Biodiversity Loss for Sustainable Development

Explore the critical importance of addressing biodiversity loss and implementing sustainable practices for a resilient future.

  • 54000+ Project Delivered
  • 500+ Experts 24x7 Online Help
  • No AI Generated Content
- +
35% Off
£ 6.69
Estimated Cost
£ 4.35
22 Pages 5609Words

Introduction Of Biodiversity Loss Assignment 

Struggling with complex assignments? New Assignment Help is here to alleviate your academic stress. With our online assignment help in the UK, students can access personalized assistance and guidance at every step. Don't forget to explore our Free Assignment Sample for valuable insights and ideas.

Definition of Biodiversity Loss as a sustainability challenge

Around the world there are multiple environmental issues which are taking place and affecting the way people are living in the world. The climate and atmosphere is changing at fast pace due to changing biological and environmental conditions. In today’s world there are multiple environmental issues which are affecting the entire globe and leading to severe conditions (Tickner 2020). Due to all the underlying environmental issues the major issue related to the biodiversity loss is taking place. There are different reasons for loss of biodiversity on earth which is the loss of life on earth. In general terms Biodiversity loss can be stated as an decline in the biodiversity which means that the variety of the living things inhabit the planet are declining.

The loss of biodiversity is one of the major issues which is affecting the entire globe and is a major challenge for the sustainability. Due to the increasing environmental issues and the declining variety of habits it is leading to have adverse effects on the sustainability and is now a major challenge for sustainability. It is important to understand that the loss of biodiversity is affecting the climate and other environmental factors which are creating a major issue for the sustainability (Olive 2015). Along with this it can be understood that the loss of biodiversity is affecting the ability of the ecosystem to function in an appropriate manner and this is affecting the sustainability. It can be said that it is necessary to understand that how the biodiversity loss and the issues and challenges related to sustainability are interrelated with each other.

Importance of biodiversity for sustainable development

The earth is full of diverse living species which are very important for ensuring better life on earth. Biodiversity is having a major role to play in ensuring a healthy living on the earth and it is equally important for the sustainability. In general terms it can be said that biodiversity is having major role to play in providing clear water, fresh air, and all the other essential requirements for having a healthy life on this planet (Hughes, 2017). For ensuring better survival of the future generations on this planet with all the resources and a better climate it is important to focus on preservation of the biodiversity on earth.

Purpose of the essay

The purpose of this essay to critically evaluate that how the biodiversity loss is an major challenge for the sustainability. For this the essay will highlight the major areas which are affecting biodiversity and leading to the biodiversity loss. Along with this the details related to the impact of biodiversity loss on the sustainability will also be highlighted in this essay. Moreover it can be said that the essay will highlight that what biodiversity loss is how it is affecting sustainable development. Along with this the major strategies developed for addressing the biodiversity loss will be highlighted.

Biodiversity Loss at Global, National/ Local level

Explanation of biodiversity loss at global level

The world is full of diverse species living on the earth. But with the changing situations the biodiversity loss is taking place at the global level. It is important to understand that in the last 50 years the biodiversity has declined to a greater extent and has created major implications to the human health and sustainable development (Gasparatos 2017).In the recent centuries the world has recorded great species extinction and major decline in the threatened species. It is important to understand that the widespread loss of the population of the individual species is creating major biodiversity loss to the world.

The loss of biodiversity or the loss of species at the global level is affecting the ecosystem function and the resilience as well. With the increasing issues related to the global biodiversity it is being estimated that the 30% of the species are globally threatened. The human activities and the issues such as climate change, pollution, excess population and several other reasons are causing massive extinctions on the earth (Leip 2015).Organisations are working effectively towards addressing the issues related to the declining biodiversity at the global level. Different organisation such as International Union for conversation of nature (IUCN), WWF and others are working for conservation of the natural environment and protection of species and biodiversity across the globe.

Explanation of biodiversity loss at national level

Due to the increasing development and the industrialisation different nations are at a higher risk of loss of biodiversity. Both the developed and the developing nations are facing the issue of biodiversity loss related to multiple reasons (Watson 2019). It is important to understand that majority of the biodiversity loss takes place on the islands and some of the specific locations especially near the tropics. The major countries such as Indonesia, China, India, USA, Australia and Malaysia are among the one who has experienced the major biodiversity loss. There are major reasons such as pollution, over exploitation, land changes, climate change and many more which has led to major loss of habits in these nations.

For an instance if we focus on exploring about the biodiversity loss in UK then the records reflects that the UK has experienced the loss of around 50% of their habitats since 1970s. This loss of habitats has taken place due to the increasing construction, human activities and the commercial farming practice (Gilmour, 2016). The UK government is investing better capital for protection of the ecosystem and the biodiversity. The country has experienced the terrible loss of the wildlife in the last decade. Due to this reason now the UK government is looking ahead to pay better attention over it and taking urgent actions as well.

Explanation of biodiversity loss at local level

Although the different nations are experiencing the different level of biodiversity loss but this remains a major issue at the local level as well. Among the different nations also there are some of the major states which are expected to experience more biodiversity loss as compared to the other states due to multiple reasons (Tang and Shao, 2015). For managing this state governments also work at the local level for creating a balance between development and sustainability. This helps them in taking appropriate actions for protection of the natural habits and prevention of biodiversity loss.

Specific Sectors affected by Biodiversity loss

Biodiversity loss is an important environmental issue which is having major impact on the different sectors. There are some of the most important areas which are highly affected due to the biodiversity loss and the consequences led by it. Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and mining are the major areas which are affected by the biodiversity loss.


Both the biodiversity and the agriculture are having important role to play in creating a better life on earth. The great biodiversity helps the agriculture in multiple ways. More variety of biodiversity helps in increasing the pollinators, improves the soil quality and helps in reducing the pests as well. Not only this rapid loss of the biodiversity is creating a major threat for the world food security and is making major changes in the agricultural patterns and crop patterns as well. The loss of biodiversity is making the agriculture more vulnerable to the changing climatic conditions and the pests and diseases which is having major adverse impact on the agriculture (Van Dover 2017). With the increasing use of better technologies and modern farming practices the agriculture is also having major role to play in loss of biodiversity. The increasing use of the land for the agriculture is leading the natural habitats to be converted into the farms and this is causing massive loss of biodiversity and especially the agricultural ecosystem. It can be said that both the agriculture and the biodiversity are affected each other.


Forests are the treasures of great wildlife and wider variety of biodiversity. But with the increasing modernisation and commercialisation now deforestation has become a major issue. Here it is important to understand that with the increasing deforestation the loss of biodiversity is also increasing. Due to the loss of the forest the species are losing their habitats and this is leading to the habitat loss or the loss of biodiversity. Forestry has changed alot in the recent decades due to the increasing issues related to the biodiversity loss. Especially the developed nations are facing more deforestation and this is leading to more biodiversity loss in those nations. There are multiple factors which are affecting the level of biodiversity loss due to the underlying reason such as increasing forest fragmentation, degradation, hunting and rapid deforestation.The major impact of the loss of biodiversity on forestry is that it is having loss of habitats and making it harder for the species to survive in the changing land and the forest conditions (Oliver 2015). The government as the national and global level are working effectively for protection of wildlife and the forest. It is necessary to understand that the forestry practices are having major role to play in the preservation of the biodiversity. Due to this reason there are multiple program run for saving the forests and ensuring a better habitat for the wildlife species.


The fisheries sector is also an important sector which is having an major role to play in creating a better environment and supporting the ecosystem. But fishing is an important practice which is having major adverse effect on the biodiversity. The higher level of fishing is having a major negative impact on the aquatic life and is leading towards the loss of aquatic habitats. The majority of freshwater fish faunas are in significant decline and require immediate conservation. In the seas they live in, fish have a significant influence on the abundance and distribution of other creatures. Here it can be argued that the changing climatic condition, pollution and unhealthy fishing are some of the common reasons behind the loss of aquatic biodiversity (Mazor 2018). At the same time it is necessary to understand that the declining variety of aquatic biodiversity is also creating an imbalance in the ecosystem and is creating major threat for other environmental factors and affecting human life as well.


Different mining operations are having an major adverse effects on the ecosystems and are creating an imbalance as well. The poorly managed mining practices are a major threat for the well-being of the entire ecosystem and are leading towards damaging the biodiversity as well. Mining leads to increase in the level of pollution, soil erosion, poor soil quality and higher emission of carbon in the environment and all this affect the ecosystem adversely. When the level of carbon is increasing in the environment it is creating major threat for some of the species and leading to loss of biodiversity. The mining processes are also emitting the chemicals which are affecting the groundwater and surface water which is affecting the aquatic life and the soil quality as well. Emission of carbon is having a major impact on the air quality and is creating major adverse effects on the human health and biodiversity. Thus it can be said that mining is also a one of the important sectors which is contributing a lot to the loss of biodiversity at the global level.

The Polluter Pays Principle

Definition of the Polluter Pays Principle

The polluter pays principle (PPP) is an idea in environmental policy that states that individuals who produce pollution or environmental harm should face the expense of repairing or mitigating such damage (Ambec and Ehlers, 2016). The concept is that polluting people, businesses, or industries should absorb the consequences of their actions rather than passing them on to society as a whole. The polluter pays principle is frequently used to regulate air, water, and soil pollution, as well as hazardous waste disposal.

How the Polluter Pays Principle relates to biodiversity loss

One of the most serious environmental issues confronting our planet today is the loss of biodiversity. It is the result of a variety of human actions, together with habitat degradation, pollution, resource overexploitation, and climate change. The loss of biodiversity has far-reaching consequences for human well-being, affecting food security, access to clean water, and the supply of ecosystem services (Khan, 2015). The polluter pays principle is a key tool for combating biodiversity loss because it holds individuals who harm ecosystems and species accountable for the costs of rehabilitation or mitigation.

The polluter pays principle can be applied in various contexts related to biodiversity loss. For example, if a company engages in logging activities that result in the destruction of a forest, the company should be held responsible for the costs of restoring or reforesting the area. This would incentivize the company to consider the environmental impacts of their activities and take steps to minimize their impact on biodiversity.

Another instance of the polluter pays concept in action is in the domain of marine pollution. Pollutants discharged into the water can have serious consequences for marine ecosystems such as coral reefs, fish populations, and marine mammals (Koh 2019). The polluter pays principle can be used to hold firms accountable for the costs of clearing up pollution as well as compensating for any damage to marine biodiversity.

The polluter pays approach has the advantage of providing a method for valuing the natural environment in respect to biodiversity loss. The polluter pays approach sees ecosystems and biodiversity as valuable assets that must be conserved by attributing prices to environmental degradation (Barrett 2019). This can help to shift the focus of decision-making from short-term economic gain to long-term sustainability.

However, there are also challenges associated with implementing the polluter pays principle in relation to biodiversity loss. One of the challenges is in determining the extent of the damage caused by human activities, as well as the appropriate level of compensation required. This requires a thorough understanding of the ecological and economic impacts of biodiversity loss, which can be complex and difficult to quantify.

Advantages and disadvantages of the Polluter Pays Principle

Advantages of the polluter pays principle include:

  • Encouraging environmental responsibility: The polluter pays principle incentivizes companies and individuals to take responsibility for the environmental impacts of their actions, and to take steps to minimize those impacts (Ofori al 2021).
  • Promoting sustainability: By internalizing the costs of environmental damage, the polluter pays principle encourages sustainable practices that reduce negative environmental impacts.
  • Providing a source of funding for environmental protection: The funds collected from polluters can be used to finance environmental protection and restoration efforts.
  • Creating a level playing field: The polluter pays principle ensures that all companies are competing on the same basis, encouraging innovation in sustainable practices and providing a competitive advantage to environmentally responsible companies.

Disadvantages of the polluter pays principle include:

  • Difficulty in determining who should pay: It can be difficult to determine who is responsible for environmental damage, especially in cases where the damage was caused by multiple actors (Chernikova al 2015).
  • Inequity: Small and medium-sized businesses may be disproportionately impacted by the costs of environmental regulation, while larger companies may be better equipped to absorb those costs.
  • Potential for moral hazard: Some companies may continue to engage in environmentally damaging activities, assuming that they can simply pay for the costs of remediation rather than changing their practices.
  • Limited effectiveness: While requiring polluters to pay for the costs of environmental damage can incentivize sustainable practices, it does not address the underlying economic and social systems that drive environmental degradation (Kondaveeti al 2021). This can limit the effectiveness of the polluter pays principle in addressing long-term sustainability challenges.

Ecological Sustainability

Definition of Ecological Sustainability

Protecting the environment is very important in today's world for ensuring better survival on this planet. For this sustainable development and sustainability are the most important areas over which the government bodies and the welfare firms are working for adding value to the ecosystem. While using the natural resources it is very important to make sure that the needs of the future generation should also be kept in mind. In general terms the ecological sustainability can be referred as the ability of the ecosystem to sustain the future needs of the future generations with the aim of protecting the biological diversity. The basic idea of ecological sustainability is being initiated for protection of the diversity and ensuring better functioning of the natural ecosystems.

How ecological sustainability relates to sustainable development

Environmental sustainability is an important component of sustainable development, which refers to the concept of serving the requirements of the current age group without compromising future generations' capability to meet up their own needs (Gast 2017). In other words, sustainable development seeks to meet economic, social, and environmental objectives concurrently and in a balanced manner.

The protection of the natural environment and its resources, such as land, water, air, and biodiversity, is fundamental to ecological sustainability. It underlines the importance of using these resources responsibly and sustainably in order to preserve their availability for future generations. To achieve ecological sustainability, efforts must be directed towards lowering resource use, eliminating waste and pollution, and boosting conservation and restoration initiatives.

Sustainable development, on the other hand, adopts a broader approach to sustainability that includes both economic and social components (Borland 2016). It accepts that economic progress is vital for improving people's lives and eliminating poverty, but it also recognizes that this development should not come at the expense of the environment. Sustainable development aims to strike a balance between economic growth, environmental conservation, and social well-being.

In practice, ecological sustainability is a critical component of attaining long-term development. Efforts to encourage renewable energy and energy efficiency, for example, can cut greenhouse gas emissions and protect the environment while simultaneously offering economic benefits and improving energy access for underprivileged people. Similarly, sustainable agriculture practices can help to reduce the use of harmful chemicals and promote biodiversity, while also supporting the livelihoods of farmers and improving food security.

Advantages and disadvantages of ecological sustainability

Advantages of ecological sustainability:

  1. Conservation of natural resources: Ecological sustainability promotes the conservation of natural resources such as water, air, and land, which are crucial for the survival of living organisms on Earth. By using these resources responsibly, we can ensure that they are available for future generations.
  2. Preservation of biodiversity: Ecological sustainability contributes to the preservation of biodiversity, or the diversity of life on Earth. This is critical for maintaining ecological balance and the services that ecosystems provide, such as pollination, biogeochemical cycles, and climate regulation (Neher, 2018).
  3. Improved quality of life: Ecological sustainability can lead to an improved quality of life for people, as it promotes cleaner air and water, healthier ecosystems, and better access to natural resources. This can help to reduce poverty and improve public health.
  4. Economic benefits: Ecological sustainability can also give economic benefits, such as the creation of jobs in renewable energy and conservation, as well as the expansion of new technologies that are additional efficient as well as less destructive to the surroundings.

Disadvantages of ecological sustainability:

  1. Short-term costs: Ecological sustainability may require short-term costs, such as investing in new technologies or changing production processes, which can be a barrier to adoption by businesses and governments.
  2. Economic trade-offs: In some cases, ecological sustainability may require trade-offs between economic development and environmental protection (Chandra al 2015). For example, limiting the use of fossil fuels may reduce economic growth in the short term, but may provide long-term benefits for the environment and public health.
  3. Implementation challenges: Implementing ecological sustainability may be challenging, particularly in countries with limited resources or political will. It may require significant changes in policy, infrastructure, and behavior, which can be difficult to achieve.

Strategies for addressing Biodiversity Loss

Biodiversity loss is a major environmental issue with serious consequences for human well-being, including challenges to food security, public health, and economic stability. Combating biodiversity loss necessitates a variety of solutions for protecting, managing, and restoring ecosystems and species (Mace 2018). The following are four main ways for dealing with biodiversity loss:

Protected Areas

Protected areas are an important tool for combating biodiversity loss. National parks, animal refuges, and marine reserves are examples of designated areas where the natural environment is protected and safeguarded. They safeguard significant ecosystems, provide critical habitat for endangered and scarce species, and offer recreational opportunities for people. Protected areas can also help local populations by promoting sustainable ecotourism and traditional resource usage.

To be effective, protected areas require effective management and support from policies and regulations. Well-managed protected areas can be key to preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem functions (Stoll-Kleemann and Schmidt, 2017). Effective policies and regulations can help to ensure that protected areas are properly established, managed, and enforced. This includes providing sufficient funding for staff, equipment, and infrastructure, and ensuring that the surrounding landscape is managed in a way that supports the protected area.

Furthermore, protected areas can play a significant role in achieving global biodiversity targets, such as those specified in the Convention on Biological Diversity. Protected areas can help to protect biodiversity and offer ecosystem services like clean water, climate regulation, as well as pollination, all while supporting local residents' lives. To successfully combat biodiversity loss, it is critical to promote and strengthen the development and administration of protected area

Sustainable Land Use Practices

Sustainable land use strategies are critical for dealing with biodiversity loss. Unsustainable land use practices, such as deforestation, grassland conversion to agriculture, and urbanization, have all contributed considerably to the global reduction in biodiversity. Sustainable land use techniques must be promoted and applied to overcome this concern.

Promoting sustainable land use practices involves reducing habitat fragmentation, restoring degraded lands, and promoting sustainable agriculture and forestry (Dudley 2017). Sustainable land use practices can help to conserve biodiversity by protecting natural habitats, reducing the impacts of human activities on ecosystems, and restoring degraded lands. Additionally, promoting sustainable land use practices can also support the livelihoods of local communities by providing alternative livelihood opportunities, improving food security, and promoting sustainable resource use.

Additionally, sustainable land use techniques can help to alleviate and adjust to climate change. Sustainable farming and forestry methods can help to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while restoring damaged lands can help to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. Sustainable land use practices can also improve ecosystem resilience, allowing ecosystems to better adapt to the effects of climate change.

Stainable Fisheries Management

Sustainable fisheries management is essential for addressing the biodiversity loss in the marine environment. Overfishing and destructive fishing practices have significantly contributed to the decline of marine biodiversity worldwide. To address this challenge, sustainable fisheries management practices need to be promoted and implemented.

Establishing science-based catch limits, reducing bycatch, safeguarding important habitat, and promoting sustainable aquaculture are all part of supporting sustainable fisheries management practices. Science-based catch limits can help to keep fish populations healthy and prevent overfishing. Bycatch reduction methods can help to reduce non-target species incidental catch and the impact of fishing on marine biodiversity. Preserving essential habitat, such as coral reefs and sea grass beds, can assist to keep marine ecosystems healthy and the biodiversity they sustain. Therefore, supporting sustainable aquaculture practices can provide an alternative to wild-capture fisheries while also reducing pressure on wild fish stocks.

Furthermore, sustainable fisheries management can support the livelihoods of coastal communities. Many coastal communities depend on fishing for their livelihoods, and sustainable fisheries management can help to maintain the long-term viability of these fisheries. By promoting sustainable fishing practices, coastal communities can continue to benefit from the resources of the marine environment without degrading its biodiversity.

Conservation and Restoration of Ecosystems

Conservation and restoration of ecosystems play a crucial role in addressing the biodiversity loss. Ecosystems, such as forests, wetlands, and coral reefs, provide essential services to human societies and support biodiversity. However, these ecosystems are under significant pressure from human activities such as deforestation, land-use change, and pollution.

Conservation includes safeguarding and managing intact ecosystems in order to preserve their ecological functioning and biodiversity. Establishing protected areas, controlling land use and development, and supporting sustainable practises that decrease human impacts on ecosystems are all examples of this.

Restoration is the process of repairing degraded ecosystems in order to restore their ecological services and biodiversity. Reforestation, wetland restoration, and coral reef restoration are examples of such operations. Restoration activities can help to improve ecosystem services such as clean water, climate regulation, and pollination while also assisting vulnerable and endangered species recovery.


Summary of main points

Through the above stated discussion it can be said that protecting the biodiversity is very important for ensuring better life on earth. Along with this it is necessary to make sure that all the factors of sustainable development should also add value in preservation of the species and biodiversity protection. The biodiversity loss is among one of the top environmental issues which are affecting the entire ecosystem in an adverse manner. This is an global issue which is affecting all the nations to a greater extent. Along with this in UK due to the increasing commercialisation and construction the issue of loss of biodiversity is significant.

Importance of addressing biodiversity loss for sustainable development

It is important to understand that biodiversity loss and th? sustainable development are interrelated to each other. For achieving the goals of sustainable development it is important to focus on protecting the species and the biodiversity in an systematic manner. Better efforts are required at national and global level for making sure thát collaborative efforts are being made for saving thé diversity of biodiversity on earth. When the government is working over limiting the pollution, working over global warming, deforestation, mining control and all thè other factors leading to loss of biodiversity then only we can think about sustainable development .

Final thoughts on the future of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development

The future of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development depends on the collective action of individuals, governments, and organizations worldwide. We must prioritize biodiversity protection, habitat restoration, and sustainable use of natural resources to prevent further loss of species and ecosystems. Technology and innovation can play a significant role in achieving these goals, such as developing more efficient and renewable energy sources and using precision agriculture to reduce environmental impacts. However, ultimately, the success of biodiversity conservation and sustainable development will require a global shift towards a more equitable and sustainable society that values and prioritizes the health of our planet and its inhabitants.


Ambec, S. and Ehlers, L., 2016. Regulation via the Polluter?pays Principle.& The Economic Journal,& 126(593), pp.884-906.

Khan, M.R., 2015. Polluter-pays-principle: The cardinal instrument for addressing climate change.& Laws,& 4(3), pp.638-653.

Koh, N.S., Hahn, T. and Boonstra, W.J., 2019. How much of a market is involved in a biodiversity offset? A typology of biodiversity offset policies.& Journal of environmental management,& 232, pp.679-691.

Barrett, A., Lawlor, J. and Scott, S., 2019.& The fiscal system and the polluter pays principle: a case study of Ireland. Routledge.

Ofori, S., Pušká?ová, A., R?ži?ková, I. and Wanner, J., 2021. Treated wastewater reuse for irrigation: Pros and cons.& Science of The Total Environment,& 760, p.144026.

Chernikova, E.A., Glukhov, L.M., Krasovskiy, V.G., Kustov, L.M., Vorobyeva, M.G. and Koroteev, A.A.E., 2015. Ionic liquids as heat transfer fluids: comparison with known systems, possible applications, advantages and disadvantages.& Russian Chemical Reviews,& 84(8), p.875.

Kondaveeti, H.K., Kumaravelu, N.K., Vanambathina, S.D., Mathe, S.E. and Vappangi, S., 2021. A systematic literature review on prototyping with Arduino: Applications, challenges, advantages, and limitations.& Computer Science Review,& 40, p.100364.

Mace, G.M., Barrett, M., Burgess, N.D., Cornell, S.E., Freeman, R., Grooten, M. and Purvis, A., 2018. Aiming higher to bend the curve of biodiversity loss.& Nature Sustainability,& 1(9), pp.448-451.

Stoll-Kleemann, S. and Schmidt, U.J., 2017. Reducing meat consumption in developed and transition countries to counter climate change and biodiversity loss: a review of influence factors.& Regional Environmental Change,& 17, pp.1261-1277.

Dudley, N., Attwood, S.J., Goulson, D., Jarvis, D., Bharucha, Z.P. and Pretty, J., 2017. How should conservationists respond to pesticides as a driver of biodiversity loss in agroecosystems?.& Biological Conservation,& 209, pp.449-453.

Gast, J., Gundolf, K. and Cesinger, B., 2017. Doing business in a green way: A systematic review of the ecological sustainability entrepreneurship literature and future research directions.& Journal of cleaner production,& 147, pp.44-56.

Borland, H., Ambrosini, V., Lindgreen, A. and Vanhamme, J., 2016. Building theory at the intersection of ecological sustainability and strategic management.& Journal of Business Ethics,& 135, pp.293-307.

Neher, D., 2018. Ecological sustainability in agricultural systems: definition and measurement. In& Integrating sustainable agriculture, ecology, and environmental policy& (pp. 51-61). Routledge.

Chandra, R., Saxena, G. and Kumar, V., 2015. Phytoremediation of environmental pollutants: an eco-sustainable green technology to environmental management. In& Advances in biodegradation and bioremediation of industrial waste& (pp. 15-44). CRC Press.

Tickner, D., Opperman, J.J., Abell, R., Acreman, M., Arthington, A.H., Bunn, S.E., Cooke, S.J., Dalton, J., Darwall, W., Edwards, G. and Harrison, I., 2020. Bending the curve of global freshwater biodiversity loss: an emergency recovery plan.& BioScience,& 70(4), pp.330-342.

Oliver, T.H., Heard, M.S., Isaac, N.J., Roy, D.B., Procter, D., Eigenbrod, F., Freckleton, R., Hector, A., Orme, C.D.L., Petchey, O.L. and Proença, V., 2015. Biodiversity and resilience of ecosystem functions.& Trends in ecology & evolution,& 30(11), pp.673-684.

Hughes, A.C., 2017. Understanding the drivers of S outheast A sian biodiversity loss.& Ecosphere,& 8(1), p.e01624.

Gasparatos, A., Doll, C.N., Esteban, M., Ahmed, A. and Olang, T.A., 2017. Renewable energy and biodiversity: Implications for transitioning to a Green Economy.& Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,& 70, pp.161-184.

Leip, A., Billen, G., Garnier, J., Grizzetti, B., Lassaletta, L., Reis, S., Simpson, D., Sutton, M.A., De Vries, W., Weiss, F. and Westhoek, H., 2015. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity.& Environmental Research Letters,& 10(11), p.115004.

Watson, R., Baste, I., Larigauderie, A., Leadley, P., Pascual, U., Baptiste, B., Demissew, S., Dziba, L., Erpul, G., Fazel, A. and Fischer, M., 2019. Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services.& IPBES Secretariat: Bonn, Germany, pp.22-47.

Gilmour, D., 2016. Forty years of community-based forestry: A review of its extent and effectiveness.& FAO forestry paper, (176).

Tang, L. and Shao, G., 2015. Drone remote sensing for forestry research and practices.& Journal of Forestry Research,& 26, pp.791-797.

Van Dover, C.L., Ardron, J.A., Escobar, E., Gianni, M., Gjerde, K.M., Jaeckel, A., Jones, D.O.B., Levin, L.A., Niner, H.J., Pendleton, L. and Smith, C.R., 2017. Biodiversity loss from deep-sea mining.& Nature Geoscience,& 10(7), pp.464-465.

Oliver, T.H., Isaac, N.J., August, T.A., Woodcock, B.A., Roy, D.B. and Bullock, J.M., 2015. Declining resilience of ecosystem functions under biodiversity loss.& Nature communications,& 6(1), pp.1-8.

Mazor, T., Doropoulos, C., Schwarzmueller, F., Gladish, D.W., Kumaran, N., Merkel, K., Di Marco, M. and Gagic, V., 2018. Global mismatch of policy and research on drivers of biodiversity loss.& Nature ecology & evolution,& 2(7), pp.1071-1074.

35% OFF
Get best price for your work
  • 54000+ Project Delivered
  • 500+ Experts 24*7 Online Help

offer valid for limited time only*