Introduction of Environmental Rights And Climate Change Assignment
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Environmental rights are mentioned as the extension of primary human rights that mankind deserves and requires. The primary environmental rights are demonstrated as the "right to life" including clean, land, water and air. The approach to human rights permits the life quality particularly the most vulnerable and "to be integrated" into the decision-making of an environment. UK law has passed the legislation that is going to protect and boost the environment for the coming generations. Environmental rights, climate change and human rights are interrelated with each other which focus on the aim to create a sustainable environment for the future.
The thesis statement of this study highlight environmental rights related to climate change assisting in transition to a better circular economy. The study is based on analysing the facets of environmental rights and climate change and its relationship with human rights.
Climate change and the rising concern: discussion
Climate change illustrates the average situation such as rainfall and temperature in a certain region over a long time. Temperature increases worldwide due to the trapping of more heat by greenhouse gases into the atmosphere with climate change. Currently, the issues of climate change have occurred increasingly which resulted in the loss of life all over the world. According to the view of Gellers and Jeffords (2018), climate change defines the average “low-term transformation” over the complete earth. There are lots of facts which contribute to the climate of the earth and the earth is getting warmer in the past 50 to 100 years due to unwanted activities by humans (Gov, 2022). The gases in the atmosphere of the earth block the generation of heat from escaping which is often termed the greenhouse effect. It is stated that the amount and intensity of rainfall during storms are expected to warm more as the climate of Earth continues to heat up.
The UK climate is undergoing certain emerging issues with maximised rainfall, temperature and sunshine. Based on the latest climate report of the UK, it is found that the UK was recognised as the fifth warmest, an eighth sunniest and third-warmest country in the year 2020 (Bbc, 2022). The previous year was less snowy, which was one of the records in history because snow majorly impacted northern and upland areas. As cited by Pedersen (2020), spring was the smoothest time for the people of the UK but they face extreme hot weather due to this fact of climate change. In the UK, scientists have warned the country regarding this fatal issue where rising temperature creates intense weather. The politicians and authorities of the weather department of the country have failed to curb the emissions of carbon. It is mentioned by the higher authority that citizens of the country are not responsible enough regarding their activities as an increase in temperature from 0.1 degrees to 0.2 degrees can make a big difference.
Climate change has a severe effect on the lives of people and the planet which can never be overstated. The climate change caused by the emissions of carbon in the atmosphere has a major effect on the ecosystem which includes "air pollution", "sea-level rise resulting in floods" and "extreme weather conditions consequently heat waves and drought" (Setzer and Benjamin, 2020). Climate change provides the highest risk and danger to human life causing threatening factors to the survival and physical health, water shortages and food, loss of property to the most "vulnerable" in the society. Climate change that occurs in the activities of humans has a negative effect on the full enjoyment of human rights. As opined by Burgers (2020), the most important fact of climate change is that it affects human rights also which can be a threatening factor for humans. The matter of human rights was made in 1948 which has an entitlement set that permits the people to live with dignity, justice, peace, freedom and equality.
Creating a healthier and peaceful environment between a harmonious healthy planet and human rights is possible when an individual initiates to comprehend the effects of climate change and how those impact the communities and societies. The rights of humans describe the people's entitlement of all individuals to live life in freedom and safety, to be treated equally and to be secured by their government (Bandura and Cherry, 2020). Human rights such as the "right to life", food, health and adequate living standard are impacted by climatic change. IPCC's (Intergovernmental Panel on climate change 5th assessment report gives a demonstrated picture of how the predicted and observed climate change adversely impacts millions of ecosystems and people, physical infrastructure and natural resources upon which they rely (Wedocs, 2022). Devastation and new events of extreme weather conditions ensure such as destruction and death of crops and property.
Human life is at the highest risk as survival is getting difficult with the increase in global warming, greenhouse gases and other harmful gases. According to the view of Emami and Koch (2018), the livelihood of many coastal inhabitants caused a remarkable transformation in the Arctic ecosystem that constantly aids many indigenous communities. Under human rights, climate change severely impacts natural resources and ecosystems, human settlement and physical infrastructure, livelihoods, security and health. Climate-related issues comprise extreme weather events and gradual transformation impact livelihood of the people directly through effects such as "destruction of properties and hone", "losses in crop yields' ' and displacement. As opined by Helm et al. (2018), climate change also indirectly impacts livelihood by aggravating other stressors. Climate change can contribute to other stressors which include maximisation in the prices of energy, food and other crucial commodities, large scale conflict and political instability, and disturbances in households and individuals (Climatekids, 2022). An increasing scarcity of key resources can significantly cause a huge threat to human security that undermines the livelihoods compromising identity and culture.
The government's obligation to their human rights concerning International human rights is frequently featured as entailing three kinds of duties which focus on three factors including "respect", "fulfil" and "protect" (Wedocs, 2022). The duty to "respect" the rights of the human needs states to refrain from taking some actions that may interfere with the curtailing of human rights enjoyment. Protecting the human rights duty against the third parties' violations is demonstrated in obligation set. Fulfilling human rights duty is referred to as the positive obligation which needs some states to undertake certain measures in ensuring the realisation of the right of all society members. Often many documents regarding the change of climate refer to "promote" human rights duty which may be concerning but different obligations to "foster universal respect for protection and observance of all human rights" (Wedocs, 2022). For every obligation set, “hard law” including “case law, treaty provisions” and “soft law” including “comments from UN bodies, UN declarations” are described that underpin the obligations.
The gap emission between the exacerbated impact of commitments and actions by parties to minimisation of emissions is necessary to keep the warming level below 2 degrees Celsius which is the highest concern from the perspective of human rights. As opined by Nuseir and Ghandour (2019), investments are highly considerable which is required in both developing and developed countries to adapt to the facts of climate change The process or approaches of safeguarding the human rights in global climate finance mechanisms include “clean development mechanisms”, “REDD+”, “Green climate fund”, “adaptation fund” and “Global environmental facility”. “Green Space activity project” can be the better approach that can be adopted by many developed countries in turning a better global climate factor (Wedocs, 2022). The citizens of the UK must focus on climate justice as it is the fulfilment of "human rights" in the experience of climate change. Climate justice is mentioned as the procedure of addressing the crisis of climate as crisis of human rights and utilising the law court to hold the government and corporations accountable.
Environmental rights and climate change: analysis
Legislation and the law of the environment are central in securing the humans and distinct animals and plants in the greatest ecosystem that exists in. As opined by Pickering et al. (2020), environmental rights in this recent situation are extremely important as it makes sure that cooperates, individuals and governments do not cause any harm to the ecosystem or environment. In the UK, the environment is highly polluted in recent times which cause heath diseases such as lung disease, asthma and heart disease that happen by air pollution. Burning fossil fuels, rising greenhouse gases and cutting down trees have maximised and so the trapping of heat has also increased. In the UK and across the world, human activities are the main reason that is giving rise to environmental pollution and climate change (Calzadilla and Kotzé, 2018). 40 per cent of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the UK are caused by the individuals mostly from the energy that is utilised at home, air travel and driving.
Climate change in the UK is impacting different aspects of lives, businesses and public services. Air pollution is the leading threat to the environment to health in the UK, shortening the lives of 10 thousand every year. As cited by Temper (2019), noise pollution comes second after air pollution and is mostly liable for more loss of life as compared to lead, dioxins or ozone. Emerging instances of the impact of the health from pollution lower level has been obtained from the UK sites. Apart from these natural factors, other emerging diseases have shattered every aspect of the business along with the environment. COVID-19 (Corona virus) has created a spreadable disease that has contaminated the fresh air leading to travel restrictions all over the world. The disease is highly spreadable through the air and is an extremely life-threatening disease (Peel and Osofsky, 2018). The UK has experienced a widespread disease and a huge number of deaths due to the fact of Corona virus. The facts collectively destroy the environment and threaten human life.
In the UK, businesses are also a major reason for creating environmental issues where many raw materials making factories are creating huge amounts of pollution into the atmosphere. As opined by McCauley and Heffron (2018), this pollution into the atmosphere changes the weather condition causing drought, extreme heat waves and many more. Five major sustainability issues are impacting the UK including plastic pollution, water shortage, biodiversity, climate change and air pollution. UK citizens are not conscious of plastics which resulted in annually 1.5 tonnes of plastic waste (Thecompliancepeople, 2022). Many business organisations use plastics for packaging materials which also creates huge amounts of waste in the environment. Consuming plastic creates severe diseases such as stomach aches and many more. Humans are digesting plastic through the consumption of fish that eat plastic from marine water. Water shortage is another issue that is creating environmental problems for UK citizens. Approximately 9.5 litres of fresh water has been extracted from the lakes, reservoirs and rivers of the country among others.
Vitamin deficiency is regarded as one of the major threats to biodiversity in some birds and species which is related to the decline of a population. As mentioned by Burgers (2020), B1 is a low vitamin which can transform behaviour in the reproductive system and impair the immune system. The probable reasons include low intake due to the transition to algae that creates thiamine and pollution exposure. Underestimation of carbon emissions of soil is the other biodiversity threat that is released as Earth warms (Torres et al. 2020). Underestimation of soil is less clean and feasible regarding the impact of warming deeper down despite carbon loss in shallow water. Deepwater fishing with the utilisation of lasers is a significant issue that was prevailing in the biodiversity threat. As cited by Setzer and Benjamin (2020), UK weather conditions are enormously unpredictable and every individual in the country is too conscious of four seasons in one day. Changes in climatic dimensions and rising air pollution become significant with the usage of excessive plastics and emissions of harmful gases from the atmosphere.
The relationship between human rights and environmental rights is interconnected and dependable which signifies that the livelihood of humans depends on environmental factors. A sustainable environment is extremely important and beneficial for human rights enjoyment and unhealthy environments potentially violate human rights (Máliková, 2020). Alongside economic and social factors, the environment is regarded as one of the main pillars of sustainability. A self-sufficient and clean atmosphere can give human beings the necessary things to live in solidarity and freedom and express their dignity. International standards of human rights identify the access to justice as the means and primary human right is to secure universally identified human rights.
The UK government is highly committed to making a better environment for the future and combined with the Environmental agency to speed up sustainable development. The UK government is committed to the Environmental Act 2021 which focuses on developing water and air quality, developing biodiversity, managing waste and creating other developments in the environment (Thecompliancepeople, 2022). The aim of the environmental agency is to assist developers to meet effective regulatory requirements. The function of the Environmental Act 2021 is to provide the legal framework for the governance of the environment in the UK. Other function of this act states in bringing the measurement for environmental development concerning waste, resource efficiency, quality of air, biodiversity and conservation.
The UK government is focused on the act and trying to meet the motives and objectives by 2030 which needs new development in making better habitats for nature and managing the overseas population of deforestation. Meeting the strategy and major claim of the act can assist the country in making the environment free from pollution and help to change the circular economy. The UK government said that the Environmental act will deliver the most ambitious environmental program on Earth (Pickering et al. 2020). The act has a new legally binding target to decline iconic British species such as red squirrel, water vole and hedgehog. The UK government passed the climate change Act almost ten years ago which holds together ministers in reducing at least 80 per cent emissions by 2050 (Gov, 2022). The implementation of the climate change act has inspired the UK government to have a strong development economy whilst minimising emissions.
The UK government has exceeded short-term targets but they are mostly slipping away from mid-term objectives. The UK government constantly over accomplishes climate science and focuses on the objective of 2050 to minimise the emission and pollution by enhancing better human rights and human health (Bbc, 2022). Apart from the Environmental act, the UK government follows the control of pollution act to manage the pollution factor that emerges from factories, transport and other notable commodities. The UK government strictly complied with the law focusing on the ambition and objectives of minimising environmental issues.
Based on the above study, it can be stated that Environmental rights and human rights are interrelated and closely depend on climatic factors. Environmental issues and climatic issues are huge in the UK and are caused by plastic waste, air pollution and biodiversity issues. Human rights depend on the likelihood of the environment as it states that a better environment means better livelihood for humans. Considering environmental issues and mitigating them for a better environment helps in strengthening human rights, a circular economy and fosters a better climate. Obligation sets of the government are mentioned where they mainly focus on three major duties to put a better environment forward. The UK government is highly complied with the mission of 2050 to minimise the issues of environment for better living health of the environment.
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