Comprehensive Guide to Management Principles and Career Development
Path to Success in Management and Personal Growth (The developing manager assignment sample)
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The following report aims to make the scholars learn about different personal development and assist them in building their career in the management. The report explores a wide variety of management procedures and behaviour principles. The idea behind discussing them is to make the learner aware of the applicability of knowledge about self-appraisal and other potential as a prospective manager. The assignment consists of a comparison between the two emerging travel industries i.e., Thomas Cook and TUI Plc. There are two reflection report that emphasise on the skills needed for an effective performance in the respective industries. In addition to this, a career development plan is also provided in order to make the learners aware of the managerial duties and responsibilities.
LO1 Understand principles and practices of management behaviour
The following report will compare the different management styles and discuss different leadership characteristics. In addition to this, an evaluation of communication process and its importance in Thomas Cook will be done. An analysis of organisational culture will also be included in the report.
1.1 Compare different management styles
Management in simple word is a group of people in the organisation that are responsible to run the organisation. Their duties include PLAN, ORGANISE, CONTROL, DIRECT, and STAFF all the operations of an organisation (Aaker and Joachimsthaler, 2012).
There can be five management styles that are explained below:-
- Directive: This is coercive style of management that seeks immediate compliance from employees. Such managers closely directs the employees and motivate them by discipline and threats. This style is useful when there is any crisis. The downside of this style is that is ineffective when employees are either underdeveloped or highly skilled.
- Authoritative: This style is considered to be a visionary style that aims at giving long-time vision and directions to the workers. Such managers are known for providing clear directions, motivation, and providing feedback on task performance. It is effective when a leader is responsible and is able to provide clear directions. It is ineffective when employees are underdeveloped.
- Affiliative: The main focus of this style is to maintain harmony among the employees and the management. Such managers believe that people should be the first priority of every organisation. They inspire the subordinates by keeping them happy. This style can be clubbed with other style and is best suited for the critical situation. It cannot work when performance is low.
- Participative: It is also known as the democratic style that focuses on establishing consensus and commitments among workers. These managers welcome everyone's input in decision-making. They also motivate them through rewards and appraisals. It is effective in case of team work but often fails in the case of crisis.
- Coaching: The coaching style help in overall development of the workers. Such managers are also called “developmental manager”. They assist employees to hone their skill set and improve their performance. It is ineffective when the manager is not credible and lacks the expertise (Aaker and Joachimsthaler, 2012).
The leadership style employed in Thomas Cook is Affiliative.
Such managers maintain harmony among the employees and the management.
The manager tries to avoid conflicts and promotes good personal relationships among staff members.
In TUI plc, the manager follows the Coaching style.
Manager assists in personal and professional development by providing opportunities to the staff.
The employees always seek developmental opportunities.
1.2 Discuss leadership characteristics
The business world is quite dynamic nowadays and therefore, a leader must have certain characteristics in order to sustain the organisation in the rapidly changing environment (Drucker and Koontz, 2016). These are discussed below:-
- Creativity and Innovation: It's an innovation that separates a manager from a normal employee. To sustain a business in the competing market, a manager has to be innovative and creative.
- Communication: For a manager, having an effective communication is very crucial as it helps them to convey the ideas, issues, advice, and organisational goals to the employees. It also assists in keeping the team working efficiently with the right attitude on a project
- Team Orientation: The leaders of the organisation must have the ability to generate a good spirit in the team and encouraging the teamwork so that the goals of the organisation can be accomplished within the specified period of time. This also includes the improvement of the strengths of the individual employed in the organisation.
- Compassion: The managers should be merciful and concern towards the feelings of the subordinates. This helps in making the working environment-friendly.
- Honesty: Leader’s credibility depends on his/her honesty. An honest leader is dedicated toward his/her job and he/she addresses the issues rather than avoiding them.
1.3 Evaluate communication processes in selected businesses
Strong communication skills help in conveying the useful information from management to the employees and vice versa. There are six key components of every communication system that are explained below:-
Sender: a Sender is a person who wants to convey certain information to another person.
Encoding: Sender encodes the message into certain symbols in order to transmit the message via channels.
Transmission: The message travels from various means to reach its receiver. There are various means of transmission of a message, such as e-mail, phone, etc.
Decoding: The encoded message is decoded into more understandable form by the various mean. The symbols are provided with some meaning.
Receiver: This is where the message is finally interpreted by the person. The sense of understanding is usually developed after reading the message.
Feedback: This is the ultimate stage and is a quintessential element of every communication process. Any kind of disturbances that occur while transmission of the information can be rectified here (Beebe, et.al, 2012).
(Figure 1: Communication Process)
(Source: Slideshare, 2015)
There are three types of communication processes:-
- Verbal: Storytelling, Usage of words
- Non-Verbal: Symbols, expressions, visuals
- Written: Emails, messages, etc.
Apart from this, organisations also have another category of communication:-
- Horizontal Communication: In this, communication occurs in one direction only i.e., from sender to receiver.
- Two-way Communication: In this type of communication, a message is sent from sender to receiver through a channel and then, the receiver reverts back to the sender message as feedback.
Thomas Cook follows a two-way communication process and this helps them in conveying the management's message to the employees. Also, it assists in smooth-functioning of the organisation (Drucker and Koontz, 2016).
1.4 Analyse organisational culture and change in selected businesses
There different variety of organisational culture that is described below:-
- Power Culture: This type of culture is more of hierarchical one where the individuals in higher position have a higher power in the company.
- Client-oriented Culture: In this type of culture, customers are given the centre position. Every strategy is proposed by considering their interest.
- Role Culture: In this system, every employee is provided with a role and they must act in accordance with that role in order to achieve goals.
- Task Culture: This culture is task-oriented and exists when a project is assigned to the team.
Thomas Cook is a well-established organisation having low employee turnover. The reason for it is the mix of organisational culture. The culture is dynamic and changes according to the need of the time. In the management world, it follows PROUD culture. This helps the organisation to keep their operations on the track of the professional approach. Having a flexible working culture help employees to meet their personal obligations accordingly without affecting the work (Drucker and Koontz, 2016).
In this report, different management styles were discussed along with different leadership characteristics. In addition to this, an evaluation of the communication process and its importance in Thomas Cook was done. An analysis of organisational culture was included in the report.
LO2 Be able to review own potential as a prospective manager
The purpose of creating this report is to evaluate my performance and various management skills. Being a budding manager, I have utilised the SWOT analysis tool for self-assessment. In addition to this, a list of managerial objectives is provided.
2.1. Assess own management skills performance
I understand that the promotion of a manager depends on several factors and one of them is performance factor. Management can take feedback from employees regarding my managerial and guidance style. Clayton Crown Hotel London is one of the emerging hotel organisations and to sustain their pace of growth, the management seeks certain managerial skills from me. These are explained below:-
- Supervisory Skills: Supervision is vital for managers. Employees seek direction from us. Therefore, top-quality supervisory skills are needed from me.
- Planning Skills: Being a prospective manager, I am liable to understand the organisational goals. Based on that I should be able to plan tasks for the employees.
- Leadership Skills: These are the quintessential skills for a managerial candidate. Managers are responsible for direct, operate, manage, staff, and control the operations and workforce. Therefore, I should be judged on my leadership abilities.
- Communication Skills: Having a strong communication skill help in conveying the useful information from management to the employees and vice versa.
After this self-assessment stage, I realised that I have a strong communication and planning skills. I am an affiliative kind of leader and know how to create a friendly environment for employees. They assist me in motivating subordinates to achieve the organisational goals.
2.2. Analyse personal strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats
As a manager, it is my duty to assess my personal weaknesses, strength, threats, and opportunities. For this purpose, SWOT analysis is done in here.
Strong Planning skills
Strong communication skills
Pressurised under timelines
Inability to organise multitudes of urgent demands
Training sessions for coaching employees
Internship opportunities under veterans
Analysing feedbacks from employees
Rapidly changing technology
Candidate with higher qualifications
Increasing scope of the project
2.3 Set and prioritise objectives and targets to develop own potential
There many ways by which managers can develop their potential. Here, I am providing my approach.
- Developing long-term objectives: All the planning approaches are formulated as the long-term goals. This would help in directing the plans in the direction of organisational goals and achieving them efficiently.
- Defining Deadlines: Once the long-term goals are developed, setting up the deadlines is another task. This assists in managing different task on time.
- Explore Management Approaches: There are different ways and styles managers can opt to guide their subordinate. For that purpose, they can refer to some textbook or case studies.
- Develop a New Skill Set: Since the business market is changing, there is a strong need of developing some new skills in order to match with the transforming environment.
- Improving old skills: With time, managers usually forget things and their skills start getting ineffective. Therefore, they should give time to improve them.
- Managing Time: It is a difficult task but if it is done properly, the project goes and grows effectively.
In this report, an evaluation of my performance and various management skills was done. Being a budding manager, I have utilised the SWOT analysis tool for self-assessment. In addition to this, a list of managerial objectives was also provided.
LO3- To be able to show managerial skills within a business and services context
In this part, the motivational approaches and theories often used by the managers will be elaborated. In addition to this, a certain managerial decision taken to achieve the organisational goals will be justified along with a few recommendations for the same.
3.1 Lead and motivate a team to achieve an agreed goal or objective
There are several models and theories that managers use in order to motivate their employees. Two of them are discussed in this section.
(Figure 2: Maslow’s pyramid of needs)
(Source: Studious Guy, 2014)
Maslow classifies human needs into two categories: D-Needs and B-Needs. Accomplishing the lower level needs can help in preventing the repulsive feelings. These needs are called deficiency needs or D-needs. The higher needs are growth needs and are called B-needs.
- Physiological needs: These are needed for survival, such as food, water, sleep, etc.
- Security Needs: These include welfare and health care, job security, etc.
- Social needs: These contain family, friendship, etc.
- Esteem needs: These consist of a need for recognition, respect, etc.
- Self-actualisation needs: These comprises the need for growth and advancement.
McClelland’s Motivational Needs
McClelland proposed that there are three needs that affect human behaviour- Need for power, need for achievement and need for affiliation.
(Figure 3: McClelland’s Motivational Needs)
(Source: By Author)
- Need for Achievement: this consists of a desire to excel and a struggle to attain success.
- Need for Affiliation: Need to develop interpersonal and social relationships based on understanding.
- Need for Power: it is the desire to control other’s behaviour
In the given case study of Frankie & Benny’s restaurant, the manager is to lead the team in a newly open branch of the restaurant. There are many ways to lead and motivate a team in order to achieve the business goals.
- Division of Roles: This helps both manager and employees to give their best. It helps the manager to discard any redundant task, increase efficiency, and carry out strategic planning. The restaurant manager can assign duties to handle the preparation of orders, delivery of food, customer service, and cleaning of the premise.
- Communication: Manager can develop an effective channel of communication for speedy resolutions of problems faced by the employees. This can be done via e-mail, phone, and text message. The manager should freely talk to them individually to get the idea of day-to-day issues of employees.
- Operational Integration: Streamlining and standardising the operations and processes can increase the output of the employees. Integrating the workers in decision-making can make them realise their importance towards the organisation.
3.2 Justify managerial decisions made to support achievement of agreed goal or objective and recommendations for improvements.
The management of Frankie and Benny's think that managers are the backbone of any organisation. They are vital for the workplace and employees. Each and every employee depends upon them in dealing with critical situations. In order to achieve the goals of the company, they usually apply the principles of the systems. These systems help them to formulate new rules and decision in order to protect the firm's best interest (Binder, 2016).
As a leader, a manager should set goals and challenge the employee in order to motivate them to work hard. If employees are able to achieve their goals, then they can sense the feeling of fulfilment. In order to carry out business operations properly, the manager should assign duties according to the capabilities of the employees. This way they will be cleared about their role and company will get high-quality output. Managers should not always act like ‘boss’ for the workers, rather they should be more like a friend. This can help in moulding them into a productive staff.
Recommendations for managers:
- In order to make the employees feel connected to the organisation, managers can establish transparency in every task it performs.
- Providing regular training sessions to the employees.
- Keep shifting to the different motivational theories in order to test which one suits the best.
- Showing a positive attitude towards the staff can make them feel connected.
In this report, the motivational approaches and theories used by the managers were elaborated. In addition to this, certain managerial decisions taken to achieve the organisational goals were justified along with a few recommendation for the same.
LO4- Be able to create a career development plan for employment within a business and services context
The reason behind developing this report is to make a career development plan in reference to business services. In addition to this, I have tried explaining various managerial skills and responsibilities to support my career development plan. Most importantly, I reviewed the career and personal needs, current and future needs to make a development plan.
4.1 Explain how own managerial and personal skills will support career development
Nowadays, organisations are emphasising on professional development of the employees. For that purpose, they are keeping the employee’s development at the centre of their company policy (De Hoog, et.al, 2012). Talented employees are determined toward working for the organisation that helps them in advancing their career ladder. Managers can help them in growing professionally in the following ways:-
- Learn about their interest: Managers should make efforts to know and connect with their team members. They should also try to explore their career aspirations, expectations, and challenges. This will make them feel valued (Binder, 2016).
- Emphasise on learning: Regular training and learning sessions are necessary to keep them updated. Moreover, managers should make efforts to nurture their specific needs and skills.
- Job Rotation: Managers should try to break the monotony in the work by rotating the employees’ role every week or two. This will help them in honing their skills and reduce the boredom from the job.
- Encourage Mentoring: Managers can request the top management to organise formal mentoring sessions as they can help workers in personal development. Learning from the best and experienced employees of the organisation can provide professional guidance to the juniors.
- Providing a model: As a manager, I understand that promoting the healthy working environment and managing relationship is my duty. I should set the trends and propose a model for the team’s behaviour.
4.2 Review career and personal development needs, current performance and future needs to produce a development plan
A career development plan establishes short and long-term career goals and objectives. In common language, it is documented in which objectives are assessed based on priorities, interest, and experiences (De Hoog, et.al, 2012). For an effective career development plan, one needs to emphasise more on developing a clear career strategy.
Accomplishing the external obligations
Making a list of future demands, delegating the roles.
Establishing a sense of equality in the workplace
Treating everyone equally. Awarding the winners and appreciating the efforts of losers.
Discarding the communication gap
Communicating through major channels on key points of operations. Discussing things in meeting rather than individually.
Addressing the key challenges faced by the workers
Discussing the issues with employees they are facing on a regular interval.
Appointing talented and experienced workers, making employees with complimentary skill work together.
Delegating task to employees, removing redundant processes.
Developing a reward and appraisal system.
Learning about different communication channels and presentation style.
The effectiveness of a career development plan in managing and motivating the employees in the business environment was discussed here.
The whole report explained different aspects of the management. The main idea behind developing this report was to make the scholars aware of the different roles and responsibilities of the manager. For that purpose, two reflection reports were provided. A wide range of leadership responsibilities was enlisted and discussed. Moreover, the self-assessment report of a manager was provided that talked about the assessment of different management skills. In addition to this, a SWOT analysis of the manager was done. In the third section, the importance of managerial skills was explained. It explained how an employee's career depends on the managerial skills. The report concluded with a review of the needs for creating a development plan.
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