Effects Of HPP On Volatile Compounds Of Pineapple Juice Assignment Sample

Necessity of HPP Technique & Volatile Compounds in Pineapple Juice

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Chapter 1: Introduction of HPP Technique

Pineapple juice is a healthy beverage for human beings and is used for any purpose from breakfast to tiffin to occasions or parties. The quality of the juice depends on the micronutrient parents in the juice. Not everyone always drinks pineapple juice as fresh, it is also available in the market in the packaged process in bottles or cans. The packaged juices have to pass through the sterilization process to avoid microbial contamination that is harmful to the human body. However, the thermal sterilization process lowers the nutritional capacity of the juices as in overheating conditions most of the micro-nutrients got damaged. Hence, researchers have developed a “high-pressure process” technique also known as the HPP technique that can retain the quality of the juice by conserving nutrients in it. But this technique put a significant effect on the volatile compounds present in the processed pineapple juices. In this research, the effects of HPP will be evaluated efficiently by following the below-mentioned process.

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Background

The following report is based on a chemical research method that studies the changing properties of the volatile compounds of pineapple juices. The volatile compound is those aromatic compounds that stay responsible for their odour, colour and taste (Rodríguez et al. 2021). Pineapple is a healthy fruit for the human body that is rich in vitamins and other micronutrients that are essential for human beings. Pineapple juices also contain bioactive compounds such as Mn, Vit C, hydroxycinnamic acid, Cu, K, Mg, and Vit B1, B6. Additionally, some of the volatile aromatic compounds are also found in pineapple juices as those compounds found in the pineapple pieces (Sharma et al. 2020). In the present study, it has been found that HPP had no significant effect on the volatile compounds of pineapple juice. Some of the experimental processes and their findings revealed that there is no significant difference present in the volatile compound’s concentration in between the HPP and control (p>0.05). The major volatile compounds in pineapple are Ethyl butyrate, furaneol, Ethyl hexanoate, Isoamyl acetate, methyl butyrate, and Methyl octanoate (Tian et al. 2022). All these compounds provide flavour to the pineapple juices. Many retail and juice companies sell pineapple juices in a bottle or can. To process those juices and increases their shelf life of the juices many biochemical methods and preservatives are used. At early ages, traditional pasteurization methods were used to preserve pineapple justice. But, with the changing technology and involvement of advanced technology in the juice industries, modern methods are starting to project for preservation purposes.

Aims & Objectives

The major focus of the research is to analyse the properties of the volatile components of pineapple juice first. After assessing the compounds the application of the HPP process to the preservation of pineapple juice was also assessed. The research aims to analyze the possible changing effects of HPP on the properties of volatile compounds. The objectives of this research are,

To evaluate the effects of the HPP technique on the volatile compounds of pineapple juices.

To evaluate the comparison of the HPP and another sterilizing process on the volatile compounds.

Research rationale

This part of the study majorly focuses on the scope of this research in the industrial field. It mainly negotiates the reasons for proceeding with this study. Many researchers already performed such kind of study for the evaluation the effects of HPP on the volatile compounds of pineapple juice (Ibrahim et al. 2021). This part of the research also indicated the methods apply in future work and what kind of analysis needs to be applied in the following work. This part also discusses the theories that help to perform the evaluation process correctly.

To perform this study secondary analysis is done by collecting information from previously published journals, articles, books or any relevant websites. Any gaps in the research work can be significantly evaluated from the literature review part. The information related to the research gap helps one to assess the proper process of HPP that does not change the quality of the juice.

Research Significance

This part of the study analyzes the major significance of this research work. It is an important part of the study as it indicates the major benefits of this work and who gets the benefits. It also explains the necessity of this research work. This research work can be proven beneficial for juice companies who want to improve their product quality in the juice industry (Lomelí-Martín et al. 2021). As HPP is a cost-effective process compared to other traditional sterilization process, most companies found it beneficial.

Introducing the preservation method consequently changes the quality of juices by changing taste and flavour. That may or may not enhance the quality of the juices. All those techniques also provide microbial safety to the customers. Traditional pasteurization processes generally imply negative effects on the colour, bioactive compounds or nutritional compounds and flavours of the pineapple juices. Hence, many of the researchers developed sterilization techniques that actively kill all the microorganisms by not changing the quality of the product (Chanprasartsuk, O.O. and Prakitchaiwattana, 2022). They use a non-thermal technique that does not develop any kind of chemical reactions inside the juice. This study significantly monitors the changes in the properties of volatile compounds priorly to implementing HPP or “High-Pressure Processing” in the storage of pineapple juices. In this process, the pressure applied to the juices is about 500MPa every ten minutes (Kebede B et al. 2018). This process can be compared with another thermal processing technique. This technique also encounters its influences on microbial assessment, antioxidant capacity, bioactive compounds, and physiochemical parameters of that juice.

Problems statement

This part of the study determines the major reasons that push researchers to focus on this study significantly. The consumers of pineapple juices who drinks it on regular basis start to blame many of the companies to sell a bad quality product that is different from the original in taste and also lacks enough flavour. Moreover, they complained about the lower nutritional property of the packaged pineapple juices (Wu et al. 2021). This tends to evaluate the new research methodology that can easily mitigate all the issues. Researchers find that the HPP technique is ideal to diminish this problem but this technique also lowers the taste of the juices but retains the nutrition properly. The following research discusses the effects of this process on the volatile compounds present in pineapple juices.

Research Framework

Research Framework

Figure 1: Research Framework

(Source: Self-created)

Conclusion

The overall purpose of the study is discussed in this introductory chapter efficiently. The significance and rationale of the research successfully explain the demand for the study in the industrial market of juices. Pineapple juice is a healthy drink that is rich in antioxidants, vitamins and minerals which are essential for a healthy diet. Even this juice is also provided to many patients in critical periods to gain strength. The process of preservation of this juice is very controversial as the traditional preservation techniques actively lower the quality of the juice. Hence, the HPP technique is starting to sterilize the product significantly. The further progress of the research is done through a review of previous literature by analysing journals and articles, and a methodology chapter where the possible methods for the evaluate discussed. The results and discussion chapters depend on the findings from the methods. The final conclusion chapter successfully meets the objectives of the research and interpreted future works on the further progress of this research by recommending specific relevant prospects.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

This part of this research focuses on detailed insight into the perspectives of the research. The following field of this research is crucial to convey and meet the objectives. The research on the effects of HPP on the volatile compounds of pineapple juices has already been performed by various researchers. This chapter discusses a vast review of the journals in the empirical study part which concisely demonstrate the previous work on this relevant topic and also signifies the relevancy of those findings with the following study. Additionally proposed theories and models to analyse this study is also provided in this chapter. The possible gaps in the literature or in the previous research are also evaluated in the following chapter. All these findings help one to assess the further study following the methodology and results.

Empirical Study

This part of the study demonstrates the previous research work on the relevant topic by reviewing the specific journals and articles—the major findings from the review help in the progress of the study.

According to Liberatore et al. 2021), The main volatile compounds in pineapple juice are aliphatic aldehydes, including acetaldehyde (C2H4CHO), formaldehyde (CH2O) and acrolein (CH3CONH). These substances have been implicated as possible carcinogens. However, the exact role of these substances in cancer is not yet known. The following are the results of studies on volatile compounds in pineapple juice. These usingmpounds were extracted from pineapple juice by means of a Soxhlet extractor and identified by “gas chromatography with mass spectrometry” (GC-MS). The identity of these compounds was confirmed by comparison with published data. Sabinene: This is an oxygenated monoterpene, which is found in many plants, including pineapples. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity and hepatoprotective effects when administered orally or locally. In addition, it may be a potential drug for treating diabetes.

According to Pinto et al. 2022, The volatile compounds present in pineapples are the same as those found in other fruits. The main components of the pineapple are sugars and pectin, which contain a high concentration of simple sugars (monosaccharides) and low levels of other organic acids such as citric acid. These compounds have been implicated in causing an increase in blood sugar levels after consumption. Some studies have also shown that these compounds may cause a decrease in insulin sensitivity and may be responsible for hypoglycaemia following consumption. The HPP process has been shown to produce a more uniform product with fewer off-flavour compounds. The following is a list of the volatile compounds that are affected by HPP like Acetic acid and ethyl acetate. The volatile compounds of pineapple juice (VCPJ) were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the VCPJ had a high content of many aromatic volatile compounds, including methyl eugenol and 2,6-dimethylphenol. However, these were not detected in HPP-treated pineapple juice samples. These results suggest that the HPP treatment process may have removed some of the volatiles from the pineapple juice sample. The results of this study showed that HPP did not affect the volatile compounds in pharmngs suggest that HPP does not have an adverse effect on fruit quality, as it does not alter the content or composition of volatile compounds in fruit juices.

As stated by Niu et al. 2022, Pineapple juice is a popular drink and it has many health benefits. However, there are some negative effects of pineapple juice consumption too. One of them is the formation of volatile compounds in this fruit that can lead to various heThis study aimedcer and respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether HPP would affect the volatile compounds present in pineapple juice. Pineapple juices were collected from two different sources. The first source was from a local market near its laboratory where pineapples were bought fresh every day while the second source came from a supermarket which supplied us with frozen pineapples. The effects of HPP on volatile compounds (volatile acidity) of pineapple juice were investigated in the following study from the journal. The experimental findings demonstrate that the pH values decreased from 5.6 to 4.9 after HPP treatment for 24 h, and then increased to 6.4 at 72 h and 7.0 at 96 h after treatment. As a result, the total volatile acidity decreased from 0.7% before treatment to 0.2% after HPP treatment for 24 h, which was similar to previous studies. In addition, the amount of citric acid decreased from 2 mg/L before HPP treatment.

According to Salehi, 2020, a study was conducted to find out the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) with or without heat treatment on volatile compounds in pineapple juice. Volatile compounds were analyzed using GC/MS analysis following a published method for determination. The results showed that HPP had no significant effect on total phenols content but significantly reduced p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid contents which can be attributed. The effects of HPP on volatile compounds in pineapple juice were studied by measuring the content of aldehydes, carboxylic acids and esters. The results showed that the concentration of aldehydes such as acetaldehyde and acrolein increased significantly during storage at 4°C for 1 month. In addition, the concentrations of other volatile compounds such as benzaldehyde, methyl salicylate, 2-phenyl ethanol and trans-2-hexenal decreased after HPP treatment. Changes in volatile content before and after HPP treatment (1 month).

As stated by Houška et al. 2022, it has been found that HPP had no significant effect on the volatile compounds of pineapple juice. Some of the experimental processes and their findings revealed that there are no significant differences present in the concentration of any volatile compounds in between the HPP and control by the significant rate is higher than 0.05. The findings of the following study demonstrated that HPP does not affect the volatile compounds in pineapple juice. Its findings suggest that HPP does not have an adverse effect on fruit quality, as it does not alter the content or composition of volatile compounds in fruit juices.

According to Adisurya and Sari, 2022, HPP is significantly capable of reducing the excess amount of aerobic bacteria present in pineapple juices. This consequently increases the quality of the juice in the market by increasing the shelf-life. Pineapple juices are actively treated with the HPP method at a pressure of 500 MPa for about 10 to 15 minutes. The entire process is performed by maintaining the proper protocol to get accurate results. This process determines a significant decrease in the bacterial growth of anaerobic bacteria. The decrease rate encountered from “5.60 CFU per ml. to 0.59 CFU per ml.” The decreasing amount of bacteria determines the shelf-life of pineapple juice for twenty-one days at the temperature of 4??. This technique also retains all the flavours and nutrients during its shelf-life. This technique does not show any difference in the volatile and other components like other traditional techniques. This technique does not show any kind of significant changes in the colour, pigments, sugar contents, acidity, pH, antioxidants and bioactive components. This maintains the divergence of tastes effectively that attracts the researchers to apply this technique more significantly. This technology effectively increases the buyer's interest which has proven to be immensely beneficial for juice companies.

As stated Cheng et al. 2022, HPP technology shows a limited effect on specific pigments like anthocyanins, carotenoids and chlorophylls. Those pigments are responsible for the colour of the fruit juices. The colour of the HPP-processed pineapple juices can change at the time of storage. The reasons for the changing colour referred to incomplete enzyme inactivation and the presence of microorganisms. Different parameter of the storage conditions of specific juices changes the quality of the juice which can be determined by the changed colour. In the pressure of 200 MPa for about 15 mins. total anthocyanin and phenolics amount increases, but no changes in the pH content and antioxidant capacity, or colour can be observed. Additionally, at a pressure of 400-600 MPa for about 15 mins (pineapple Juice), total anthocyanin and phenolic contents significantly increase but no changes in colour and pH are observed. The antioxidant capacity effectively decreases in this HPP condition. In another study, it is observed that anthocyanin gets retained by 93.4% at the same HPP condition as mentioned above. Another phenomenon from this study is determined that HPP successfully retained the esters compound in the pineapple juices in its entire shelf-life. This significantly retains the aroma and flavour of the juice like fresh juice. This non-changing method effectively increases the demand for HPP-treated pineapple juices compared to thermal sterilized or pasteurized pineapple juices. This consequently lowers the excess use of preservatives in the juices that significantly show an imbalance in the nutritional properties. Moreover, this technique also proved to be a cost-effective process.

According to Galanakis, 2021, aroma is considered the major sensory property that can affect the perception of quality and customers' acceptance of pineapple juices. There are several volatile compounds have been found in pineapple juices that are considered to be responsible for the flavour of the juice. The major volatile compounds in pineapple are Ethyl butyrate, furaneol, Ethyl hexanoate, Isoamyl acetate, methyl butyrate, and Methyl octanoate. It is proven that HPP can better preserve all these volatile compounds in the pineapple juices compared to the HST or PT as the small molecular structure of these aromatic compounds does not affect directly by the HPP process. A total of five kinds of volatile compounds stay responsible for the cloudy appearance of the juice. Among all these volatile compounds alcohol and acids play a key role in the cloudy appearance. The alcohols accounted for 92.1% and acids accounted for 4.8% in control of the cloudy texture of the pineapple juice. The study reveals that the alcohol’s proportion in the overall volatile compounds effectively decreased after the thermal sterilisation or pasteurization process. The decreased amount of alcohol content in the HTST-treated pineapple juices accounted for 32.7%. Additionally, other volatile compounds such as 3-Hexen-1-ol, 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol and 1-Hexanol, in cloudy pineapple juices significantly decrease about the amount of 3.8 ug/L, 0.4 ug/L and 43.8 ug/L after HTST treatment respectively. Furthermore, alcohol shows much sensitivity to the traditional thermal sterilization process by the decreasing rate of 27.51–7.44% in the cloudy pineapple juices.

The acidic proportion of the cloudy pineapple juices increases by 33.6% after the PT process and 182.8% after the HTST process. This increases the acidic taste of the juice and damages the product (Boondaeng et al. 2021). The increasing rate of acidity also increases the selective bacterial growth inside the pineapple juices which is harmful to human health. But the use of HPP can solve all the issues significantly by retaining the nutritional quality of pineapple juice.

As stated by, The collection of information for a proper experiment that significantly evaluates the effects of the HPP on the pineapple juices is conducted through a secondary process. The researchers have successfully developed an appropriate method outline that helps one to identify all the consequences of the experiments and interpret the information according to the research objective. The following research belongs to a bio-chemical profile, hence, only experimental techniques and observations from that experiments are considered as an appropriate research strategy. To evaluate the effects of HPP on the volatile components of pineapple juices, first, the volatile fraction of the juice needs to be assessed. Then HPP is introduced to the juice sample to obtain the changes in the volatile elements and also interpret is this change the quality of the juice or not (Orellana-Palma et al. 2020). To carry out the proper experiment both laboratory methods and statistical data analysis are used. The laboratory experiments which were performed by the researchers should be appropriate and maintained by proper protocols.

According to Elwakeel and Hussein, 2021, to ensure the HPP effects on the properties of the pineapple juices several varieties of pineapples are used and the samples are prepared by both raw pineapples or mixed with other fruits and vegetables. the novel varieties of pineapples contain a high quantity of volatile components that can be proven to be effective in the study. The best quality pineapples that are best in taste are Abacaxi Pineapples and Queen Pineapples. Abacaxi pineapples are sweet in taste and white and transparent in colour whereas the Queen Pineapples are much more fragrant and contain a high amount of juices than Smooth Cayenne. Both varieties contain certain volatile aroma compounds that are presented as 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol, 3-Hexen-1-ol and 1-Hexanol (Espinase Nandorfy et al. 2022). In the laboratory, two fresh juice sample was prepared by individual pineapple varieties and one sample was prepared by mixing two varieties. Additionally, one more sample is prepared by mixing pineapple and carrots to assess the volatile activity of different fruit and vegetables. the formulation and processing methods of all the juices are optimized actively by the protocols.

Based on the consumer's prior sensory analysis of taste, colour, and aroma/smell, both the juices of different pineapple varieties were selected by the researchers to meet the research objectives. the raw juice of both the abacaxi and queen pineapples was made by peeling the pineapples and juicing through a “laboratory-scale juicer”. The individual raw juices have 90% pineapple extract and only 1% water, no sugar was added externally. The mixed juice of the two varieties was prepared by following the same method and mixing the juices in a 6:4 ratio, where the Queen pineapple juice was added majorly (Mohd Ali et al. 2022). In the third sample, pineapple juice of queen variety was added with carrot juice. the fresh Hongsen Carrots were selected and crushed. then bled the extract with water at a 1:1 ratio through the laboratory-scale juicer. The extraction of both juices were mixed in the same volume. The samples were introduced through the HPP process to monitor the volatile components of both juices. The volatile components remain the same by accounting for the same taste and aroma after the HPP process.

According to Budak, 2022, the proper HPP stimulation of juice samples required a proper method process. proper processing of the juice samples provides appropriate results according to the research objective. The researcher has selected a queen variety of pineapple to assess the study effectively as this variety contains higher volatile contents. The process is maintained by accurate protocols and research ethics. The process also indicates some research limitations that are important for the study outcomes and findings of the gaps or problems towards the research success. To process the research first the formulated pineapple juices were homogenized at a certain pressure of 20 MPa. Then all the pineapple juices were poured into polyethene bottles. The samples were properly pasteurized at room temperature for about five minutes by applying a pressure of 500 MPa. The pressure was applied through the HPP machine (HPP-600). Then the temperature was maintained below 30? at the time of the HPP process. Otherwise, the formulation of the juices can be damaged and the result can not be appropriate. The probable aerobic bacterial count needs to maintain at less than 100 CFU per ml. to get the appropriate HPP detection result (Kulrattanarak, 2021). The molds and Yeast count were below the detection limit at the completion of the storage process for about ninety days. All the samples were stored at a temperature of 4? for the entire storing period. the samples were sampled at different time periods of “0,7,14,21,28,35,42,60 and 90 days”. After the completion of the sampling turbidity, colour, and rheological properties were analyzed. all the samples were then transferred to 50 ml. and 15 ml. of polypropylene tubes and then frozen. The samples were collected and stored at a temperature of -40?. The string was done for the purpose of the other attribute analysis to assess the quality of the samples. Analysis of volatile compounds, Vitamin C contents, pigments and sugar contents are also obtained through this attribute analysis process. Analysing all the attributes the researchers have found that only volatile compounds stay constant and did not manipulate through this process.

According to (Wu et al. 2022), applying the proper HPP technique to the pineapple juice of the queen variety the volatile profile was monitored. the volatile fraction of the pineapple juices after HPP treatment may not change or may be manipulated slightly. the research objective of the research was to obtain the result that the HPP treatment did not manipulate the volatile concentrations. The concentration of the volatile compounds was assessed through the HS-SPME-GC-MS (“headphase-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry”) equipment (Asikin et al. 2022). In this method, this instrument can measure the minor changes or modifications of the volatile molecules inside the pineapple juice. In a glass vial (Amber) 5 ml. of each juice from the samples was mixed with 1.8 gm. of sodium chloride and homogenized. After homogenization, all the vials were incubated for 15 minutes at approximately 40? in a centrifuge. the rotation of the vials was maintained at 500 rpm speed per minute. For the extraction of the volatiles following components were used. In the vials, the proper amount of divinylbenzene or carboxen or “polydimethylsiloxane SPME fibre” was added and again incubated the samples at the same temperature for ten minutes more.

After incubation, all the solutions were thermally induced at approximately 230? for about five minutes. At that moment splitless injection mode was used and for the column HP-5 column was used. The size of the column was determined at 30 m × 0.32 mm × 0.25 μm. Helium was used as the carrier gas at the flow rate of 1.5 ml. per minute. the column oven temperature was maintained in different parameters at different stages. Initially, the temperature was set for two minutes at 40?. then increased to 120? by maintaining 4?/min. Then further increases to 200? and 250? respectively (Salve and Ray, 2020). At 250? the solution remain held for about two minutes. At the end of desobtion the temperature decreased to the normal initial temperature again. the electron ionization mode at 70 eV was maintained and the rate remained at 4-500 m/z and the scanning range was maintained at three scans per second. For specific mass spectrometry, the quadrupole temperature and ion source were maintained at 250? and 230 respectively. All the volatile analysis for every sample were repeated about 6 times. the volatile compounds inside the pineapple juices were identified through mass spectrometry data analysis. RI or retention index was evaluated relative to the n-alkanes mixtures of the samples and made a comparison between the calculated value and reference value. The volatile index successfully determines the constancy of those compounds after HPP treatment in the pineapple juices.

As stated by Iwouno et al. 2019, the HPP treatment in the preservation of many juice industries has been collected several achievements by not changing the turbidity, colour, aroma and especially taste. This techniques has successfully increased the customer's trust in the juice companies. the HPP treatment considerably increases the shelf-life of the juices. The Pineapple juices contain high-quality volatile compounds that provide excellent taste and aroma with exotic flavour to their cuatomers. maintaining proper HPP technique the volatile concentration in the pineapple juices remains constant. In HPP treatment only pressure is used and high-temperature induction is majorly avoided in this technique. This is the major reason behind the non-changing nutrient property in pineapple juices. HPP not only maintain essential volatile compounds but also maintain sugar content, and vitamin contents in the juice. This increases the shelf-life of the juice by 21 days at approximately 40? temperature (Moreno et al. 2022). This technique remains the juice as fresh as the time of manufacture. Mass spectrometry is used to analyse the volatile concentration inside the pineapple juice. HPP also controls the microbial growth significantly inside the pineapple juice. This technique efficiently prevents microbial or bacterial/fungal contamination inside the pineapple juices.

A total of five kinds of volatile compounds stay responsible for the cloudy appearance of the juice. Among all these volatile compounds alcohol and acids play a key role in the cloudy appearance. The alcohols accounted for 92.1% and acids accounted for 4.8% in control of the cloudy texture of the pineapple juice. The study reveals that the alcohol’s proportion in the overall volatile compounds effectively decreased after the thermal sterilisation or pasteurization process. This technique hence proved to be superior among the PT and HTST or other thermal sterilization technique (Sanoppa, 2021). It is clearly interpreted from this study that in future not only juice companies but other beverage companies also implement this technique in these industries for the preszervation of other drinks. This technique is also popular in many food industries too. It can be clearly determined from the study that HPP had no significant effect on the volatile compounds of any variety of raw or mixed pineapple juice. Some of the experimental processes and their findings revealed that there are no significant differences present in the concentration of any volatile compounds in between the HPP and control by the significant rate is higher than 0.05. The findings of the following study demonstrated that HPP does not affect the volatile compounds in pineapple juice.

According to Valdés García et al. 2021, many of the aroma components like volatile compounds are essential factors of fruits that determines specific attributes of processed and fresh fruits. Many kinds of pineapple, varieties contain certain volatile derivatives, but no active extraction or characterization process of those volatile compounds is still not established from the processed pineapple residues. For the analysis of these volatile compounds, several kinds of techniques were applied in previous studies. Volatile compounds can be effectively extracted by the SPME (“solid-phase microextraction”) technique. To process this technique an SPME holder 57330-U in fibre structure which is 50/30 µm in size is needed.

In this fibre Carboxen/Divinylbenzene/Polydimethylsiloxane is used. The distillates of the hydrodistillation process significantly separate volatile compounds from the pineapple juices which are actively captured by this SPME fibre. A 40 ml. size amber glass vial was filled with 5 ml. of sample pineapple juice. the glass vial was attached to a polypropylene cap and a Teflon -faced septa. Both attachments are conjugated with a stirring magnetic bar. A proper equilibrium in the sample was obtained by heating the sample at approximately 40 degrees celsius for about ten minutes (Iaccarino et al. 2019). Then the SPME fibre was introduced to the headspace of the vial for about thirty minutes maintaining the same temperature. After cooling the holder it was placed in the HRGC-MS injection part. Then desorption process was performed for about ten more minutes and the extraction of the volatile compounds was completed. Later those compounds were observed or investigated by using HRGC-MS or “ high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry” technique. the observation confirmed the changes and or stable properties of those volatile compounds after HPP treatment.

Theories and Models

This part of the research majorly helps one to develop concrete ideas and concepts to pursue this research effectively. the adaptable theories in this research process significantly provide a research base which provides clear justification for the objectives that need to meet at the end of the study. For proceeding with this research self-persuasion theory is applied. This theory demonstrates the secondary data analysis from the previous work and pursues relevant concepts from the analysis. Based on the concept of the findings further research results and a discussion chapter will be established efficiently. The other theories that can be applied to this research are the “Theory of persuasion knowledge”, Attribution Theory, Hovland’s message learning theory and functional theory.

The most effective model to proceed with this research can be demonstrated as the AIDA model. This model has four key elements as Attraction, Interest, Desire and Affection. All these elements of this model refer to a sequential flow which influences one to implement the HPP process in the preservation of pineapple juice and also influences the customers to retain trust in HPP-processed juices. Both the applied theories and models are significant for this research.

AIDA model for research

Figure 2: AIDA model for research

(Source: Self-created)

Literature Gap

This segment of this research successfully determines the issues that the previous researchers have faced while conducting. the major issues related to this research process mainly conflict with the ethics applied in the research methods. The application of HPP sometimes shows different results for different juices. and the optimum pressure for an ideal HPP process cannot be determined easily, which confuses the worker to establish a specific protocol. Moreover, the variety of the pineapples shows a different result for a specific pressure, which also prohibits the use of HPP in each corner of the world. The lack of a published protocol for the HPP process also lower some customers’ trust which is considered a major issue (Robbani et al. 2022). In the previous research, all these points remained untouched by the researchers which determine significant literature gaps. Identification of these gaps helps one to conduct the research without any gaps and find effective solutions to mitigate all these issues. The further progress of this research is shown in the methodology section.

Conclusion

All the segments of the literature review process is completely considered a summary outcome from the previous research work process. The empirical study section of this research is referred to as the key segment of this chapter. In this chapter, a summary of the previous works is developed one by one. Development of the summary outcomes is possible through effective analysis of the journals and articles. Additionally, probable literature theories and models to proceed with this study are also established and will be followed in the following sections. Appropriate literature gaps are also identified in this chapter and one now can work on these gaps in further study to mitigate these issues. From the overall literature review part, it is concluded that the HPP is the most ideal technique for the preservation of pineapple juice than PT and HTST. Implementation of this process does not manipulate the properties of the volatile compounds present in the pineapple juice along with the prevention of microbial growth. Moreover, this chapter also provides deep insight into the marketing achievements of HPP-processed pineapple juice among customers.

Chapter 3: Methodology

The methodology is another important part of the research work. This part of the research effectively demonstrates the entire procedure in which the overall research can be conducted. research can not be completed without any kind of experimental process. This part of the research is considered to have some particular experiments that show positive results and findings to meet the research objective. This chapter is subdivided into the following sections such as research approach, method outline, research design and strategies, research horizon and a time plan that indicated the consumed time of the research of each section. Moreover, this chapter also provides some limitations and ethics related to the research method that one should follow at the time of experiments.

Method Outline

This part of this chapter provides clear knowledge about the flowline of the research process in a systematic manner. It majorly focuses on the planning process of the entire research and ensures to get an efficient outcome as the research result from the obtaining process. Proceed with a proper research process some key points need to be met in a sequential manner. The planning stage of this research contains the research approach, design and strategies. Based on the research strategies proper research methods, strategies and approaches efficient findings can be obtained that help one to meet the objectives of the research at the end. the method outline consequently confirms the success of the search by drawing an effective plan.

Research approach

This section mainly focuses on the approaches that are used in the performance of the research and the analysis of the data collected in the method part. Majorly two approaches are followed in any kind of research, deductive approach and inductive approach. The deductive approach is considered by the results obtained from the existing theories, but inductive approaches produce new theories and findings which combined into a set of new information. As the following research is completely based on a secondary data analysis process then, only deductive approaches are applied in this study. depending on the deductive approach further research work proceeded by emphasising the need to proceed with this approach. this approach smoothens the analysis part.

Research Design

This part of the research is considered through the analytical process of this research. This part of the research actively demonstrates what kind of analysis is needed for this research. Any kind of research is mainly based on two types of analysis, qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. qualitative analysis is mainly based on the experimental findings that can be observed directly through the research method and quantitative analysis requires statistical data analysis. in this research both the results both the analysis is applied. Qualitative analysis is perception based whereas quantitative analysis demands statistical and measurable outcomes.

Research Strategy

The strategy of the research explains the obtained techniques that are used to carry out the overall method process. Moreover, the significance of this process allows the researchers to carry out their research in a selective directional path which helps one to obtain the appropriate result and address the potential interpretation from the findings which positively meets the research objective. Hence, it can be said that this deductive approach is proved to be the most appropriate approach for this research.

Research Method

Both analyses follow the research approach by selecting the specific design of the research. in this particular study, both quantitative and qualitative analysis can be performed by following the research limitations to gain the appropriate outcomes from the research. the results from both analyses combinedly enhance the research outcome’s quality. Furthermore, the results also validate the realistic approach to the collected pieces of information which are obtained from the secondary resources (journals and articles).

Chapter 4: Results & Discussion

This part of this study is one of the most important parts that can be evaluated the effects of HPP in pineapple juice preservation significantly. This part of the research shows the effective findings and analytical assessment to the readers of this paper, which ultimately meet the objective of this research. As the overall research is based on a secondary analysis hence all the findings are also collected from the secondary data analysis of experiment results. All the information was significantly collected from secondary journal papers or articles. Before collecting those results relevant methods need to be described in short and the relevancy of the paper also needs to be checked or assessed. All the findings or results of this part are collected from the experimental analysis of volatile compounds in the pineapple juices after the HPP treatment. The statistical analysis is also presented in this chapter.

The analytical part of this chapter is entirely dependent on the data and information found in the result section. To get the appropriate results according to the objective of this research paper the previous journals with proper relevancy and accuracy should be selected. The discussion or analysis part of this chapter seems to be an interpretative segment that needs a clear and depth concept in this following study. The secondary analysis is limited by some research gaps as mentioned before in the literature review section. So, the gaps need to be included and the reason for these gaps should be evaluated in this chapter. the evaluation and analysis of these research gaps help one to obtain maximum knowledge and concept from this research.

Findings and Analysis

HPP treatment shows effects on the different attributes of the pineapple juices by its colour, thermal-EVOH, enzyme activity, phenolics activity, shelf-life estimation etc. as all those attributes are directly responsible for the volatile compound activity.

Effects on the colour of juice during the storage period

The result is obtained by both the HPP and TP treatment on the pineapple juice to get the accuracy of both treatments and identify the best treatment for the preservation of the pineapple juice which meets the research objective (Laosee et al. 2021). The researchers measured the colour changes of pineapple juice samples in between the storage period of twenty-one days at 4?, 15? and 25? temperature. the difference in total colour and the index of browning the juice was presented in the below-mentioned figure,

The changing colour difference and browning index is measured by both HPP and PT or thermal EVOH. The colour and browning differences majorly range from value 0.41 to 5.33 and from 1.52 to 11.3 at 4? temperature for consecutive 120 days respectively in HPP-EVOH. But when the samples are treated with MeTP, the values range from 1.25 to 11.12. This difference indicates the variation in the packaging materials. the thermally sterilized juice samples obtain a bi range from 1.88 to 10.93 in the EVOH packages and 1.88 to 11.73 in MeTP samples. The BI values are much lower in the HPP-treated samples compared to both TP and MeTP samples at 4? temperature (Tuolienuo and Galyuoni, 2022). However, in 15? and 25? temperatures increased BI values were observed which is higher than the TP samples. The increased BI values effectively change the colour of the samples which indicates the internal chemical reactivity and influence of temperature and pressure on the components. From that research, it is determined that the increasing BI value in the juices is obtained by residual enzyme activity. it can be said that the HPP technique consequently induces the enzyme activity in the samples that eventually affects the microbial activity too. It is also interpreted that the HPP-treated juice s always needs to be stored at a maximum low temperature otherwise it changes its colour which indicates the expiry limit of pineapple juice.

Vitamin C activity

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid is an important nutritional element that incredibly decreases over the time period of preservation. The decrease is not limited to time or temperature. It is majorly observed that in every temperature either low or high the ascorbic acid content decreases effectively.

The total ascorbic acid content was first measured in the freshly manufactured HPP-treated and TP-treated pineapple juices. Then at the temperature of 4, 15 and 25 degrees celsius both packaging were tested. At the initial period of packaging, the content of ascorbic acid was measured at the rate of 56 gm per 100 ml (Basary et al. 2022). The decreasing amount of ascorbic acid at the time of the storage is assessed by following the first-order degradation of kinetics which is observed from a well-established correlation between the predicted and experimental data in that research. the degradation rate seems to be higher in the thermal pressure-treated juice samples at both 4 and 15 degrees celsius temperatures compared to the HPP-treated samples. But at 25 degrees celsius temperature the degradation rate ranges higher in the HPP-treated samples than the thermal pressure-treated samples. This is considered the high oxidative enzymatic influence on the ascorbic acid content. The ranges of ascorbic acid content in each temperature is presented in below table,

Storage Temperature

HPP-treated Juice samples

EVOH

k (days −1)

R 2

MeTP

k (days −1)

R2

4?

0.0034 ± 0.0005

0.98

0.0027± 0.0003

0.097

15?

0.0088 ± 0.0003

0.86

0.0072 ± 0.0002

0.87

25?

0.0253 ± 0.0021

0.93

0.0321 ± 0.0032

0.82

Storage Temperature

TP-treated Juice samples

EVOH

k (days −1)

R 2

MeTP

k (days −1)

R2

4?

0.0034 ± 0.0002

0.98

0.0027± 0.0003

0.097

15?

0.0188 ± 0.0003

0.86

0.0089 ± 0.0006

0.87

25?

0.0167 ± 0.0012

0.83

0.0121 ± 0.0012

0.62

Table: ascorbic content in the both HPP-treated and TP treated pineapple samples in three different temperature

(Source: Self-created)

The ascorbic acid content in any fruit juices can be considered as the marker for determining the shelf-life of pineapple juices. in the below-mentioned image, the retention rate of the ascorbic acid at 4, 15 and 25 degrees temperature are assessed significantly (Colantuono et al. 2018). The major reason for the ascorbic acid retention in the HPP-treated samples is considered the non-availability of metal ions in the sample. the lack of metal ions in the samples can be observed due to the production of specific chelating agents in the preserved juices. Moreover, partial oxidative enzyme inactivation is also considered the retention reason for ascorbic acid content.

Total Phenolic Content in pineapple Juice

Phenolics are considered important volatile compounds found in pineapple juices. The phenolics content in the fresh pineapple juices at the time of packaging is measured at 55 mg per 100 ml. sample.

The samples as stored at 4 degrees celsius temperature, and minimal changes in the phenolics content is observed till sixty days from the processing and slowly decrease after 60 days. the decreased rate can be justified by the range of 52, but in the TP processed samples the degrading rate of the phenolics content ranges from 22 to 25 mg just after 30 days (Rasekh and Karami, 2021). The effects of non-enzymatic browning in the juice sample with the addition of enzymatic browning are considered responsible for the degradation of phenolics content in the pineapple juice sample of HPP treated is lower than the thermally treated samples.

Sensory Attribution

The result of the sensory attributional changes in the HPP treated pineapple juices is measured by colour, taste, consistency and aroma. The scores for the sensory evolution of the pineapple juices in the storage period are estimated by the panellists who scored those attributes. the storage temperature was maintained at 4°C. The first day scores of the HPP treated samples shows a similar result as the untreated samples. many of the panellists did not appreciate the taste of the pineapple juice that was thermally processed (Lasunon et al. 2022). The aroma of the TP treated juice was also affected by this technique. Thermal processing also shows lower consistency of the juice and as time passes the consistency get thickens that suggest microbial invasion inside the sample. However, HPP treated juices remain consistent effectively. In the TP processed juices aggregation of several unidentified particles was observed. After approximately eighty days of storage condition, quite differences in colour, aroma and taste was observed that indicated its expiry time. This is observed because of the residual PPO and POD activity inside the pineapple juices (Selvanathan, 2018). Additionally, the enzymatic activity also stays responsible for the changes in the characterization of pineapple juices. Changes in the aroma are the first indication to the customer that the pineapple juice is no longer able to be drunk. Hence, the HPP process majorly focuses on the retention of the volatile comp[onds inside the juice so that customers can not reject the sample at the first introduction. After the completion of 100 days, the juice changed its colour to a brownish appearance and the taste became bitter and the aroma turned into a pungent smell.

Estimation of Shelf-Life

The shelf-life of the pineapple juices is significantly enhanced through the implementation of the HPP technique. It depends on several storage conditions such as vitamin C retention, sensory evolution, colour4 differences etc. The microbial engagement in the juice samples also affects the shelf-life (AP and PM, 2020). the HPP processed samples show the microbial population lower to the detection limit by the rate of less than 1 CFU per ml. This ensures microbial safety during the entire storage period. The degradation of the volatile compounds created an alarming situation for the pineapple’ juices storage life.

The HPP treatment remains 70% retention of essential nutrients in the sample of the pineapple juice that keeps it healthy for consecutive 30 to 50 days. after 80 days the shelf-life started to decrease with the attributional changes. However, the thermally processed pineapple juices started losing its shelf-life after 15 to 20 days from processing (Kartawiria et al. 2019). the thermally processed juices also need a much lower temperature because just a little increment of temperature damages the overall formulation of the pineapple juice. The expanded shelf-life of HPP technique than those traditional thermal processes critically meets the objective of the study.

The overall analysis chapter has critically evaluated all the possible advantages of the HPP technique over the TP and traditional HTST pasteurization techniques. Moreover, this part also identified all the reasons behind the success of the HPP technique (Cele et al. 2022). Furthermore, this analysis also mitigated all the literature gaps that are equally important to conclude the outcomes of this research.

Discussion of Effectiveness of HPP on Pineapple Juice

It is another important part of this research as in this part a simple interpretation of the result, findings and analysis is performed. In simple words, it can be said that all the result analysis and proper interpretations reflect in this part of the research significantly effectively meets the objective of the research. The HPP or “High-pressure processing” treatment on the pineapple juice samples is significantly found to be efficient in the retention process of the pineapple juice (Alcantara Marte et al. 2018). this technique effectively retains the fresh appearance of the juice sample compared to that of the thermal processing technique. the shelf-life of the HPP-treated samples can be extended to a maximum of 100 days only at a refrigeration temperature of 4°C. In the storage process temperature plays a dynamic role in the restriction of the possible enzyme activity and browning process of the samples.

All the sensory attributes like colour, taste, aroma and consistency remain constant or unchanged up to a shelf-life of 100 days at refrigeration temperature. However, some minimal changes can be observed between the MeTP and EVOH packaged juice samples. Additionally, the analysis also showed that HPP treated samples are less microbiologically affected than those of thermal processing techniques (Kumara et al. 2020). During the entire storage period, the HPP treated samples remain unaffected by bacteria, fungi or other microbes. Furthermore, To increase the effectiveness of the HPP technique the temperature can be increased up to 60°C. This increment in temperature effectively develops a shelf-stable pineapple juice variety in the juice market which satisfied the customers most.

The Pineapple juices contain high-quality volatile compounds that provide excellent taste and aroma with exotic flavour to their customers. Maintaining a proper HPP technique the volatile concentration in the pineapple juices remains constant. In HPP treatment only pressure is used and high-temperature induction is majorly avoided in this technique. This is the major reason behind the non-changing nutrient property in pineapple juices (Chaudhary et al. 2019). HPP not only maintain essential volatile compounds but also maintain sugar content, and vitamin contents in the juice. This increases the shelf-life of the juice by 21 days at approximately 40? temperature. This technique remains the juice as fresh as the time of manufacture. Mass spectrometry is used to analyse the volatile concentration inside the pineapple juice. HPP also controls the microbial growth significantly inside the pineapple juice. This technique efficiently prevents microbial or bacterial/fungal contamination inside the pineapple juices.

A total of five kinds of volatile compounds are responsible for the cloudy appearance of the juice. Among all these volatile compounds alcohol and acids play a key role in the cloudy appearance. The alcohols accounted for 92.1% and acids accounted for 4.8% in control of the cloudy texture of the pineapple juice. The study reveals that the alcohol’s proportion in the overall volatile compounds effectively decreased after the thermal sterilisation or pasteurization process. This technique hence proved to be superior among the PT and HTST or other thermal sterilization techniques (Shui et al. 2019)). It is clearly interpreted from this study that in future not only juice companies but other beverage companies also implement this technique in these industries for the preservation of other drinks. This technique is also popular in many food industries too. It can be clearly determined from the study that HPP had no significant effect on the volatile compounds of any variety of raw or mixed pineapple juice. Some of the experimental processes and their findings revealed that there are no significant differences present in the concentration of any volatile compounds in between the HPP and control by the significant rate is higher than 0.05. The findings of the following study demonstrated that HPP does not affect the volatile compounds in pineapple juice.

Conclusion

The main purpose of this chapter is to analyze the HPP process and discuss the HPP technique. With the help of this chapter Pineapple juice is very popular in the present world and is very healthy for human beings. From the above study of this chapter the main thing that is interpreted significantly is HPP treatment is much more effective than those traditional techniques such as thermal processing or HTST in the preservation of pineapple juices. HPP process successfully retains all the volatile components in the pineapple juice samples. However, sometimes packaging can be proven a major issue that prevents the retention of many micronutrients in the juices. It is also concluded that the variety of pineapple does not develop any kind of difference in the influence of HPP activity on the juices. Moreover, HPP treatment also retains all the sensory attributes in the sample efficiently. HPP treated samples can extend their shelf-life up to 100 days at 4°C temperature. But, higher temperatures like 25°C can show a negative effect on the samples.

The major reason behind the volatile compound and other micro-nutrient retention in the HPP-treated samples is considered the non-availability of metal ions in the sample. The low amount of metal ions in the samples can be produced due to the formation of specific chelating agents in the preserved juices. Moreover, partial oxidative enzyme inactivation is also considered the retention reason for ascorbic acid content. Lastly, it can be concluded that HPP treatment significantly retains the pineapple juice as fresh as the initial manufacture time by taste, smell or aroma, flavour, consistency, turbidity and colour.

Chapter 5: Conclusion & Recommendation

This chapter is mainly the summary of the total report, which helps to understand what exactly someone can learn with the help of this report. This chapter mainly finds the links with the objectives and aims of this report. It helps to understand the effects of the HPP technique. With the help of this research paper, it gives some recommendations about the HPP process and what should and should not be used here. This report is about the effect of HPP on the volatile compounds of any pineapple juice. Pineapple juice is a very healthy beverage for human beings. The quality of any pineapple juice mainly depends on the micronutrient parents in the juice. The HPP process is very popular in the present world which helps to retain the quality of the juice by conserving nutrients from any pineapple juice. The pineapple juice mainly seals in the packaging process, which is stored with the help of any bottle or packet. Sometimes it consumes heat, which can damage the micro-nutrients. That is why the HPP technique is used to keep the micronutrients alive, and keep the drink healthy. It can be said that with the help of this research paper, one can understand the importance of HPP, for pineapple juice.

Linking with objectives

The findings and the analysis can determine the links with the objectives of this research. It helps to find all the links with it and also gives some recommendations about what exactly to do and what should not do (Shaik, et al. 2022). The pineapple juice is very healthy, but there are some reasons that make them unhealthy, and the nutrition can not be found in that product. The Hpp process is mainly used to make the pineapple juice more healthy. In this report there are mainly two o objectives that can be found in the research paper which is the effect of the HPP and the comparison of the HPP and other sterilization processes (Xie, et al. 2021). In this chapter the link of these objectives has to be found in this report, which also helps to understand and gain knowledge about the technique of the HPP.

To evaluate the effects of the HPP technique on the volatile compounds of pineapple juices.

The HPP technique is very popular in the present world, which helps to keep pineapple juice healthy. In any pineapple juice the HPP process plays a vital role to keep its nutrition. The volati,.e compounds in a pineapple juice are mainly those aromatic compounds which are responsible for the test, colour and the order of the juice. Pineapple juice is very healthy for any human being, where so much nutrition is present (Ravichandran, et al. 2021). The nutrition list of any pineapple juice contains vitamins like B1, B6., hydroxycinnamic acid, Cu, K, Mg, etc. The HPP technique helps to maintain the original colour of the product and also helps to great retention for the volatile compounds in the pineapple juice. Also, it gives a great retention of the bioactive components in the pineapple juice and antioxidant activity. There are some experimental processes present that help to find no significant difference present in the volatile compound’s concentration in between the HPP and control (p>0.05). It can be said that with the help of the HPP technique, the original test, colour, and nutrition can be maintained.

To evaluate the comparison of the HPP and another sterilizing process on the volatile compounds.

There are so many techniques present for the pineapple juice, where the HPP process is one of them. The Hpp pressers help to maintain the nutrition of the pineapple juice, but on the other hand the other technologies never maintain the nutrition of the pineapple juice. All those processes make them unhealthy (Wu,, et al. 2021). The HPP process mainly helps to maintain the nutrition compound and the test of the pineapple juice, where other sterilization processes can not maintain the test and nutrition of the pineapple juice.

Recommendation of Optimal Preservation Technique for Pineapple Juice

Pineapple juice is very popular in the present world, especially the childrens like pineapple juice. It is very healthy for human beings, because of the nutrition of the food. It is necessary to maintain the nutrition of the food (Pallarés, et al. 2021). There are so many techniques that help to packet the pineapple juice, but the HPP technique is very popular among them. After evaluating the limitations of the research paper, which is already present in the methodology section, it can help to provide the future scope and the improvement of this HPP process. The main aim of this recommendation part is to find which process is best for the Pineapple juice and why (Lai et al. 2022). The main recommendation of the pineapple juice is using the HPP technique which helps to maintain its original taste, colour and nutrition. But the other techniques can not maintain the test, colour and nutrition. Based on the strategies and the procedure it can be recommended that the HPP technique is more appropriate for this research.

Conclusion

This research paper is about the effect of the HPP technique on the volatile compounds of pineapple juice. Pineapple juice is very popular in the present world, and the demand for this food is increasing day by day. So, it is necessary to make them healthy, that is why there are several types of techniques applied. Which helps them to keep the nutrients, colour, and test. It can be concluded by saying that there are so many volatile components present in pineapple juice, which is healthy for human beings. Sometimes the pineapple juice is sealed in a bottle and the packet, which helps to decrease the nutrition of the pineapple juice. That is why some techniques are applied. In this research paper, one can understand the importance of the HPP technique, and its necessity of this technique. Also, it helps to gain knowledge about the HPP techniques.

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