Building Information Modeling Assignment Sample

BIM implementation, planning, and its impact on construction projects with our comprehensive guide. Enhance efficiency, communication, and project outcomes.

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Introduction Of Building Information Modeling Assignment

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The utilisation of Building Information Modelling or BIM helps to enable construction and design team development for leveraging the business to its technological applications. These applications are cost-effective and require to development of greater efficiency for improving coordination and communications in business practices. To effectively apply BIM in a project management process, the team needs to develop a detailed plan to execute the BIM implementation. The BIM plan has to be developed in the early phase of the project. In addition, the BIM plan should be monitored revised, updated, as per the need of the project throughout the whole time phase. The key factors of building information modelling involve Lean Construction, Data Exchange, the "BIM maturity development process", Legal issues, the circle of BIM and the "Information Lifecycle". The plan helps to outline external resources, training, or several necessary competencies that help in successfully implementing BIM for mentioned use. The plan gives a benchmark to describe to the future accessor who will engage in the project

BIM planning procedure:

There are generally four primary steps in developing a structured BIM plan. this involves and mixes up the owners, project planners, and management personnel through a planned process that can develop a consistent and detailed plan to execute the whole project.

Figure 1: Procedure for the execution of BIM project

(Source: Psu.pb.uniozin.org, 2023)

The plan must include thorough research on over 40 industry experts and the consisting planning models, group meetings focusing on the planning with several industry participants, An effective and fully efficient mapping structure needs to develop by process mapping research, case study research and review of other projects to get experience the procedure.

BIM project lifecycle

The Building Information Modeling (BIM) project life cycle includes planning, design, construction, and operations. This model facilitates collaboration between project stakeholders by creating a digital model of the building. This allows for improved communication, increased accuracy, and the ability to visualize and analyze the building before construction begins.

BIM project lifecycle

Figure 1: BIM project lifecycle

(Source: Researchgate.net. 2018)

The above picture gives a details idea about whole lifecycle of “BIM” that includes total ten stages. The first stage started from designing procedure this includes drawing, measurements, and 3D model creation (Researchgate.net. 2018). After this stimulation procedure started and this stage is needed for estimating cost, environment selecting and overall prediction of project’s lifetime. The third stage is document management, it considered as one of the most important stage as total resource assessment, condition analysis and adequate requirements are decided in this stage.

Diversity information required by chain

In any BIM project, diversity information is crucial for ensuring that the project is inclusive and accessible for all users. This information includes data on materials, finishes, fixtures, and equipment that comply with accessibility standards and cater to diverse user needs (Meng, et al. 2020). Incorporating this information early on in the project helps avoid costly and time-consuming modifications later on.

Discussion

BIM is planning to undervalue the rework of building information modelling for distinct engineering purposes and to promote decision-making in assorted aspects of the "AEC industry". The applications of "semantic web technologies" in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction or the AEC industries involve the perspectives of "interoperability", "connecting information from different fields", and "logic inference". As per the view of Rafael Sacks et al. (2018), promoting building information modelling-enabled task alliance mainly focuses on "BIM-related technology" problems rather than administrative prototypes. As per the observation of the total study the key advantages incorporate better expense accounting and management, adequate "construction management and planning", and advancement in project quality and design.

Multiple Data resources

Multiple data resources of BIM

Figure 2: Multiple data resources of BIM

(Source: Researchgate.net. 2015)

The BIM project incorporates multiple data resources such as project data, 3D model, stratum data, analysis data, and monitoring data (Researchgate.net. 2015). These resources enable the creation of a comprehensive digital representation of the building, facilitating collaboration and communication between all stakeholders involved in the construction process, from architects and engineers to contractors and facility managers.

Multiple formats

Flowchart of different data exchange formats used in BIM

Figure 3: Flowchart of different data exchange formats used in BIM

(Source: Self-developed)

BIM facilitates data exchange between different parties involved in the construction process. This model supports various formats for data exchange, such as “Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), COBie, and Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie)”. IFC is an open standard format for exchanging BIM data between different software tools. COBie is an Excel-based format that enables the exchange of asset data. COBie is useful for facility management and operations. Another format, COBieLite is a simplified version of COBie designed for smaller projects.

Data Exchange

The data exchange activities require the collection of data and information from different businesses associated with developing decisions on the business performance activities. The shared data is accessed for exchanging the message collected through the given data and information. The BIM projects of different construction companies commonly utilise data exchange models. BIM is an organised and collaborative approach that does not depend on or be monitored by any individual or group. As per the view of Crotty (2011), an "Industry Foundation Class" or the IFC is an unbiased and unrestricted specification that is not maintained by any single vendor or any group of vendors. It is utilised for "data exchange" based on a "building information model".

Identify exchanged caused in level 2

Level 2 of data exchange in BIM project involves the exchange of detailed and structured information between different project stakeholders such as architects, engineers, contractors, and subcontractors. This exchange includes 3D models, schedules, specifications, cost data, and other project-related information to enable better collaboration and coordination among the teams.

Data Dictionary

A data dictionary is used for communicating and making a catalogue of the structure and content to reserve data, it provides a meaningful understanding description of data that have to be named as per individual works.

The data dictionary can have different structures for the content that is contained on the dictionary. However, there is a pattern that includes some or most of the topics discussed:

  • Listing the objects of the data, their names and identifying marks
  • Properties and analyzing of structured data, its type, size, optionality, indexes and nullability
  • Entity-relationship and level diagrams
  • Data referencing (classification, domain description)
  • Lost data and codes of quality indicators
  • Business rules and data quality based on schema validation

Emerging open standard

An "open standard" is a standard that is available for ordinary people, developed, and maintained by consensus and driven processes. "Open standard" avail interoperability and data transfer among several products and services and is responsible for globally expanded adoption.
IFC and smart building

Building SMART activates the whole building foundation to increase information sharing throughout the whole time period of the project. it breaks down the silos of data, better collaboration with the end users, and regardless of cooperation of what system software they have been using. Building SMART's technical ground and the systems mainframe are based on Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), which is ISO certified organisation and got the certificate in 2013. IFC is a distal and standardised description of the building asset industry (Kelc, 2019). It belongs to an open, vendor-neutral promoter and internationally standard-certified organisation that has usable capabilities across a wide range of hardware-based devices.

Data format issue

Data format issues can arise in a BIM project, when data is not standardized or consistent across all aspects of the project (influenced by Meng et al. 2020)This can lead to errors, confusion, and delays in the project. It is essential to establish clear data formatting guidelines and ensure that all parties involved in the project follow them consistently. Failure to do so can compromise the accuracy and effectiveness of the project.

BIM has revolutionized the construction industry by enabling collaborative design and construction processes, but it also presents data format issues. This model involves multiple specialist models and vendor-specific formats, leading to difficulties in integrating data from different sources. Additionally, there is a danger of vendor lock-in, whereby proprietary formats restrict the ability of users to switch between different software systems. In recent time, there is no single “open model exchange format” that facilitates seamless data sharing between different software systems (Wolf et al. 2019). Furthermore, existing software systems are not all object model-based, and not all required data is content in models, leading to incomplete or inaccurate information.

These issues can lead to time-consuming and costly manual data conversion, duplication, and errors in the construction process. For addressing these challenges, efforts are underway to develop open standard formats for BIM data exchange, such as “Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie)”. These formats enable interoperability between different BIM software systems, increasing collaboration and reducing costs. Additionally, advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning may help automate the conversion of data between different formats and improve the accuracy of BIM data.

Project standers

BIM projects typically adhere to industry standards such as “ISO 19650” and “ASTM E2026” (Liu et al. 2021). These standards ensure consistency and interoperability across different BIM software and platforms, as well as provide guidelines for information management, modeling, and collaboration throughout the entire project lifecycle. Adhering to these standards can help increase efficiency, reduce errors, and improve project outcomes.

Emerging open standers

BIM has become an increasingly important aspect of construction projects. There are several emerging open standards in this field. These include the “Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)” developed by building “SMART, COBie, and the “BIM Collaboration Format (BCF)” (Santos et al. 2020). These open standards help to ensure interoperability and collaboration across different software and platforms in BIM projects. As per the view of Terkaj, Borgo & Sanfilippo (2022), IFC is mainly a standardized way of describing building information digitally. Objectives of this standard are geometrically describe as 3D models to create accurate ideas for project managers and architects, create accurate visualization and proper analysis of building components. The concepts of attributes provide further information about the object, such as raw material, project size, and location of the project.

Figure 4: Importance of IFC standers

(Source: Buildingsmart.org. 2020)

Above figure describes that IFC helps in several aspects such as cost estimation, HVAC, code checking and facility management (Buildingsmart.org. 2020). This also helps in decision-making processes and ensures compatibility between software systems used by different parties involved in the construction process. IFCs promote collaboration and interoperability, reducing errors and costs in the construction industry.

Infrastructure

InfraGML, LandXML, Landinfra(OGC), PAS for rail & road

The data exchange system of BIM needs to develop a structured format with the help of LandInfra (OGC), InfraGML and LandXML. These techniques help to develop the power of exporting and importing information regarding BIM data for using it in "one tool to the other" without any mischief of data.

LandXML is a specialised XML (eXtensible Markup Language) data file format that contains survey measurement and civil engineering that commonly secure the data, transportation industry and land development. Landinfra (OGC) is a recently developed open standard for modelling, infrastructure features and land representation, infraGMLis a multi-part standardised program (Kumar et al., 2019).

The current building smart projects are developing alignment of IFC and undertake common foundational architecture and the requirements of the asset managers of BIM. As stated by Kensek & Karen (2014), there is an invaluable understanding of the effect of BIM drivers on building information model awareness within the different project lifecycles. Knowledge acquisition will help construction industry stakeholders as well as the administration to create applicable policies to improve "BIM uptake" within current practice. The construction projects related to PAS Rail and Road require the development of effective and strategic application of the data exchange features in the construction site.

PAS128, PAS 256, COBie and COBie4All

COBie or Construction operation building information exchange is a non-proprietary information and data format that is used mostly for subset publication of building information model (BIM) that is focused to deliver the asset data as a distinct form of .information about the geometrical concept.

PAS 128 is the current process to specify for detection of underground utility, location mapping, and verification. Whether PAS 256 is a code of practice that captures, record, maintain and share the location. A way to find out information and data for the buried assets. PAS 128 provides a robust methodology for capturing, recording, and sharing accurate underground utility data in BIM projects. It involves using multiple sources of information and technologies to verify and validate the data, ensuring its reliability and consistency. This helps reduce the risk of clashes and improves the overall efficiency and safety of the project.

In a BIM project, effective communication and collaboration are critical for success. PAS 256 provides guidance for information management using BIM, ensuring data is organized, accessible, and reliable. Teams should establish clear protocols for sharing information, use common data environments, and implement appropriate security measures. This ensures project stakeholders can make informed decisions throughout the project lifecycle.

BS 1192:4 is a British standard that provides guidance on the organization and management of information within a BIM project. It outlines the requirements for exchanging and sharing digital information between different parties involved in the project, ensuring consistency and accuracy of data. Adhering to this standard can lead to improved efficiency, reduced errors, and better collaboration among project stakeholders.

The BIM construction projects can utilise the PAS 128, PAS 256, COBie and COBie 4 All on the current basis. COBie4All is a useful tool for BIM projects as it allows for the easy exchange of data between different software platforms. The data exchange requires associating the digital content library as well as other information requirements. As per the observation of Lu et al. (2021), the construction sites and industries have even been marked "non-sustainable industries" due to their "high carbon emissions", "energy consumption" and "low productivity".

Common Foundational Architecture

The TOGAF is an architecture model of generic services and functions that provide a foundation that is capable of architecture that is more specific and components of architectural structures can be built. Durability, Beauty and Utility are the major three principles that are universally accepted. These standards can push the boundary of the projects cab ability and make it better in our work (Opengroup.org, 2023). The difference between a great structure and a good architectural structure is its capacity to crft an elegant solution that can impress the user.

Digital content Library & information requirements

A digital content library is essential in a BIM project, to store and manage various information requirements related to the project. The library should contain relevant data, including 3D models, specifications, product data, and other documentation necessary for effective collaboration and decision-making (Jin et al. 2019). Proper organization and access to the digital content library can significantly improve communication and streamline workflows, ensuring the successful completion of the project.

BIM Models

These models involve data exchanges of required data sets and details for the growth of the construction companies as well as the requirements of information sharing with different shareholders and stakeholders of the company. As per the suggestion of Kensek & Karen (2014), the potential of connecting BIM and the internet of technology-based, "data sources" is a moderately new development. As a conception, BIM and the internet of technology-based data present complementary thoughts of the task that concurrently increase the constraints of each. "Building Information Modelling" models suggest "high-fidelity" illustrations of the task at the associate level. Concurrently, proprietors are pivoting toward leveraging the "sophisticated technology" and advancement processes afforded by building information models to emanate more significance from their aptitudes.

This concerns steering complex technical and organisational issues, leading to a modification from "traditional practices". As cited by Race & Steve (2019), the legal issues involved in the BIM projects are related to liability or risk management and sharing, "ownership of data and model", settlement, information and data exchange, "right to rely on model data", "interoperability" and insurance. There are several effective designs that the BIM model explains for organisations and individuals to find out the technological approaches in different construction sites. Understanding, discussing, explaining and implementing of the BIM concept is important to recognise the benefits for the construction companies, their opportunities, implications, and challenges and study case studies. It is also important to recognise the effect of "BIM deployment" on different construction sites and industries. It can be effective for including contracts, work practices, IT infrastructure, technological advancement and skills development.

The above figure is illustrating information on the perspective of the requirement of the BIM maturity development process by showing its applications and benefits of it. Maturity models associated with BIM are developed as an appraisal tool that is utilised to acquire the competence or "efficacious level" of a system and offer the required explanation by determining the qualifications demanded to achieve optimal significance. As per the view of Adekunle et al. (2022), the "maturity model" had been embraced considerably in diverse sectors to complete optimisation and as a "problem-solving" tool. Thereafter, it has been recently assumed for reaching maturity for acquiring emerging and new technologies in the "digitalisation era". The extensive application and successful implementation need a comprehensive knowledge of the present situation of BIM and its operations as well as advanced, effective and "high-performing" measurements. Sometimes this model lacks proper acceptability in terms of relation to AM and to the value realisation of management processes.

As mentioned by Kensek & Karen (2014), BIM technology is required for utilising in improving the management, design, operation and construction of green buildings as well as can be utilised to explore diverse functions of "green buildings", such as carbon emissions, energy use and ventilation research that supports the "sustainable development" of buildings. Thus, this brings up the overall foundation of “digital transformation” into engineering and architecture within the AEC Industry.

Asset Information Requirements in BIM

Asset information requirements (AIR) are parts of the BIM process and modelling structure, they define the non-graphical and graphical data, information and required documentation needed for the lifetime operation and management program of a building asset. The users of the proprietors that work for the management, building projects and the construction company are maintaining the adoption rates and the maturity of the BIM planning. BIM is not common in the public sector even today, the customers of the public sector have an idea that the market is not ready for IBM and are found to be conscious about the cost of the project and supply chain by cutting down the competition levels.

The BIM circle has the conceivable ability to build an information model to promote structural arrangement. Through the development of a partnership lens, the research provides effective solutions to improve cooperation among "team members" associated with the "BIM-enabled projects" looking into the prospect of the suggested explanation from a more general picture.

Lean Construction and BIM

BIM and Lean construction are connected due to the support of the productivity, efficiency and sustainability of building projects. Lean strategies supply regulations for work organisations as well as BIM constructs an "information technology" platform sustaining communication flow among interior stakeholders. The linkage of the applications of lean construction requires associating the BIM models for developing effective growth of the workforce production of the construction company.

The above figure is displaying information related to the lean construction prospect in building information models and different construction projects. Lean construction is the min recommendation for the development of construction works and site effectively. It states the vital linking points of lean construction and BIM for understanding the Principle for the work organisations. The benefits of the linkage between BIM and Lean Construction are important and include Efficiency, Sustainability, Productivity and Resistant to waste production.

The information flow of the learn construction is involving processes, objectives, organisational structure, performance management and communication between internal stakeholders. As per the suggestion of Crotty (2011), lean construction and BIM together highlight the boost in the effectiveness of "cost control" in projects utilising these tools and help to gain a significant improvement in "quality control" by involving BIM tools and principles of lean construction. There are several issues related to "simultaneous utilisation and implementation", tools supporting utilisation and implementation as well as some potential future needs. In fact, this application of techniques allows in increasing the overall productivity and enhancing the profitability of the entire project.

Conclusion

The overall research concludes with information based on the benefits of building an information system. It has included the core factors of BIM application within the business practices of different organisations. It has included the details of each requirement and benefit of BIM in different construction projects and building information workplaces. It is important for the construction business organisations that help the companies to get proper development and resourcing properly in the BIM projects. The data exchange perspective plays a vital role in different construction projects for collecting information and details related to construction projects. It involves different benefits of associating lean construction and BIM features that help to enhance construction projects. It has included the building information model related to the maturity development process for gaining growth of the construction b businesses in the market. It requires developing effective and strategic applications to increase partnerships in different BIM projects. It has included the significance of associating technological advancements in different BIM projects and models in construction sites.

References

Adekunle, S. A., Aigbavboa, C., Ejohwomu, O., Ikuabe, M., & Ogunbayo, B. (2022). A Critical Review of Maturity Model Development in the Digitisation Era. Buildings, 12(6), 858. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060858

Crotty, Ray (2011) Impact of Building Information Modelling: Transforming Construction. Publisher Spon Press. ISBN 9780415601672

Farghaly, K., Abanda, F. H., Vidalakis, C., & Wood, G. (2018). Taxonomy for BIM and asset management semantic interoperability. Journal of Management in Engineering, 34(4), 04018012.

Jin, R., Zhong, B., Ma, L., Hashemi, A., & Ding, L. (2019). Integrating BIM with building performance analysis in project life-cycle. Automation in Construction, 106, 102861. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2019.102861

Kelc, S. (2019). Raziskava buildingSMART IFC Bridge in evalvacija AllPlan Bridge na primeru informacijskega modela mostu Marija Gradec(Doctoral dissertation, Univerza v Mariboru, Fakulteta za gradbeništvo, prometno inženirstvo in arhitekturo).

Kensek, Karen (2014) Building Information Modeling: BIM in Current and Future Practice. Publisher Wiley, ISBN 9781118766309

Kumar, Kavisha & Labetski, Anna & Ohori, Ken & Ledoux, Hugo & Stoter, Jantien. (2019). The LandInfra standard and its role in solving the BIM-GIS quagmire. Open Geospatial Data, Software and Standards. 4. 5. 10.1186/s40965-019-0065-z.

Liu, J., Xu, D., Hyyppä, J., & Liang, Y. (2021). A survey of applications with combined BIM and 3D laser scanning in the life cycle of buildings. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 14, 5627-5637. DOI: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9387090

Lu, K., Jiang, X., Yu, J., Tam, V. W., & Skitmore, M. (2021). Integration of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost using building information modeling: A critical review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 285, 125438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125438

Meng, Q., Zhang, Y., Li, Z., Shi, W., Wang, J., Sun, Y., ... & Wang, X. (2020). A review of integrated applications of BIM and related technologies in whole building life cycle. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 27(8), 1647-1677. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/ECAM-09-2019-0511

Michalski, A., G?odzi?ski, E., & B?de, K. (2022). Lean construction management techniques and BIM technology–systematic literature review. Procedia Computer Science, 196, 1036-1043. 10.14656/PFP20180202

Race, Steve (2019) BIM Demystified. Publisher RIBA Publishing (9781000705102)

Rafael Sacks, Chuck Eastman, Ghang Lee, Paul Teicholz (2018), BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Designers, Engineers, Contractors, and Facility Managers, 3rd Edition, Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons (ISBN: 978-1-119-28753-7)

Santos, R., Costa, A. A., Silvestre, J. D., Vandenbergh, T., & Pyl, L. (2020). BIM-based life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of an office building in Western Europe. Building and Environment, 169, 106568. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106568

Terkaj, W., Borgo, S., & Sanfilippo, E. M. (2022). Ontology for Industrial Engineering: A DOLCE Compliant Approach. DOI: https://ceur-ws.org/Vol-3240/paper2.pdf

Wolf, T., Debut, L., Sanh, V., Chaumond, J., Delangue, C., Moi, A., & Rush, A. M. (2020, October). Transformers: State-of-the-art natural language processing. In Proceedings of the 2020 conference on empirical methods in natural language processing: system demonstrations (pp. 38-45). DOI: 10.18653/v1/2020.emnlp-demos.6

Website

Buildingsmart.org. (2020). The importance of Industry Foundation Classes in Building Information Modelling. Retrieved from: https://www.buildingsmart.org/the-importance-of-industry-foundation-classes-in-building-information-modelling/[Retrieved on: 08.05.2023]

Opengroup.org (2023), The Architecture Continuum, https://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf8-doc/arch/chap19.html

Psu.pb.uniozin.org, (2023), Overview of the BIM Execution Planning Procedure for Building Information Modeling, https://psu.pb.unizin.org/bimprojectexecutionplanningv2x2/chapter/chapter-1/#:~:text=Building%20Information%20Modeling%20(BIM)%20is,project%20or%20portfolio%20of%20facilities.

Researchgate.net. (2015). The sources of data for integration in the BIM. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/The-sources-of-data-for-integration-in-the-BIM_fig10_273288370 [Retrieved on: 07.05.2023]

Researchgate.net. (2018). Figure 1. Building Information Modeling (BIM) lifecycle view [17]. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Building-Information-Modeling-BIM-lifecycle-view-17_fig1_323401191 [Retrieved on: 07.05.2023]

Usgs.gov, (2023). Data Dictionaries, Retrieved from: https://www.usgs.gov/data-management/data-dictionaries [Retrieved on: 07.05.2023]

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