Business Research Methods Assignment sample

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Business Research Methods Assignment 

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1. Introduction

1.1 Background of the research

The pandemic situation of the coronavirus has disrupted the overall situation and policies of any organization. The Covid-19 epidemic has had an extraordinary effect on everyday work life, resulting in widely disparate experiences, views, and results. Telecommuting from home was one of the most significant shifts in working habits (Brinks and Ibert, 2020). The WHO (World Health Organization) proclaimed a worldwide pandemic on March 11th. By late March, 81 per cent of the world's employees resided in nations that had implemented workplace closures or limitations according to Covid-19 recommendations (Kwong et al., 2021). By the end of June 2020, this figure had risen to 93%. Zoom, the video-calling software, was downloaded 2.13 million times worldwide on the day the UK went into lockdown. To put this in context, Zoom had been downloaded 56,000 times precisely two months before. Microsoft Teams had a 12 million user spike in the week after the UK shutdown (Nemec, Jahodova Berkova and Hubalovsky, 2020).

As a consequence, there has been a significant digital transformation, with new technology and work procedures to enable virtual activities to be performed, as well as staff re-skilling and up-skilling (Huber et al., 2020). Regarding this matter, this particular research will focus on how Covid-19 has impacted the employment roles of the employees and what kind of changes they have faced. 

1.2 Research Rational

COVID-19-related lockdowns have put about 7.8 million jobs, or 25% of the UK workforce, in danger. The most vulnerable people and locations are those with the lowest incomes. We predict that economic growth is down approximately 30% from February 2020 levels during a typical shutdown week in May 2020. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, 24 per cent of companies temporarily stopped or delayed operations between April 7 and 19, 2020, with approximately 62% of those that remained to operate reporting a drop in revenues (Ghosh et al., 2020). Regarding this matter, this particular research will carry out the investigation on the results and experience of the employees due to this situation on the several changes on the workplaces.

2. Research Aims and Objectives


The corona virus pandemic situation has diversely impacted the organizational process. Therefore, it has been seen that the current situation is going through a stagnancy that can pollute the psychological and physical condition among the employees. Alongside, the employees are feeling so unsafe and tend to get security. Regarding this matter, the major aim of this research is to understand the impact of the covid-19 situation and changes in the working lifestyle of the employees.


Based on the purposes of the aim the objectives will be fixed which is listed below:

  • To understand the impact of the Covid-19 situation in the workplace context.
  • To evaluate what kind of situation they have faced for the changes of Covid-19 -protocol
  • To identify the secured insurance plans set up for the employees in their workplace

3. Research Questions

Based on the research aims and objectives the research questions are established which are listed below:

Q1. What is the implication of the Covid-19 situation on the Workplace of UK organizations?

Q2. How the employees are feeling due to the pandemic situation in their workplace?

Q3. What kind of life security do the employees want to take in this situation?

Q4. Does the employment protocol is suitable for them in their professional life?

4. Research Methodology

4.1 Research Philosophy

Research philosophy is a well-designed framework that guides understanding the general and basic principles and methods of cognition, provides a perspective regarding self-awareness (Cazeaux, 2017). This enlightenment assists to acquire ideas about reality and provide apparent knowledge about the nature of research. Simply, this philosophy is a belief regarding the means or ways of collecting, analyzing and using data to acquire the desired research outcome (Horne, 2021). Principally, there are two main research philosophies, Positivism and Interpretivism. In positivism, the researcher observes reality independently and objectively.

Interpretivism is directly the opposite of positivism (Alharahsheh and Pius, 2020). The term interpretive signifies the theories relating to the method of gaining knowledge from the world and dives deeply to comprehend the meaning of attachment associated with the action of mankind (Cole, 2020). Therefore, the interpretive framework is focused on methodological ways to comprehend the social reality based on the principles of monitoring the social world. Interpretivism philosophy is developed based on the principles formulated by the renowned philosopher Kant. The application of Interpretivist philosophy provides various advantages to a researcher as this philosophy easily interpret the element of the study and primarily drive research to focus more on understanding the why and how of a topic (Cazeaux, 2017). Therefore, interpretive is subjective in nature. This type of philosophy enables a researcher to be adaptive and make changes as per the different transitions and provide great detail of the subject.

The research will be drawn out to identify various changes that occurred in the working pattern of the employees in any organization due to the outbreak of the global pandemic Covid-19. The discussed research will accumulate data regarding this serious issue to identify several related aspects to the topic that is very significant in the current scenario to cope with the challenge and to maintain normalcy in the working world. Utilization of the Interpretivism research philosophy is the absolute right choice in this regard as this philosophy is subjective in nature and will facilitate the researcher to obtain detailed information related to the research topic.

4.2 Research Approach

The research approach simply defines the approaches used in research like, plans, procedures and the steps that are included to make the final and broad assumption which is based on the detailed processes of data analyzing, collection and interpretation (Multisilta et al., 2018). Hence, the research approach is being applied according to the nature of the problems addressed in research and the logic behind making the choice (Alase, 2017). The research approach is divided into two groups, such as, Data collection approach, and Data analyzing approach. The data collection method includes a qualitative and quantitative method and the data analyzing process has two approaches, such as Inductive and deductive approaches (Doherty et al., 2017). A qualitative approach is being used by the researcher to acquire transformative knowledge and this approach is narrative. Again this approach mainly includes open-ended questions and image and text data. The quantitative approach is used for surveys and experiments to acquire post-positivist knowledge. This approach uses numerical and statistical data, closes ended questions and applies predetermined approaches.

 There are two types of data analyzing methods, such as Inductive and deductive approaches (Marshall, Coleman and Reason, 2017). The inductive approach is primarily used to analyze qualitative data and for quantitative data, the deductive approach is used. There is another data analyzing method that includes both inductive and deductive approaches in research for data analysis. The application of the research approach in research is very much crucial as it determines and demonstrates logic and increase the credibility of a research (Marshall, Coleman and Reason, 2017). The following research has used both qualitative data and quantitative data followed by a deductive approach. Quantitative data will help to make a broader study on the topic and qualitative data will provide scientific, focused data and will assist in defining the problems and create a solution. For the evaluation of data, the Deductive approach has been used. This approach allows the research to apply theories based on the situation and offer flexibility in weaving the research.

4.3 Research Strategy

Research strategy is very much significant for providing guidance and direction to the thought pattern of the researcher. The research strategy signifies a step by step action plan through which a researcher systematically conducts the research (Altamira, 2019). It primarily focuses on the principal components of a research topic, such as research design, the topic of the research and other areas of the conducted research (Karlawish et al., 2021). Several bases are followed to develop a research strategy, such as research question, time, objective, philosophical understanding etc. The utmost importance of a research strategy is to choose the right process of data collection and analyzing method. There are several important research strategies, for example, case study, survey, grounded theory, action research etc. Other important and widely used data collection methods are interviews, observation, questionnaires, documents and focus groups etc (Altamira, 2019).

The research will be conducted during this crisis, to understand the nature and impact of Covid-19 on the workforce from exploring the perspective of different workers of organizations and communities. In this regard, the researcher will acquire data from the workforce through using the survey method mainly operating in the production areas. Surveying is a very easy process of data collection and it is cost-effective. The data can be acquired via mobile devices, telephone, online mediums and emails etc. The most significant feature of the survey is the researcher can gather data from a large number of respondents in less time (Trindade et al., 2020). Through which a broad range of data can be collected. In the current research context, it was required to understand a wide range of newly faced issues by a large number of employees. With the help of a survey, the researcher will be able to acquire data related to circumstantial challenges from a large number of people in a very limited period.

Another research method that will be used in this research by the researcher is the focus group. This form of data collecting method is conducted among a group and opinion, beliefs, attitude, the idea of the group is being collected. This is considered to be an effective method as it provides an in-depth insight and enable the researcher to collect data from the interaction between the groups.

5. Methods

5.1 Research design

A research design is a logical framework of techniques and methods of research chosen by a researcher. The research design is dependent on various decisions, such as, aims and objectives, research type, sampling method and data collection and analyzing method etc. (Novikov and Novikov, 2019). A well-planned research design enables to meet the aim of the research and ensures the right process of data analysis (Dannels, 2018). Again research design helps to get a depth understanding of a topic with the help of different sources like primary and secondary data. It is also useful for understanding complex problems and makes a critical analysis to resolve the issue. There is several study type included in research design, such as correlation, experimental, review and descriptive.

The descriptive research design is focused on describing a situation in detail and is totally based on theories (Marczyk, DeMatteo and Festinger, 2021). These theories are based upon the data collected from an individual's opinion and perspective. This kind of research design is presented very simply and everybody can understand this kind of presentation easily. Experimental research design signifies the cause and effect of a situation and creates interrelation between the two (Rahi, 2017). This design is carried forward through proper observation and based on dependable and undependable variables. In the correlation research design, the research establishes the relationship between the two associated variables and it is a non-experimental design.

In the following research, the research conductor will use the descriptive research method to run the research systematically and understand the Covid-19 impact thoroughly. This research design enables to get a depth understanding and during this pandemic, it has become necessary to investigate properly from many variables. Apart from it, the research design enables to use of both kinds of data that assist in getting a holistic understanding and can be conducted in a natural setting (Kazdin, 2021).

5.2 Data collection

Data collection is an essential part of any research as it enables to maintain research reliability. The systemic approach of collecting and assessing quantitative and qualitative data from a wide range of sources to acquire clear insights into the discussed topic is called the data collection process (Ghassemi et al., 2020). Data collection is a significant task as it enables us to understand circumstantial changes, understand outcomes and help to avoid future challenges. Establishing a rich collection of data necessitates identifying project objectives, sorting out the needed data and understanding the data requirements etc (Flick, 2018).

There are mainly three types of data collection methods, such as qualitative method, quantitative method and mixed-method (Maeder, Yamamoto and McManus, 2018). The Qualitative research method crucially focuses on the questions that assist to get an in-depth understanding of a topic. This method basically focuses on the 'how' and 'why' of an event and explores completely the topic (Clark and Vealé, 2018). For understanding human behaviour in an apparent manner, the qualitative approach is best and this approach enables us to understand the negotiated and dynamic reality. In this method, data is being collected through observing the participant's reaction, perspective and behaviour of the interviewers (Flick, 2017).

Quantitative approach highlight on the measurement, statistical and numerical data that is being collected through surveys, questionnaires, paper survey and polls etc (Moises Jr, 2020). The main goal of conducting a qualitative data collection approach is to establish the relationship between two variables. This research is descriptive in nature and experimental that founds an association between ,variables. The quantitative data collection method is a structured research method where results are based on a larger sample and the design of the research has been done with much care and help to predict future outcomes (Cochran, 2018).

Mix method is a research method, which contains interpretation, collection and analyzing Qualitative data and quantitative data through deep investigation (Bernetti, 2017). Throughout the research, the researcher will use this useful method called the mixed method (Abbate et al., 2021). The method is very useful because it clearly reflects the point of view of a partaker and ensures that the study is based upon the partaker's perspective and experience. In the given research, to evaluate and acquire the desired outcome, it is necessary to use both of the methods to get the desired aim and objective of the conducted research.

5.3 Sample size

The sample size is simply related to the number of people who have participated during the data collection method (Kingstone et al., 2018). The sample is used to identify the participants because it only represents the group of people whose behaviour and perspective are being documented in the data analyzing step. For determining the sample size of the research, a researcher must possess a basic understanding of the statistics of the population in that certain area and use the sample size formula to make the survey statistically right (Adam, 2020). An accurate sample size and variety of opinions enable us to get a clear finding from the area of study. 

The Covid-19 pandemic has thrown unprecedented challenges to mankind and around the globe, people have been evident of several changes to cope up with the sudden circumstances. The businesses have faced major challenges due to the sudden implication of restrictions. The research aimed at understanding the biggest changes and explored the perspectives and lessons learned by the people working in multiple sectors during the time of the epidemic.

5.4 Ethical Consideration

Ethical consideration can be acknowledged as one of the major elements during research. It deals with the essential principles to be followed with the participants while engaging in the human affair. Due to the sudden outbreak of the health disease Covid-19, the usual research method has been shifted because of the health concern of the participants well as the data collector. During the research, the researcher has been concerned with several health-related issues and in regard to this, firstly, the researcher has tried to take permission from the participants regarding their willingness to join in the interview. Then, for the data collection process, rather than face to face interview, the researcher has opted for those media which can avoid human contact as per the rules needs to be followed during this Covid-19 situation (Voo, et al., 2020). Apart from all these the basic considerations, like making the participant comfortable by encouraging voluntary participation and asking them the appropriate question and keep all the data confidential has also been maintained by the researcher.

5.5 Timescale

September -2021

October 2021-November 2021


2021- January 2022

February 2022- March 2022


2022- May



2022- July 2022


2022- September


October 2022-November 2022

Aims and objectives

Assortment of Research Topic

Data analysis

Research questions 

Findings of the research 

Methodology of the research

Process of Data collection

Research Conclusion

Task 2

1. Present and write up quantitative results and reflect on their strengths and limitations

1.1 Evaluation of the result from the qualitative data analysis process

This research has interviewed the different focus groups to get the answers about their job satisfaction and how long they have been worked in here. Due to the covid-19, a situation the employees has faced several situations but still they are staying in their workplace with full of dedication (Kumar, Malviya and Sharma, 2020). The interview section was conducted among the four groups among the eight employees. In the interview process, the respondents were gathered from different departments. In the process to learn the general background of the employees it has been seen that most of the employees are believe in the short term beneficial protocols. On the other hand, some of them are believers in the long term benefits which are very low. From the interview section, it has been seen that most of the employees are worked for a long time and they have many years experience in their workplace.

Throughout the interview section if this research comes to the ability among the employees then it has been seen that most of the employees said that, everyone has a different kind of abilities. An individual has different potentiality so based on this the abilities of them has been reflected. Most of the response has said that based on the abilities the facilities and rewarding of the employees is depended. In the workplace, most of the workers are working for a long time. In that case, most of them have long term contracts with the company about their security and some of them have 5 or 6 years contract with the company. In that case, they have not expected more security whatever they have already given from the company. They are satisfied enough with the policies of the company. Therefore, in the pandemic situation of corona virus, they have felt safe. In that case, they have expected the reward but they felt that it is not necessary.

From another point of view, it has been seen that most of them have said that the company has given them the free time which has made them enough satisfied. In the workplace, they have got leisure time like tea time, discussion time etc. Regarding the overall analysis as per the norms of the data collection process, it has been seen that employee satisfaction is important for the workplace. Especially, due to this pandemic situation already the many lockdowns has drawn a depression among them but the health and security among the employees are helping to solve them. From the different focus groups, the one thing is established that the employees feel that in a workplace the reward system and proper security of the job are necessary. It can help them to adjust themselves to this pandemic situation as well as pay the job security among them.

1.2 Strengths

In the process of the focus group interview among the respondent's several opportunities are listed below:

Client Response Easily Measurable

A focus group is an efficient way to ascertain customer reaction to new goods or company activities. Focus groups frequently make fast recommendations for enhancing certain products or ideas. Additionally, they help the company and its competitors in identifying final product needs as well as other unmet needs (Opdenakker, 2006). Additionally, focus groups provide insight about competitors' current position in the minds of consumers, as well as the consumer's reaction to the development, packaging, price, and message of a product.

Time-Saving Possibility

Due to the condensed form of a focus group, researchers may seek a large volume of thoughts and comments on many elements of a product without going through the time-consuming process of personally requesting interviews (Lobe and Morgan, 2021). Time saved during the investigation product development stage is critical in fast-changing sectors, even more so when a thorough focus group enables a product’s path to the market to be accelerated.

1.3 Weakness

Moderator Bias

Moderators have a significant influence on the result of a focus group conversation. They may introduce their prejudices into the members' exchange of ideas, either deliberately or unintentionally. This may result in erroneous findings (Prince and Davies, 2001).

Not as Extensive as Some Other Market Research

In comparison to interviews conducted, focus group discussions are less effective in delving deeply into a topic (Baymler Lundberg et al., 2021). A drawback of a group discussion is that participants may be unable to convey their candid and genuine views regarding the subject at issue. They may be reluctant to voice their opinions, particularly if their opinions conflict with those of another person.

2. Present and write up qualitative results and reflect on their strengths and limitations

2.1 Evaluation of the result from the quantitative data analysis process

This particular research has surveyed given to all 240 workers in each of the four major production regions and got 193 replies. The question on the surveys was based on the employee facilities that were given by their companies. On the question about the importance of employee benefits in the workplace, most of the employees said, it is important. The overall survey has conducted the questions on the different types of opportunities and their importance in the workplace. In the context of 235 days of paid leave, most of the respondents are said it is important to give benefits in this section. In the occupational pay sick, most of the respondents were said it is important. As well as in the training and development process they have also given a positive impression that means they said, in that case, the employee benefits is also important. Alongside, from the survey, it has been proved that most of the employees are interested to establish attributes on their leisure times from the company.

Regarding this matter, most of the employees were said that the company has to give importance on the leisure time. Likewise, in the health insurance policies, health facilities and other assurance policy most of the employees are tend to give importance to that. From the overall survey among the employees, it has been proved that most of the employees are think that safety and security are very important for them. In every aspect, the company has to provide prominent health and life security. Especially, in the corona virus pandemic situation, it is a very important fact to provide the importance on the health security among the employees (Kumar, Malviya and Sharma, 2020). From the overall conducted survey it has been claimed that in an organizational workplace the employee benefits are playing important roles. The employees are tending to seek such kinds of opportunities that are helpful for them.

2.2 Strengths

High Representational Value

Surveys provide a great degree of general competence when it comes to reflecting a big population. Due to the large number of individuals who often respond to surveys, the data collected provides a more complete picture of the relative features of the general public included in the research (Abergel et al., 2021). In comparison to other data collection techniques, surveys are capable of extracting data that are close to the precise characteristics of the broader population.

Convenient Data Collection

Surveys may be conducted in a number of methods. The surveys may be sent by e-mail or fax, or over the Internet (Abergel et al., 2021). Nowadays, the most common form of data collection from target participants is via online surveys. Apart from the ease of data collection, researchers may acquire data from individuals all over the world.

Possessing a High Level of Statistical Significance

Due to the survey techniques maximize, it is often simpler to get statistically meaningful findings than it is with other data collection techniques. Surveys may also be used successfully to evaluate several factors (Abergel et al., 2021).

2.3 Weakness

Unadoptable Design

The researcher's survey and the manner in which it is administered cannot be changed at any time during the data collecting process. While this intransigence may be seen as a weakness of the survey technique, it may also be viewed positively in light of the study's capacity to exercise both accuracy and neutrality (Neuert et al., 2021).

Not Suitable for Controversial Subjects

Controversial questions may not be answered accurately by participants due to the likely difficulty of remembering pertinent facts (Baymler Lundberg et al., 2021). The truth about these issues may not be revealed as precisely as it would be if data were gathered via other techniques such as forehead interviews.

Possibility of Inappropriate Questions

Survey questions are usually standardized prior to being administered to respondents. As a result, the researcher is obliged to develop questions that are broad enough to include the whole population (Neuert et al., 2021). These broad inquiries, however, may not be as pertinent to all individuals because they should be.

References for Task 1

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Altamira, M., 2019. Understanding the Definition and Development of Marketing Capabilities in Chinese Multinationals and the Influence of Institutional Elements: A Narrative Inquiry Strategy to Study Chinese Managers’ Experiences. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Anderson, D.R., Sweeney, D.J., Williams, T.A., Camm, J.D. and Cochran, J.J., 2018. An introduction to management science: quantitative approach. Cengage learning.

Bartsch, S., Weber, E., Büttgen, M. and Huber, A., 2020. Leadership matters in crisis-induced digital transformation: how to lead service employees effectively during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Service Management.

Cazeaux, C., 2017. Art, research, philosophy (p. 202). Taylor & Francis.

Clark, K.R. and Vealé, B.L., 2018. Strategies to enhance data collection and analysis in qualitative research. Radiologic technology89(5), pp.482CT-485CT.

Cohen, J.P., Morrison, P., Dao, L., Roth, K., Duong, T.Q. and Ghassemi, M., 2020. Covid-19 image data collection: Prospective predictions are the future. arXiv preprint arXiv:2006.11988.

Cole, R., 2020. Getting your research philosophy clear. In How to Keep your Doctorate on Track. Edward Elgar Publishing.

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Flick, U., 2018. Triangulation in data collection. The SAGE handbook of qualitative data collection, pp.527-544.

Horne, J., 2021. The philosophy of research.

Kazdin, A.E., 2021. Research design in clinical psychology. Cambridge University Press.

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Maeder, E.M., Yamamoto, S. and McManus, L.A., 2018. Methodology matters: Comparing sample types and data collection methods in a juror decision-making study on the influence of defendant race. Psychology, Crime & Law24(7), pp.687-702.

Marczyk, G.R., DeMatteo, D. and Festinger, D., 2021. Essentials of research design and methodology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Marshall, J., Coleman, G. and Reason, P., 2017. Leadership for sustainability: An action research approach. Routledge.

McAloon, C.G., Macken-Walsh, Á., Moran, L., Whyte, P., More, S.J., O’Grady, L. and Doherty, M.L., 2017. Johne’s disease in the eyes of Irish cattle farmers: a qualitative narrative research approach to understanding implications for disease management. Preventive veterinary medicine141, pp.7-13.

Moises Jr, C., 2020. Online data collection as adaptation in conducting quantitative and qualitative research during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Education Studies7(11).

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References for Task 2

Abergel, V., Jacquot, K., De Luca, L. and Veron, P., 2021. Combining on-site and off-site analysis: towards a new paradigm for cultural heritage surveys. DISEGNARECON14(26).

Baymler Lundberg, A.S., Esbensen, B.A., Jensen, M.B., Hauge, E.M. and Thurah, A.D., 2021. Facilitators and barriers in diagnosing rheumatoid arthritis as described by general practitioners: a Danish study based on focus group interviews. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, pp.1-8.

Brinks, V. and Ibert, O., 2020. From corona virus to corona crisis: The value of an analytical and geographical understanding of crisis. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie111(3), pp.275-287.

Ghosh, A., Nundy, S., Ghosh, S. and Mallick, T.K., 2020. Study of COVID-19 pandemic in London (UK) from the urban context. Cities106, p.102928.

Kumar, D., Malviya, R. and Sharma, P.K., 2020. Corona virus: a review of COVID-19. EJMO4(1), pp.8-25.

Kwong, A.S., Pearson, R.M., Adams, M.J., Northstone, K., Tilling, K., Smith, D., Fawns-Ritchie, C., Bould, H., Warne, N., Zammit, S. and Gunnell, D.J., 2021. Mental health before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in two longitudinal UK population cohorts. The British Journal of Psychiatry218(6), pp.334-343.

Lobe, B. and Morgan, D.L., 2021. Assessing the effectiveness of video-based interviewing: a systematic comparison of video-conferencing based dyadic interviews and focus groups. International Journal of Social Research Methodology24(3), pp.301-312.

Neuert, C.E., Meitinger, K., Behr, D. and Schonlau, M., 2021. The Use of Open-ended Questions in Surveys. Methods, data, analyses: a journal for quantitative methods and survey methodology (mda)15(1), pp.3-6.

Opdenakker, R., 2006, September. Advantages and disadvantages of four interview techniques in qualitative research. In Forum qualitative sozialforschung/forum: Qualitative social research (Vol. 7, No. 4).

Prince, M. and Davies, M., 2001. Moderator teams: an extension to focus group methodology. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal.

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