have a significant impact on their daily life. As these adult’s transition into adulthood, they face new challenges such as finding employment, accessing higher education, and living independently. Support services such as vocational training, counselling, and accommodations in the workplace and academic settings can greatly improve their quality of life. This research aims to shed light on the experiences of adults with learning disabilities and the effectiveness of support services in meeting their needs.

Theoretical framework

One of the key theoretical frameworks that underpin this research is the “Social model of disability”.

“Social model of disability”

Figure 2.1: “Social model of disability”

(Source: Willner et al. 2020)

As per this model, disability has not been a personal attribute of an adult but rather a result of the barriers of society, culture, and environment that prevent adults having disabilities from participating fully in society (Willner et al. 2020). The social model emphasises the significance of the removal of these barriers and the creation of an inclusive society that values diversity and recognizes the rights of adults with disabilities.

“Ecological systems theory” posits adults be embedded in diverse systems or environments that interact with each other to shape their development and experiences.

Ecological systems theory”

Figure 2.2: “Ecological systems theory”

(Source: Courtenay and Perera, 2020)

In the context of this research, the ecological systems theory highlights the importance of considering the various systems that adults with learning disabilities are part of, including their families, schools, workplaces, and communities, and how these systems can provide support or pose barriers to their development and well-being (Courtenay and Perera, 2020).

The “biopsychosocial model” is also relevant to this research, as it emphasizes the complex interplay manifested between “biological”, “psychological”, and “social” factors in the determination of health and well-being.

Biopsychosocial model”

Figure 2.3: “Biopsychosocial model”

(Source: Camm-Crosbie et al. 2019)

Adults with learning disabilities may face biological and psychological challenges that require specialized support, but social factors such as “discrimination”, “stigma”, and “lack of access” to resources would have a significant impact on their health and well-being (Camm-Crosbie et al. 2019).

Conceptual framework

Conceptual Framework

Figure 2.4: Conceptual Framework

(Source: Self-developed)

Concept of “Learning Disabilities” 

“Learning disabilities” (LD) refer to a group of disorders that affect an adult's ability to acquire, process, and retain information. LD can manifest in a range of cognitive areas, such as reading, writing, math, or auditory or visual processing. The specific symptoms and severity of LD can vary widely among adults, but common characteristics include difficulty with reading comprehension, writing, spelling, and math calculations. Adults with LD may also struggle with organization, time management, and attention (Alexander et al. 2020). These difficulties can impact academic, social, and occupational functioning, and may result in emotional and psychological distress.

The challenges faced by adults with LD are not related to intelligence, motivation, or effort, but rather to the way their brains process information (Jeste et al. 2020). LD is a lifelong condition that affects adults across their lifespan, from childhood to adulthood.

The causes of LD are suggested as a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors that may play a role. Early identification and intervention are critical for adults with LD, as they can help mitigate the impact of LD and provide strategies and accommodations to support academic and social success (Landes et al. 2020). With appropriate support, adults with LD can achieve their goals and lead fulfilling lives.

The Long-Term Plan has set a target to reduce the number of inpatient learning disability services over time, with a gradual decrease in the number of beds each year, and more closures planned in the next 12 months (Goggin and Ellis, 2020). In the community setting, there has been a rise in demand for learning disability services, which is reflected in the increased referral rates. The community workforce has received increased investment, and staff have increased the number of contacts made with patients in 2018/19 (Nhsbenchmarking.nhs.uk, 2023). This indicates that the focus is shifting from inpatient to community care for people with learning disabilities.

Inpatient services are using “Care and Treatment Reviews” to aid discharge planning and prevent unnecessary admissions. Providers have been honest about the challenges they face in complying with these reviews (Nhsbenchmarking.nhs.uk, 2023). Although the use of restraint has decreased, it remains higher in learning disability services compared to adult mental health wards. More providers have signed up for the STOMP pledge to reduce the inappropriate use of psychotropic medication. Other quality metrics such as self-harm rates and safeguarding incidents are also important in understanding the safety and quality of services (Parwati and Suharta, 2020).

Justification of social and psychological effects of LD persists from childhood to adults

Adult with LD may face challenges in academic and social settings and may experience frustration, low self-esteem, and social isolation (Haines-Delmont et al. 2022). These challenges can continue into adulthood and may impact an adult's ability to achieve their personal and professional goals.

Adults with LD may struggle to access higher education or acquire the skills needed to enter the workforce. This can limit their opportunities for career advancement and financial stability. In social contexts, adults with LD may experience difficulties with interpersonal relationships, social communication, and community engagement (Mackelprang et al. 2021). This can lead to social isolation, anxiety, and depression.

The psychological impact of LD can be profound, as adults with LD may struggle with self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. These psychological effects can exacerbate the social challenges faced by adults with LD and may limit their ability to seek out support and resources (Annaswamy, Verduzco-Gutierrez and Frieden, 2020).

It is important to recognize the persistent social and psychological effects of LD and to provide appropriate support and accommodations throughout an adult's lifespan. Early identification and intervention can mitigate the impact of LD and provide strategies to support academic and social success (Ludwig-Hardman and Dunlap, 2020). Ongoing support and resources can help adults with LD achieve their personal and professional goals and lead fulfilling lives.

Different barriers caused by Learning disabilities in adults

Learning disabilities (LD) can present a range of barriers for adults in various areas of life. Some of the most common barriers experienced by adults with LD can be prominently visualised.

  • Employment: Adults with LD may face challenges in finding and maintaining employment due to difficulties with reading, writing, math, and other job-related skills. They may also face discrimination and stigma in the workplace (Andrews et al. 2019).
  • Education: Adults with LD may face barriers in accessing higher education, acquiring new skills, or advancing in their careers due to difficulties with reading, writing, math, and other academic skills.
  • Social interactions: Adults with LD may face barriers in social interactions and may struggle with social communication and interpersonal relationships. This can lead to social isolation and limited community engagement (Miranda et al. 2019).
  • Independent living: Adults with LD may face challenges in managing daily tasks such as budgeting, meal planning, and housekeeping due to difficulties with organization and time management.
  • Access to healthcare: Adults with LD may face barriers in accessing healthcare services due to difficulties with communication, understanding medical information, and navigating the healthcare system (Boyle et al. 2020).
  • Mental health: Adults with LD may be at higher risk of mental health issues such as anxiety and depression due to the challenges and stressors associated with their disability.
  • Financial stability: Adults with LD may face barriers to achieving financial stability due to employment and education challenges, as well as limited access to financial resources and support (Giebel et al. 2021).

It is important to recognize and address these barriers faced by adults with LD through appropriate support, accommodations, and resources. With the right support, adults with LD can achieve their goals and lead fulfilling lives.

Showcase the tendency of low level of emotional well-being due to LD

Adults with LD may experience challenges related to “self-esteem”, “self-worth”, and “emotional regulation”. Hence the adults seek to concentrate on emotional regulations, social skills and self-efficacy to be mentally healthy and well-being retained.

Adults with LD may struggle with feelings of frustration and low self-esteem due to difficulties with academic and social situations (Russell et al. 2019). They may feel misunderstood or unsupported, which can lead to negative feelings and behaviours. These negative emotions can further impact academic and social performance, leading to a “Cycle of frustration” and low self-esteem.

Additionally, adults with LD may experience difficulties with emotional regulation. They may struggle to manage and express their emotions effectively, leading to social and interpersonal challenges (World Health Organization, 2019). This can result in difficulties with relationships and social connections, which can further impact emotional well-being.

The tendency towards lower levels of emotional well-being may also lead to mental health issues such as anxiety and depression. The stress and challenges associated with LD can exacerbate mental health issues, leading to a cycle of negative emotions and behaviours.

It is important to recognize the impact of LD on emotional well-being to address emotional and mental health needs (Yustina, Syafii and Vebrianto, 2020). This can include counselling, therapy, and skill-building programs to support emotional regulation and improve self-esteem. With the right support, adults with LD can improve their emotional well-being and lead fulfilling lives.

Critical analysis of the effectiveness of the Support system for adults with LD

The effectiveness of the support system for adults with learning disabilities (LD) varies based on the availability and accessibility of resources and services. While there are support systems in place, they may not always meet the needs of adults with LD or provide the level of support required for success (Abdi et al. 2019). Additionally, the effectiveness of the support system may be limited by the stigma and discrimination associated with LD. Adults with LD may face negative attitudes and assumptions from educators, employers, and community members, which can limit their opportunities for success and access to support (Hyman et al. 2020).

However, there are effective support systems in place for adults with LD, including specialized academic programs, vocational training, counselling, and advocacy services. These support systems can provide the resources and accommodations needed to address the challenges of LD and promote success.

One of the primary challenges with the support system for adults with LD is that it may not adequately address the diverse needs of adults with LD. For example, some adults with LD may require specialized academic support, while others may need assistance with daily living skills or social communication. The support system may not provide a comprehensive range of services to meet these diverse needs (Putra et al. 2020).

Another challenge is that the support system may not be adequately funded or staffed. This can lead to long waiting lists, limited resources, and inadequate support for adults with LD. This can result in a lack of access to appropriate accommodations and resources, which can impact academic and social success.

To improve the effectiveness of the support system for adults with LD, it is important to address the challenges outlined above (Turk et al. 2020). This can include increasing funding and staffing for support services, improving access to accommodations and resources, and addressing stigma and discrimination through education and awareness campaigns. With the right support, adults with LD can achieve their personal and professional goals and lead fulfilling lives.

The portrayal of discrimination as well as bias in preventing people with LD to participate in the society

Despite legal protections and awareness campaigns, adults with LD still face significant barriers to education, employment, and social participation.

One of the primary forms of discrimination faced by adults with LD is in the education system. They may face limited access to accommodations and resources, including specialized education programs and assistive technology (Xie et al. 2020). Additionally, they may experience negative attitudes from educators and peers, which can impact academic success and self-esteem.

Employment discrimination is also a significant barrier for adults with LD. They may face negative attitudes and assumptions from employers, as well as limited access to accommodations and resources needed to succeed in the workplace. This can result in limited job opportunities and financial instability.

Social discrimination can also impact the ability of adults with LD to participate in society (Zerbo et al. 2019). They may face negative attitudes and assumptions from community members, which can lead to social isolation and limited access to community resources and opportunities. This can further impact emotional well-being and self-esteem.

Bias can also play a significant role in preventing adults with LD from fully participating in society. Negative stereotypes and assumptions about their abilities can lead to limited opportunities and social exclusion (Xie et al. 2020). This bias can be perpetuated by media portrayals and a lack of representation in the public sphere.

To address discrimination and bias towards adults with LD, it is important to increase awareness and education about LD, as well as to provide appropriate support and accommodations. This can include training for educators and employers, as well as increased funding and access to resources for adults with LD. Additionally, it is important to challenge negative stereotypes and assumptions through media representation and community awareness campaigns (Zerbo et al. 2019). With the right support and resources, adults with LD can fully participate in society and achieve their personal and professional goals.

Evaluation of different facilitators that aid adults with LD to access support services

Facilitators play an important role in helping adults with learning disabilities (LD) to access support services. Several facilitators can aid in the process of accessing support services, including:

  • Case managers: Case managers can help adults with LD navigate the complex system of support services and resources available to them. They can help identify the specific needs of the adult and connect them with appropriate services (Lebrasseur et al. 2021).
  • “Peer support groups”: Peer support groups can provide adults with LD with a supportive community of adults who share similar experiences. This can help alleviate feelings of isolation and provide emotional support.
  • “Vocational rehabilitation counsellors”: Vocational rehabilitation counsellors can assist adults with LD in finding and maintaining employment. They can provide career counselling, job placement services, and assistive technology resources (Nicolaidis et al. 2019).
  • “Assistive technology”: Assistive technology, such as speech-to-text software and electronic organizers, can help adults with LD overcome academic and employment barriers. These tools can improve communication, organization, and academic performance.
  • “Family and social support”: Family and social support can provide emotional and practical support to adults with LD (Parwati and Suharta, 2020). This can include assistance with daily living skills, transportation, and financial support.
  • Effective facilitation of support services for adults with LD requires a comprehensive approach that addresses the specific needs of each adult. This can include a combination of case management, peer support, vocational rehabilitation counselling, assistive technology, and family and social support (Giebel et al. 2021).

By providing personalized support and assistance, they can help adults with LD overcome the barriers to success and achieve their personal and professional goals (Neece, McIntyre and Fenning, 2020).

Showcase the possible transition from institutional living to a more inclusive model for adults with LD to live independently in the community

In recent years, there has been a growing movement towards transitioning adults with learning disabilities (LD) from institutional living to a more inclusive model of living independently in the community. This transition can provide adults with greater independence, improved quality of life, and increased opportunities for social and vocational engagement (Goggin and Ellis, 2020).

The first step in this transition is identifying adults who are ready to live independently. This may involve a comprehensive assessment of the adult's needs, strengths, and preferences (Nyashanu, Pfende and Ekpenyong, 2020). Once identified, a transition plan can be developed that addresses housing, healthcare, and support services.

One key component of the transition to independent living is access to affordable, accessible housing. This may involve finding appropriate housing options in the community, such as apartments or group homes that meet the adult's needs and preferences. Housing accommodations may include wheelchair accessibility, sensory accommodations, and safety features (Cochran, 2020).

Access to healthcare is also critical for adults transitioning to independent living. This may involve connecting adults with medical professionals, including primary care physicians and specialists, as well as mental health providers (Crane et al. 2019). It may also involve providing support for medication management and other health-related needs.

Support services are another important component of the transition to independent living. This may involve assisting with daily living skills, such as meal planning and budgeting, as well as vocational support, such as job coaching and training. Peer support groups and community resources can also provide important sources of social support and engagement (Lord et al. 2020).

Overall, transitioning adults with LD from institutional living to a more inclusive model of independent living requires a comprehensive approach that addresses the adult's unique needs and preferences. With the right support and resources, adults with LD can successfully transition to independent living and achieve their personal and professional goals.

Literature gap

The researcher has put forth a great deal of effort and conducted thorough research on the adults with learning disabilities as well as support services. However, the literature analysis reveals that some areas require improvement, which could have been achieved with more time. Despite time constraints, the literature provides valuable insights and information on learning disabilities (World Health Organization, 2019). However, limited resources have prevented the researcher from accessing some highly effective secondary sources that are only available through paid subscriptions. Further improvement could be made by better linking relevant theories for a more detailed and structured analysis of the research topic.

Summary

The research topic focuses on the challenges adults with learning disabilities face as they transition into adulthood and the support services available to them. Learning disabilities impact an adult's ability to process and retain information, and as they become adults, they encounter new difficulties, including accessing higher education, finding employment, and living independently. Support services such as vocational training, counselling, and accommodations in the workplace and academic settings can significantly enhance their quality of life. This research aims to explore the experiences of adults with learning disabilities and the effectiveness of support services in meeting their needs, providing insight into how society can support these adults in leading fulfilling lives.

References

Abdi, S., Spann, A., Borilovic, J., de Witte, L. and Hawley, M., 2019. Understanding the care and support needs of older people: a scoping review and categorisation using the WHO international classification of functioning, disability and health framework (ICF). BMC geriatrics, 19(1), pp.1-15.

Alexander, R., Ravi, A., Barclay, H., Sawhney, I., Chester, V., Malcolm, V., Brolly, K., Mukherji, K., Zia, A., Tharian, R. and Howell, A., 2020. Guidance for the treatment and management of COVID?19 among people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 17(3), pp.256-269.

Andrews, E.E., Forber-Pratt, A.J., Mona, L.R., Lund, E.M., Pilarski, C.R. and Balter, R., 2019. # SaytheWord: A disability culture commentary on the erasure of “disability”. Rehabilitation psychology, 64(2), p.111.

Annaswamy, T.M., Verduzco-Gutierrez, M. and Frieden, L., 2020. Telemedicine barriers and challenges for persons with disabilities: COVID-19 and beyond. Disability and health journal, 13(4), p.100973.

Aro, T., Eklund, K., Eloranta, A.K., Närhi, V., Korhonen, E. and Ahonen, T., 2019. Associations between childhood learning disabilities and adult-age mental health problems, lack of education, and unemployment. Journal of Learning disabilities52(1), pp.71-83.

Boyle, C.A., Fox, M.H., Havercamp, S.M. and Zubler, J., 2020. The public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic for people with disabilities. Disability and Health Journal, 13(3), p.100943.

Camm-Crosbie, L., Bradley, L., Shaw, R., Baron-Cohen, S. and Cassidy, S., 2019. ‘People like me don’t get support’: Autistic adults’ experiences of support and treatment for mental health difficulties, self-injury and suicidality. Autism, 23(6), pp.1431-1441.

Camm-Crosbie, L., Bradley, L., Shaw, R., Baron-Cohen, S. and Cassidy, S., 2019. ‘People like me don’t get support’: Autistic adults’ experiences of support and treatment for mental health difficulties, self-injury and suicidality. Autism, 23(6), pp.1431-1441.

Cochran, A.L., 2020. Impacts of COVID-19 on access to transportation for people with disabilities. Transportation research interdisciplinary perspectives, 8, p.100263.

Conor Stewart, 2023, Share of disability in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2020/21, Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/449258/disability-prevalence-age-gender-united-kingdom-uk/, [Accessed on: 23/02/2023]

Crane, L., Adams, F., Harper, G., Welch, J. and Pellicano, E., 2019. ‘Something needs to change’: Mental health experiences of young autistic adults in England. Autism, 23(2), pp.477-493.

Giebel, C., Cannon, J., Hanna, K., Butchard, S., Eley, R., Gaughan, A., Komuravelli, A., Shenton, J., Callaghan, S., Tetlow, H. and Limbert, S., 2021. Impact of COVID-19 related social support service closures on people with dementia and unpaid carers: a qualitative study. Aging & mental health, 25(7), pp.1281-1288.

Giebel, C., Lord, K., Cooper, C., Shenton, J., Cannon, J., Pulford, D., Shaw, L., Gaughan, A., Tetlow, H., Butchard, S. and Limbert, S., 2021. A UK survey of COVID?19 related social support closures and their effects on older people, people with dementia, and carers. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 36(3), pp.393-402.

Gleason, J., Ross, W., Fossi, A., Blonsky, H., Tobias, J. and Stephens, M., 2021. The devastating impact of Covid-19 on individuals with intellectual disabilities in the United States. NEJM Catalyst Innovations in Care Delivery2(2).

Goggin, G. and Ellis, K., 2020. Disability, communication, and life itself in the COVID-19 pandemic. Health sociology review, 29(2), pp.168-176.

Haines-Delmont, A., Goodall, K., Duxbury, J. and Tsang, A., 2022. An evaluation of the implementation of a “No Force First” informed organisational guide to reduce physical restraint in mental health and learning disability inpatient settings in the UK. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, p.8.

Hyman, S.L., Levy, S.E., Myers, S.M., Kuo, D.Z., Apkon, S., Davidson, L.F., Ellerbeck, K.A., Foster, J.E., Noritz, G.H., Leppert, M.O.C. and Saunders, B.S., 2020. Identification, evaluation, and management of adult with autism spectrum disorder. Pediatrics, 145(1).

Jeste, S., Hyde, C., Distefano, C., Halladay, A., Ray, S., Porath, M., Wilson, R.B. and Thurm, A., 2020. Changes in access to educational and healthcare services for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities during COVID?19 restrictions. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 64(11), pp.825-833.

Landes, S.D., Turk, M.A., Formica, M.K., McDonald, K.E. and Stevens, J.D., 2020. COVID-19 outcomes among people with intellectual and developmental disability living in residential group homes in New York State. Disability and Health Journal, 13(4), p.100969.

Lebrasseur, A., Fortin-Bédard, N., Lettre, J., Bussières, E.L., Best, K., Boucher, N., Hotton, M., Beaulieu-Bonneau, S., Mercier, C., Lamontagne, M.E. and Routhier, F., 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on people with physical disabilities: a rapid review. Disability and health journal, 14(1), p.101014.

Lord, C., Brugha, T.S., Charman, T., Cusack, J., Dumas, G., Frazier, T., Jones, E.J., Jones, R.M., Pickles, A., State, M.W. and Taylor, J.L., 2020. Autism spectrum disorder. Nature reviews Disease primers, 6(1), pp.1-23.

Lord, C., Brugha, T.S., Charman, T., Cusack, J., Dumas, G., Frazier, T., Jones, E.J., Jones, R.M., Pickles, A., State, M.W. and Taylor, J.L., 2020. Autism spectrum disorder. Nature reviews Disease primers, 6(1), pp.1-23.

Ludwig-Hardman, S. and Dunlap, J.C., 2020. Learner support services for online students: Scaffolding for success. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 4(1), pp.1-15.

Mackelprang, R.W., Salsgiver, R.O., Parrey, R.C. and Parrey, R., 2021. Disability: A diversity model approach in human service practice. Oxford University Press.

Mackelprang, R.W., Salsgiver, R.O., Parrey, R.C. and Parrey, R., 2021. Disability: A diversity model approach in human service practice. Oxford University Press.

Miranda, A., Mira, A., Berenguer, C., Rosello, B. and Baixauli, I., 2019. Parenting stress in mothers of adult with autism without intellectual disability. Mediation of behavioral problems and coping strategies. Frontiers in psychology, 10, p.464.

Neece, C., McIntyre, L.L. and Fenning, R., 2020. Examining the impact of COVID?19 in ethnically diverse families with young adult with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 64(10), pp.739-749.

Nicolaidis, C., Raymaker, D., Kapp, S.K., Baggs, A., Ashkenazy, E., McDonald, K., Weiner, M., Maslak, J., Hunter, M. and Joyce, A., 2019. The AASPIRE practice-based guidelines for the inclusion of autistic adults in research as co-researchers and study participants. Autism, 23(8), pp.2007-2019.

Nyashanu, M., Pfende, F. and Ekpenyong, M., 2020. Exploring the challenges faced by frontline workers in health and social care amid the COVID-19 pandemic: experiences of frontline workers in the English Midlands region, UK. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 34(5), pp.655-661.

Parwati, N. and Suharta, I., 2020. Effectiveness of the implementation of cognitive conflict strategy assisted by e-service learning to reduce students' mathematical misconceptions. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 15(11), pp.102-118.

Pillay, Y., Brownlow, C. and March, S., 2021. Transition services for young adults on the autism spectrum in Australia. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 56(1), pp.101-111.

Putra, P., Liriwati, F.Y., Tahrim, T., Syafrudin, S. and Aslan, A., 2020. The students learning from home experience during covid-19 school closures policy in indonesia. Jurnal Iqra, 5(2).

Russell, G., Mandy, W., Elliott, D., White, R., Pittwood, T. and Ford, T., 2019. Selection bias on intellectual ability in autism research: A cross-sectional review and meta-analysis. Molecular autism, 10(1), pp.1-10.

Shalaby, R.A.H. and Agyapong, V.I., 2020. Peer support in mental health: a literature review. JMIR mental health, 7(6), p.e15572.

Turk, M.A., Landes, S.D., Formica, M.K. and Goss, K.D., 2020. Intellectual and developmental disability and COVID-19 case-fatality trends: TriNetX analysis. Disability and health journal, 13(3), p.100942.

Ward, L.M., Cooper, S.A., Hughes?McCormack, L., Macpherson, L. and Kinnear, D., 2019. Oral health of adults with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research63(11), pp.1359-1378.

Willner, P., Rose, J., Stenfert Kroese, B., Murphy, G.H., Langdon, P.E., Clifford, C., Hutchings, H., Watkins, A., Hiles, S. and Cooper, V., 2020. Effect of the COVID?19 pandemic on the mental health of carers of people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 33(6), pp.1523-1533.
Courtenay, K. and Perera, B., 2020. COVID-19 and people with intellectual disability: impacts of a pandemic. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 37(3), pp.231-236.

World Health Organization, 2019. Civil society organizations to promote human rights in mental health and related areas: WHO QualityRights guidance module.

World Health Organization, 2019. Mental health, disability and human rights: WHO QualityRights core training-for all services and all people: course guide.

Xie, B., Charness, N., Fingerman, K., Kaye, J., Kim, M.T. and Khurshid, A., 2020. When going digital becomes a necessity: Ensuring older adults’ needs for information, services, and social inclusion during COVID-19. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 32(4-5), pp.460-470.

Yustina, Y., Syafii, W. and Vebrianto, R., 2020. The Effects of Blended Learning and Project-Based Learning on Pre-Service Biology Teachers’ Creative Thinking through Online Learning in the Covid-19 Pandemic. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(3), pp.408-420.

Zerbo, O., Qian, Y., Ray, T., Sidney, S., Rich, S., Massolo, M. and Croen, L.A., 2019. Health care service utilization and cost among adults with autism spectrum disorders in a US integrated health care system. Autism in Adulthood, 1(1), pp.27-36.

35% OFF
Get best price for your work
  • 54000+ Project Delivered
  • 500+ Experts 24*7 Online Help

offer valid for limited time only*

×