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Introduction of Developing Individuals, Teams and Organisations

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This particular case study includes a detailed description of the professional knowledge, skills and behaviour that are required by the HR professionals for working in TESCO. It also consists of a personal skill audit which helps in identifying the different knowledge, skills and behaviours that are required by the learning and development consultant at TESCO. It also provides differentiation between the organisation and the individuals based on their development, learning and training. This case study also discusses the high profile working and mechanisms as well.

Task 1

Professional knowledge, skills and behaviours of HR

The most appropriate professional knowledge and professional skills that are required by the HR professionals at TESCO are management skills, communication skills, interpersonal relationships, analytical problem solving, innovative skills, and proper decision-making skills. These are the different professional knowledge and skills that are required by the HR professionals of TESCO because if the HR professionals are inefficient in carrying out these duties then the performance of TESCO will eventually fall and this is something that TESCO as a top retail brand, does not encourage (Frunz?, 2017). Therefore, to work as an HR Professional at TESCO, individuals need to be specialised in these duties. TESCO does not entertain the HR professionals who do not have these abilities. This is because the management skill plays a huge impact on the internal working of the company. The employee at the company is managed by the HR professional and this means that mismanagement at the workplace will result in lower quality of employee performance and employee commitment as well. The communication skill is also a must for working as an HR professional in TESCO. This is because, HR always needs to communicate with their employees so that the desired goals and objectives can be given to the employees and their roles and responsibilities are also needed to be interpreted to them as well. If these goals are not met by the HR professionals then TESCO will not entertain them at all. In addition to this, the HR professionals at TESCO also need to be at their best level. This is because, TESCO as one of the largest international retail brands, wants to continue delivering at its best. Therefore to do so, the HR Professionals at TESCO need to be specialised and should also stay focused on their work. Any type of mismanagement will create a negative impact on the company and its performance as well. Therefore, the proper level of commitment and determination is needed and a certain level of motivation as well. In addition to this, the HR Professionals should have positive behaviours as well. This is because; if the employees at TESCO feel insecure at the company due to the behaviour and performance of the HR professionals then the company will face a negative impact. Therefore, HR should have the ability to empower its employees by giving them the freedom of taking part in the decision making of the company and also HR should give recognition to its employees (Bachik and Kitzman, 2020). Therefore, it can be concluded that these are the professional skills, knowledge and behaviours that are required by the HR Professionals at TESCO.

External Learning and Development Consultant

TESCO always looks forward to developing and enhancing its workforce so that the company can reach its business goals and objectives every year. Therefore, the role that an external learning and development consultant will play at TESCO is very much vital for the company. The learning and development consultant has the role of measuring the employee performances, the performance level of the departments and the gaps (Tattum and Tattum, 2017). The learning and development consultant also has a duty of researching about the employees, accessing their performances levels and analysing their different aspects so that the different areas of development can be identified. This eventually will help TESCO in understanding the problems and weaknesses of the employees. They can eventually reflect on those weaknesses by introducing various training and development programs at the company. Therefore it can be concluded that the main role of the learning and development consultant at TESCO will be of identifying the weaknesses of the employees so that the company can move forward in improving its workforce. Therefore, the skills and professional knowledge that are required to be a learning and development consultant at TESCO are innovation skill and communication skill. These are the most essential skills that are needed by the consultant because the person will need to freely communicate with the employees at TESCO. This will be an essential need because without communicating and gathering information from the employees, the consultant will not be able to analyse the employees and eventually the person will be unable to identify the areas for development. Therefore, the communication skill is mandatory for the learning and development consultant at TESCO. In addition to this, the learning and development consultant at TESCO will also need the skills of innovation. The innovation skill will be required for being the consultant at TESCO because after the identification of the various areas of development which are needed for the specialisation of the employees, the learning and development consultant at TESCO will need to recommend a few methods by which the employees can rectify their problems and fill their performances gaps (Babieva et al., 2019). Therefore, being unable to innovate suitable methods will be a huge disadvantage for the company. Therefore, to be the learning and development consultant at TESCO one should be specialised and have good knowledge about innovation and communication skills. On the other hand, the consultant at TESCO will also need to be having positive behaviour because if the consultant is not being able to behave properly with the employees then the employees will not be comfortable in communicating with the consultant and the consultant will end up with zero knowledge about the employees which will eventually stop the process of analysing the employees for recommending of development plans.

Differences between organisational and individual learning, training and development

Organisational Learning

Individual Learning

It is a process of knowledge transfer, knowledge creation and knowledge retention within TESCO. TESCO has been able to improve itself through its experience and by gaining experiences it has acquired the ability of knowledge creation which can be used for the betterment of TESCO itself.

Individual Learning is a basic process that involves the change made in an agent’s knowledge or behaviour. In addition to this, Individual learning also helps the employees of TESCO to find a specific new strategy or they acquire the ability to represent a situation in a different view.

Organisational Training

Individual Training

The Organisational Training at TESCO comprises of different training methods which eventually helps in enhancing the strategic needs of TESCO and also the tactical needs that are across the common projects

The individual training at TESCO mainly comprises of the process which includes the mentoring or coach of the employees individually. This type of individual training is done at TESCO so that development can be brought into an employee on a specific skill or behaviour.

Organisational Development

Individual Development

The organisational development at TESCO is a type of critical and science-based process that eventually helps TESCO in developing and building their own capacity of changing their working structure to gain greater profitability and higher profit margin. This particular type of development at TESCO also includes re-framing the working procedures and strategies as well.

The individual development process at TESCO includes the enhancement of the employees at the company with the assistance of the HR Manager so that professional growth at TESCO can be achieved. This eventually will lead to better results for the company by achieving a higher profit margin and increased profit margin. Therefore, it can be concluded that the individual development at TESCO is done so that the overall development of the company can be done for their own benefit.

Need for continuous learning and professional development to drive sustainable business performance

To ensure sustainable business performance, TESCO needs to continuously implement professional development and learning at the company. Especially, their workers need to be professionally developed and should be given proper learning. This is because enhancing the employees at TESCO by learning and professional development will help in the reduction of the needs of learning and development at the company and it will pave for the company to ensure sustainable business performances (Carbonie, Guo and Cahalane, 2018). It has been known that TESCO has completely failed to operate in Japan and the United States. This is because of their inability to execute their export operations and therefore, it has led the company to close its operations in Japanese markets and the United States markets as well. In addition to this, the international retail company was also found guilty of a fraud trial and an accounting scandal. Therefore, the UK based retail company had to pay fines because of its false statements, accounting declaration and incorrect representation of profits. This is impacting TESCO hugely in a negative manner. Moreover, TESCO has also been recording a decreased rate of operational profits and as a result, the share values of the company had fallen by almost 9 per cent and TESCO has put up its worst performance since the Brexit Referendum. Various financial mistakes were also seen at the company due to the company’s high costs and credit card liabilities. Eventually, TESCO’s financial profits are being affected profoundly. Recently, TESCO has also adopted the low-cost strategy to target a larger audience however this can eventually affect them because keeping low product costs will eventually result in the reduction of profit margins for the company (Debognies et al., 2019). TESCO as a company and its employees, both have failed to prove their worth in many specific international markets. This has happened because of their inability to research about those markets which have eventually prohibited them to get prepared in accordance with the markets. Therefore, it can finally be concluded that these are the different analysed factors that are creating a scenario where TESCO is in need of continuous learning and professional development. These different factors are affecting the company in a negative way and therefore, it is increasing the need for learning and professional development at TESCO so that the company can drive itself to sustainable business performance.

Learning cycle theories

Continuous professional development is required in TESCO because the on-going negative results of TESCO need to be resolved and TESCO needs to reflect on their problems as fast as they can. The main importance of continuous professional development is many. They are:

  • The continuous professional development will help TESCO to ensure its ability to be in the race with the other competitors of the retail industry in the United Kingdom and internationally as well (Mityaeva et al., 2017). Moreover, it will also help TESCO to keep knowledge about the various procedures and skills they need to possess so that it can deliver its customers with various professional services and eventually, TESCO will be able to increase its rate of client and customer satisfaction.
  • Continuous professional development at TESCO will help the company to keep itself up to date with the various trends in the market that affects the sales of the company. Being unable to produce goods and services of the choices of the customers will eventually lead to a decrease in the sales of the company (McKenna, Baxter and Hainey, 2017). Therefore, continuous professional development will eliminate this danger from the company and therefore, the company will be able to produce trendy products so that customer satisfaction and loyalty increases.
  • Moreover, individual professional development also helps the overall performance at TESCO. This is because the professional development of each of the employees will help them to enhance their working ability and eventually the employee motivation and commitment to the company will increase (Duboust and Knight, 2018). This will make the employees feel safe at TESCO and they will be able to perform better at the company by moving to new positions at the company so that they can help TESCO to see a bright future. The professional development of the employees can lead, manage or influence the company to do better results.

Therefore, it can be concluded that these are the different importance of professional development at TESCO.

In addition to this, many learning cycle theories can also be adopted by TESCO so that the professional development at the company can be enhanced. Especially, the learning cycle for the employees includes four steps which are the Preparing, Absorbing, Capturing and Reviewing (Schijven et al., 2021). By using Kolb’s Learning Cycle, employees at TESCO can develop themselves by processing their experience at the company. The employees get the ability to recount and evaluate their experiences so that they can learn from their mistakes and try to rectify them in-depth.

Professional development plan

The professional development plan for TESCO will help the UK based retail company to achieve its sustainable business goals and objectives. Therefore, the professional development plan will comprise of -

  • The best way to develop TESCO’s current situation, it has to introduce proper talent management strategies so that the UK based retail brand can attract the best talents and specialised employees from all around the world. The proper talent management can also be achieved by the introduction of various employees training and development programs which will improve employee engagement at the company and thus, it will help in attracting the best talents from all around the world (Orlov et al., 2018). TESCO should also have a decent level of employee retention so that the talents that are recruited into the company do not end up leaving the company.
  • Another aim that TESCO should have to increase accessibility to sustainable business goals and objectives is to increase employee motivation and employee satisfaction at the company. This is very mandatory for the company because a poor level of employee motivation will lead to a low level of production in the company and this will eventually lead to customer dissatisfaction (Szifris, 2018). Therefore, the employees should be kept motivated and satisfied at the company so that they can stay motivated to their work and loyal to the company as well.
  • Implement proper leadership at the company is also mandatory. This is because, if the leader is inefficient and is not being able to deliver at the highest level, then a retail company like TESCO will gradually lose its reputation in the market (Morariu, 2019). Therefore, to maintain the performance level of the employees and the overall performance of the company, TESCO should try to bring in the best leaders so that the employee commitment and proper decision making at the company are done. The employees should also be empowered so that they feel safe at the company and feel valued as well. This will increase their will to work for the company as well and proper decision making will also prevent the company to make financial losses.

Therefore, it can be concluded that these are the main development plans that should be adopted by TESCO to ensure its own development.

Task 2

1. Demonstrate understanding of how HPW contributes to employee engagement and competitive advantage within a specific organisational situation.

HPW stands for High Performance working. The HPW has a great impact on determining the engagement among employees and competitive advantage within the organizational framework.

High Performance Working is the approach to manage the organizations which aims at stimulating a strong commitment of the employees in the company, in order to achieve a higher performance level and increase the profitability margin (Grant and Maxwell, 2018). The main aim of any organisation would be, having a high performance work and also improving commitment and trust of the employees to the company.

Engaging employees to a company refers to those who are committed, trustworthy and very enthusiastic about their work and workplace. Engagement not only deals with organisational profit margin or performance but also individual performance as well. It can be ensured through a High Performance Work that is the Management of the organizational structure through various means and measures. Employees, who are not engaged or detached, can cause a serious downfall in the productivity of the company. Therefore it is important for the company to take all the employees into consideration and even carry out an employment engagement survey in order to understand the number of employees who are actually committed to the company and work on engaging all the employees among themselves and the organization altogether. Then it is important for the company to understand the reason why they are disinterested and are not engaged, and hence the organisation must take steps and measures such as, subsidies, appreciation, increase in the salary and many more (Karadas and Karatepe, 2019). Staffs that are engaged and committed to the company have an emotional attachment to the workplace and the work and therefore the company does not fear to lose them. These employees will automatically give their best to the work and try to increase productivity and profitable margin of the organisation.

In the recent scenarios most of the companies and organisations including manufacturing companies, healthcare finance technology and other government agencies as well are not only focusing on short term performance but also takes into consideration the long-term and future growth of the company. Nowadays the main aim of the company is to keep a consistency in their performance over the years, in order to hold a very strong position in the competitive sector (Beltrán et al., 2017). Most of the organisation face issues related to performance of work, employment engagement, and human resource management. The manager for the human resource management team needs to identify the shortcomings and a strategic early plan in order to maintain both high performance and engage the employees, which in turn leads to competitive advantage to the company.

In order to find out the employment engagement in a company it is very important to conduct a survey determining engagement among employees (Shin and Konrad, 2017).It is also important that the organisation looks into the shortcomings and ways to improve government engagement and why improving the performance of work.

2. Analyse the benefits of applying HPW with justifications to a specific organisational situation.

HPW stands for High Performance Work (Han, et al., 2019). The HPW is one of the most important; any organization must try to pursue in order to maintain consistency in the profit margin and engagement of the employees to the company.

There are several Benefits of the High Performance Work including;

  • It includes some common practices and training and policies which helps in improving the performance of the company staff.
  • It helps in creating a culture where the employees strive to achieve high levels in performing and hive their beat in the work they do.
  • It helps the organization to increase their profitability margin and maintenance consistency and a very healthy workplace environment
  • HPW also enables ensuring employee engagement and maintaining the trust, faith, and commitment to the organisation.

Tesco is one of the most prominent examples which lays great emphasis on the High Performance Work and employee benefit and relations with the framework of the organisation (Tang, et al., 2018).

 Tesco strives to build trust of the employees and the customers and make progress which will have a serious impact on the reputation of the organisation. Tesco takes all the sectors of the company into consideration. It not only aims at providing their customers with the best quality products, but also ensures that there is an emotional connection of the employees with the company. This will benefit Tesco because the employees work not only to perceive their benefits, but also try to ensure perfection in whatever they do. This will in turn help in increasing the profit of the company and also ensure a great company’s reputation.

Tesco after training employees' trust and commitment to the company greatly focuses on innovative and maintaining the most modern sustainable means. They not only like their focus on the customer service but also take the opinion of the producers and very factors into consideration. Tesco tries to explore the new upcoming trends and mould their products accordingly (Fatricia, 2017). Maintaining good behaviour and providing the employees with what they deserve is also a very important step to attain High performance at the workplace.

It also focuses on Maximizing the Mix. It refers to taking into consideration the entire sector of production service manufacturing and customer review Tesco not only focuses on production, but it takes the entire picture into consideration which ensures that all the sectors are performing well leading to a good reputation and development of the company (Rosnizam, et al., 2020). It not only looks after the consumers but also keeps a close eye on the performance and the work of staff in all the various departments.

Tesco tries to maintain and take the necessary steps needed to be taken in order to pursue high performance at the workplace and also have an efficient and well performing human resource management body. One of the most prominent companies can be taken into account to portray a well-managed HPW.

3. Evaluate different approaches to performance management (e.g. collaborative working), and demonstrate with specific examples how they can support high- performance culture and commitment.

Performance Management has been one of the major factors for the development of the business of Tesco. This includes various processes for the development of the organization by identifying, measuring, and managing the various needs and requirements. It states the methods in which the performing of the tasks by the employees has to be conducted for improving their quality of performing. In terms of the capabilities for development by the team and the partners, they also highlight and emphasize making new strategies, consolidated methods, and developing a suitable working culture. Mainly Tesco focuses on collaborative working involving the following factors:-

  • Low barrier to participation- Tesco works on fixing the issues by listening to those and thus they aimed at concentrating on communicating both ways. This involves the usage of digital technologies for optimizing this process. The company initiated the process and gave chances to the employees for stating their thoughts and views through emails and texts. The managers and the leaders of the projects interact over text messages, voice, blogs, and other modes which lowered the barrier (Burton, Gruber and Gustafsson, 2020). As a result, Tesco initially thought this to be 3% but the participation was 7% from the employees which provided a descriptive and verified set of vast data.
  • Anonymous responses- Most of the reviews were unknown for which a specific way of dividing the feedback was ensured followed by an analysis of the core issues locally or centrally by the Tesco team. The related comments and reviews were forwarded to the relevant managers of the stores. This could help them work on their flaws and thus work for the betterment and benefit of the customers along with avoiding further issues to occur.
  • Helicopter View- The various issues were dealt with by Tesco centrally. This helps them to rank the issues and mark the important ones on which the company should work for betterment (Brannen, Mughan and Moore, 2020). It occurs when not only an issue from one shop is considered, but if the same issues are reviewed from multiple stores under Tesco, then they consider those issues for taking necessary timely actions.
  • Significant Investment- The company has undergone huge investments maximize of which have been in terms of 'tools to do jobs'. The maximum investment by Tesco was in the year 2011-2012 which was much more as compared to the previous years. For example, they made new headsets for checkouts for ensuring proper equipment for all the employees (Davies and Mason-Jones, 2017). Also, they placed an order of 250 coffee machines with 42 utensils washers for the required staff.

One of the many great advantages would be the collaboration of Tesco and Carrefour. This would help them to adjust and negotiate with the suppliers and get considerable discounts (Banomyong, 2018). This will enable good low prices to the customers and also help the organization to get knowledge of their weaknesses and thus can work on them accordingly. For example, the chief executive of Carrefour Alexander Bompard has made a partnership with Tesco in a way that allows securing betterment in delays by the retail giant of France for improvement in their brands.

4. Critically evaluate the different approaches and make judgments on how effective they can be to support high- performance culture and commitment.

There have been many approaches done by Tesco which have been evaluated for highlighting and improving their performance and commitment towards their services to the customers in the following ways:-

  • Globalization and its effects- This initiates good connectivity as well as the performance of the marketing businesses all around the world independently. This has enabled Tesco in transforming locally performed operations to a larger global extent. This has affected changing the range of products and locations. Moreover, they also opened several outlets in the Czech Republic, Ireland, Kingdom of Thailand, Taiwan as well as in the Republic of Korea in the year 1990. For this, Tesco has been able to increase its marketing inline globally through huge investments. Tesco has also taken over bids and got involved in acquisitions for maintaining its advantages in terms of competition (Coe, Lee and Wood, 2017). These acquisitions increased the company's overruling in the selling market of the UK.
  • Organizational culture and structure- Tesco has employed about 440,000 people in almost 3,700 retailing centers all around the world which implies its effectiveness in the organizational pattern. They must consist of an adjustable structure of organization for demonstration of their key interests as well as enabling exhibition of a variety of diverse cultural inclinations. The management should have the belief of ensuring the satisfaction of the employees working in the company (Fadeyi, 2020). Tesco has also provided good delivery of quality products to the customers which has highlighted its service standards. The vision of excelling has also helped in development in many areas. The organization works for its development based on these objectives.
  • Leadership- Good leadership traits, proper and effective management, and maintenance of a good model have enabled Tesco to rise as compared to the other competitors in the UK marketplace. As stated by the CEO of Tesco, Terry Leahy Sir, leadership provides and helps in influencing the workers for getting better ideas for improving their business rather than depending on the leader's decisions and judgments for development (Power, Heavin and O’Connor, 2021). Thus they installed certain long-lasting traits in the leaders for affecting the subordinates and thus have become an example for the attaining success in future by the organizations.
  • Changing Management- Tesco has been developing certain innovative and new strategies for accounting for their customers or the purchasers to change their nature of purchasing materials according to the season. It has been reviewed that there are some stores which also have Customer Question Times. These new implications have enabled them to gain knowledge about the market environment, business and customer practices as well as trading.
  • Decision-making process- Tesco mainly focuses on the interests and reviews of the customers in making decisions. The management of the company is thus very logical, accurate and accountable, and explicit as they involve and hear the leader, managers of the stores as well as the employees working over there before they make a decision.
  • Factors of communication, negotiation, conflict resolution, and motivational methods- Tesco works on certain negotiations for satisfying the customers. Moreover, they ensure proper terms of communicating to them to know their requirements and reviews of previous purchases.
  • Swot Analysis- Tesco has been the leading seller in the British retailing market with high corporate rankings and comes under the top three well-developed retailing companies both in terms of quality as well as profits (Wolfensohn, 2020). It is one of the leading businesses online which has developed a good image associated with the experience of the customers.

5. Provide valid synthesis of knowledge and information resulting in appropriate judgments on how HPW and mechanisms used to support HPW lead to improved employee engagement, commitment and competitive advantage.

The presence of high-performance working is also supporting and enhancing employee engagement. This is because the HPW is creating a high involvement and is contributing a lot to the improvement of the performances of TESCO. The HPW also supports employee engagement through security and high motivation to its employees. The provision of security and motivation to the employees eventually increases the level of employee commitment in TESCO. This is because recognizing the work of the employees and also empowering them by giving them the opportunity to take part in the decision-making increases employee commitment. Thus, the employee commitment helps the employee to feel safe at the company and therefore, the employee engagement of TESCO gets increase (Rizeanu, Gatej and Ciolacu, 2017). In addition to this, the management at TESCO must introduce these different practices and also the management should take employee surveys which will help in the collection of valuable information from the employees and this will provide assistance to the management at TESCO to choose the best suitable HPW practices for the company. Choosing the most suited practices will eventually help in improving employee engagement at the company. To improve the performances, TESCO must improve the level of its employee motivation as well. This is because, if they lose the level of employee commitment that they currently possess, they will eventually find themselves in a position where they will be not producing the goods of the expected quality. If the level of employee commitment is less in the company then the overall performance of the company will also be less therefore it will result in the downfall of the company. Hence, well-suited HPW practices must be introduced into the company so that TESCO can maintain a high level of employee commitment and employee engagement as well (Zakharova, Karpacheva and Mezinov, 2019). The presence of both of these will result in positive results in the company and the company will also be able to get access to higher profitability and better profit margins as well. In addition to this, it can also be said that both employee engagement and employee commitment are linked to each other. This is because; if any of the two are not met by TESCO then it will prevent the company to get a competitive advantage in the market. Therefore, TESCO must introduce well-suited HPW practices so that the high level of employee engagement and employee commitment can help the company to take a competitive advantage in the market (O’Brien and Lomas, 2017). This is because, if the level of employee engagement and employee commitment is high in the company then eventually the overall performance of the company will be at the top and this will help the company in gaining a competitive advantage in the industry based on its performances.

Conclusion

This particular case study has included a detailed description of the professional knowledge, skills and behaviour that are required by the HR professionals for working in TESCO. It is also containing a personal skill audit which helps in identifying the different knowledge, skills and behaviours that are required by the learning and development consultant at TESCO. It has also provided differentiation between the organisation and the individuals based on their development, learning and training. This case study has also discussed the high profile working and mechanisms as well. The study also provides a critical evaluation of the different approaches that are made so that high-performance culture can be created.

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